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  • vaccines
  • Lack of universal vaccines against the highly variable influenza virus forces scientists to continuously design vaccines à la carte , which is an expensive and risky practice overall when dealing with virulent strains. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This theoretical prediction allows the selection of highly conserved peptide sequences from within the hemagglutinin subunit 1 protein (HA1) from either H5 or H1 viruses which are located in the flanking region of the HA binding site and with the potential to elicit broader immune responses than conventional vaccines. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Such hmAbs may also help in our understanding of the virus entry process, the mechanisms of virus neutralization, and in the eventual development of specific entry inhibitors, vaccines, and research tools. (springer.com)
  • DNA vaccines expressing plasma membrane and secreted forms of the influenza and measles virus hemagglutinins (HAs) have been used to evaluate the effect of secretion on DNA-raised antibody responses. (umassmed.edu)
  • He was one of several researchers who developed and trialed inactivated influenza vaccines in the mid-1940s, and he applied HIA to the study of antibody responses to vaccination. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reverse genetics of measles virus and resulting multivalent recombinant vaccines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Particles
  • Disruption of lipid rafts by cholesterol depletion hinders HIV-1 particle production from virus-producing cells, and cholesterol depletion from virus particles significantly impairs virus infectivity [ 8 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Neuraminidase is a type of glycoside hydrolase enzyme which help to move the virus particles through the infected cell and assist in budding from the host cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1941, Hirst discovered that adding influenza virus particles to red blood cells caused them to agglutinate or stick together forming a lattice, a phenomenon called hemagglutination. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • This was a virus that contained genes from avian, pig and human origin . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Although there is broad experimental support for the DRiP hypothesis, careful kinetic analysis of the generation of defined peptide class I complexes has been limited to studies of recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing genes derived from other organisms. (jimmunol.org)
  • The structure of the capsid allows the virus to use a small number of viral genes to make a large capsid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Influenza A viruses have 11 genes on eight separate RNA molecules : PB2 (polymerase basic 2) PB1 (polymerase basic 1) PB1-F2 (alternate open reading frame near the 5' end of the PB1 gene) PA (polymerase acidic) HA (hemagglutinin) NP (nucleoprotein) NA (neuraminidase) M1 and M2 (matrix) NS1 (non-structural) NEP/NS2 (nuclear export of vRNPs) Two of the most important RNA molecules are HA and PB1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Six of the genes are very similar to the H1N2 influenza virus that was found in pigs around 2000. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecule
  • Then, when the rest of the HA molecule refolds into a new structure (which is more stable at the lower pH), it "retracts the grappling hook" and pulls the endosomal membrane right up next to the virus particle's own membrane, causing the two to fuse together. (wikipedia.org)
  • This hemagglutination inhibition assay (HIA) can be applied to many other viruses carrying a hemagglutinin molecule, including rubella, measles, mumps, parainfluenza, adenoviruses, polyomaviruses and arboviruses, and is still widely used in influenza surveillance and vaccine testing. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • Transcription of the influenza ribonucleic acid genome by a virion polymerase. (springer.com)
  • Once this has happened, the contents of the virus, including its RNA genome, are free to pour out into the cell's cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Influenza B virus genome is 14548 nucleotides long and consists of eight segments of linear negative-sense, single-stranded RNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice
  • To define the parameters that regulate IgE production in vivo, we generated mice bearing monoclonal populations of B and T lymphocytes specific for influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) and chicken ovalbumin (OVA), respectively. (nih.gov)
  • vaccine
  • Therefore, we focused our efforts on developing a broadly protective influenza vaccine based on the Informational Spectrum Method (ISM). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The quadrivalent influenza vaccine licensed by the CDC is currently designed to protect against both co-circulating lineages and has been shown to have greater effectiveness in prevention of influenza caused by influenza B virus than the previous trivalent vaccine. (wikipedia.org)
  • subtype
  • As strains of influenza are continuously mutating, it is essential that scientists quickly and efficiently determine the correct neuraminidase subtype that is responsible for the drug resistance in order to develop medications that will combat specific strains of influenza. (wikipedia.org)
  • the genus also contains the species Dhori virus (DHOV) and its subtype Batken virus, as well as the species or strains Araguari virus, Aransas Bay virus (ABV), Bourbon virus, Jos virus (JOSV) and Upolu virus (UPOV), which have yet to be confirmed by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). (wikipedia.org)
  • recombinant
  • In all of these studies, we used recombinant vaccinia viruses (VVs) to express SIINFEKL-containing source Ags. (jimmunol.org)
