• antigen
  • The use of anti-M2 antibody allowed us to use the antigen-specific fluorescence intensity as a direct metric of viral quantity. (jove.com)
  • Viral antigen is especially concentrated in lymphoid tissues (Fig. 3A, B). Many pigs, irrespective of age or sex, have a transient, usually mild, leukopenia sometime within 10 days after initial exposure to the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • viruses
  • Extensive research has been performed to understand the molecular viral mechanisms involved in the H5N1 pathogenesis in humans, providing interesting insights about the virus-host interaction and the regulation of the innate immune response by these highly pathogenic viruses. (mdpi.com)
  • Interestingly, these H5 viruses, with increased affinity to α2,6 SA, emerged during viral diversification in bird populations and subsequently spread to humans. (nih.gov)
  • Effect of HA mutations in sublineage BII viruses on receptor specificity of EG/D1 HA.The mutations found in sublineage BΙΙ viral HAs were introduced as single and multiple mutations into the HA of EG/D1 virus. (nih.gov)
  • cells
  • MDCK cells (10 4 or 5 x 10 3 per well) were cultured in 96- or 384-well plates, infected with PR8 and viral proteins were detected using anti-M2 followed by an IR dye-conjugated secondary antibody. (jove.com)
  • growth
  • Two of the secondary mutations together restore surface-expressed neuraminidase activity to wildtype levels, and also eliminate the very slight decrease in viral growth in tissue-culture caused by H274Y. (jove.com)