  • Many of these agents are also enveloped viruses possessing important neutralizing determinants within their membrane-anchored envelope glycoproteins, and the use of recombinant, soluble versions of these viral glycoproteins is often critical in the isolation and development of antiviral hmAbs. (springer.com)
  • molecular biology
  • George Keble Hirst, M.D. (March 2, 1909 - January 22, 1994) was an American virologist and science administrator who was among the first to study the molecular biology and genetics of animal viruses, especially influenza virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • measles virus
  • 17, 855-871 Measles virus spreads in rat hippocampal neurons by cell-to-cell contact and in a polarized fashion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oncolytic measles virus in cutaneous T-cell lymphomas mount anti-tumor immune responses in vivo and target interferon resistant tumor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • antiviral activity
  • Then it was found that the synthetic compound 2-deoxy-2,3-didehydro-N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac2en or DANA) which is an analogue of N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac), inhibits the release of virus progeny in tissue culture but no antiviral activity in animals was detected. (wikipedia.org)
  • murine leuke
  • A transient three-plasmid expression system for the production of pseudotyping virions were used to construct the pseudotype of murine leukemia virus(MuLV) with avian influenza virus hemagglutinin(HA) glycoproteins. (virosin.org)
  • This study examined the effects of exogenous cholesterol addition (delivered as a complex with methyl beta cyclodextrin) on the production of Molony murine leukemia virus retroviral vector and HIV-1-based lentiviral vector pseudotyped with the vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV-G). Cholesterol supplementation before and during vector production enhanced the infectivity of retroviral and lentiviral vectors up to 4-fold and 6-fold, respectively. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Other investigators have found that disruption of lipid rafts also decreases production of VSV-G-pseudotyped, pantropic Molony murine leukemia virus (MoMuLV) vector [ 16 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • antibodies
  • The E-S-FLU virus is a new tool for Ebola virus cell entry studies and is easily applied to high-throughput screening assays for small-molecule inhibitors or antibodies.IMPORTANCE Ebola virus is in the Filoviridae family and is a biosafety level 4 pathogen. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Depleting monoclonal antibodies (mAb) were administered to the animals prior to their second experimental inoculation with a human seasonal influenza A virus strain. (jove.com)
  • Thus, in non-human primates with pre-existing anti-influenza A antibodies, memory B cells and CD8? (jove.com)
  • Protection against death induced by VLPs was independent of the pre-challenge HAI titer or cell-mediated responses to HA or M1 since vaccinated mice, with low to undetectable cross-clade HAI antibodies or cellular responses to influenza antigens, were still protected from a lethal viral challenge. (nih.gov)
  • Transmission of the virus from pigs to humans is not common and does not always lead to human influenza, often resulting only in the production of antibodies in the blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • HA) and the hemagglutination inhibition assay (HI or HAI) were developed in 1941-42 by American virologist George Hirst as methods for quantitating the relative concentration of viruses, bacteria, or antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • HI is closely related to the HA assay, but includes anti-viral antibodies as "inhibitors" to interfere with the virus-RBC interaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • The vaccination efficacy in these children may also be hampered by the presence of maternally derived antibodies, which may provide partial protection to wild-type virus infections but also suppress the primary immune response on immunization. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neutralizing antibodies against flu have been found to act by two different mechanisms, mirroring the dual functions of hemagglutinin: Inhibition of attachment to target cells Inhibition of membrane fusion (entry) Most commonly, antibodies against hemagglutinin act by inhibiting attachment. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is because these antibodies bind near the top of the hemagglutinin "head" (blue region in figure above) and physically block the interaction with sialic acid receptors on target cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • The unique properties of virosomes partially relate to the presence of biologically active influenza HA in their membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell membrane then engulfs the virus and the portion of the membrane that encloses it pinches off to form a new membrane-bound compartment within the cell called an endosome, which contains the engulfed virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Then, when the rest of the HA molecule refolds into a new structure (which is more stable at the lower pH), it "retracts the grappling hook" and pulls the endosomal membrane right up next to the virus particle's own membrane, causing the two to fuse together. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] HA is a homotrimeric integral membrane glycoprotein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Normally they can be found as components of oligosaccharide chains of mucins, glycoproteins and glycolipids occupying terminal, nonreducing positions of complex carbohydrates on both external and internal membrane areas where they are very exposed and develop important functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • virology
  • Isolation and Characterization of Acyclovir-resistant Mutants of Herpes Simplex Virus," Journal of General Virology 49:115-124, 1980. (patentgenius.com)
  • Measuring Attachment and Internalization of Influenza A Virus in A549 Cells by Flow Cytometry Marie O. Pohl 1 , Silke Stertz 1 1 Institute of Medical Virology, University of Zurich We present a protocol describing a semi-quantitative method for measuring both, the attachment of influenza A virus to A549 cells, as well as the internalization of virus particles into the target cells by flow cytometry. (jove.com)
  • genome
  • The Influenza B virus genome is 14548 nucleotides long and consists of eight segments of linear negative-sense, single-stranded RNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once this has happened, the contents of the virus, including its RNA genome, are free to pour out into the cell's cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Orthomyxoviridae
  • Quaranjavirus is a new genus of enveloped RNA viruses, one of seven genera in the virus family Orthomyxoviridae. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Quaranfil and Johnston Atoll viruses are transmitted between vertebrates by ticks, resembling members of Thogotovirus, another genus of Orthomyxoviridae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Influenzavirus B is a genus in the virus family Orthomyxoviridae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hong Kong
  • After comparing viruses from the Hong Kong 1997 H5N1 outbreak, one amino acid change (N66S) was found in the PB1-F2 sequence at position 66 that correlated with pathogenicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • outbreak
  • Influenza spreads around the world in a yearly outbreak, resulting in about three to five million cases of severe illness and about 250,000 to 500,000 deaths. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptor
  • These inhibitory compounds have very dispersed targets and mechanisms of action, e.g., calcium channel blockers, estrogen receptor antagonists, antihistamines, serotonin uptake inhibitors, etc., and this correlates with inhibitor screening results obtained with other pseudotypes or wild-type Ebola virus in the literature. (ox.ac.uk)
  • cells
  • Although the mechanism of H5N1 pathogenesis is not entirely known, our research identified one virulent factor, the cleavage site of the viral surface glycoprotein hemagglutinin, which we found to be critical for the production of infectious progeny H5N1 virus in pulmonary endothelial cells," says Tumpey. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells support productive replication of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses: possible involvement in the pathogenesis of human H5N1 virus infection. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • T cells do not contribute to the control of virus replication after re-challenge with a homologous strain of influenza A virus. (jove.com)
  • Haemagglutinin causes red blood cells to clump together and binds the virus to the infected cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Spanish flu virus infected lung cells, leading to overstimulation of the immune system via release of cytokines into the lung tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is a negative-sense single-stranded RNA virus of the family Pneumoviridae and is closely related to the avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) subgroup C. It was isolated for the first time in 2001 in the Netherlands by using the RAP-PCR (RNA arbitrarily primed PCR) technique for identification of unknown viruses growing in cultured cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations in the Middle of the Transmembrane Domain Reverse the Polarity of Transport of the Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin in MDCK Epithelial Cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oncolytic measles virus in cutaneous T-cell lymphomas mount anti-tumor immune responses in vivo and target interferon resistant tumor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hemagglutinin forms spikes at the surface of flu viruses that function to attach viruses to cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is responsible for binding the virus to cells with sialic acid on the membranes, such as cells in the upper respiratory tract or erythrocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The name "hemagglutinin" comes from the protein's ability to cause red blood cells (erythrocytes) to clump together ("agglutinate") in vitro. (wikipedia.org)
  • Metastatic cancer cells often express a high density of sialic acid-rich glycoproteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sialic acid-rich oligosaccharides on the glycoconjugates (glycolipids, glycoproteins, proteoglycans) found on surface membranes help keep water at the surface of cells[citation needed]. (wikipedia.org)
  • strains
  • it has been proposed to contain species or strains including Cygnet River virus, Lake Chad virus, Tyulek virus and Wellfleet Bay virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • thirteen further species or strains most closely related to Johnston Atoll virus were identified from a range of arthropods based on RNA data. (wikipedia.org)
  • antiviral
  • The development of new, more targeted therapies for H5N1 disease along with combination antiviral drug treatment could be an effective approach in reducing acute lung injury and mortality caused by H5N1 virus. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • However, MxA is unique in that it has antiviral activity and inhibits the replication of several RNA viruses. (jove.com)
  • Since antiviral drugs are effective in treating influenza if given early (see treatment section, below), it can be important to identify cases early. (wikipedia.org)
  • infections
  • Previous studies have demonstrated that DC differentially regulate influenza A virus (IAV)-specific CD8 T cell responses in vivo during high and low dose IAV infections. (jove.com)
  • Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) infections present a broad spectrum of disease severity, ranging from mild infections to life-threatening bronchiolitis. (jove.com)
  • Current clinical diagnoses of influenza infections are based on serologic testing, polymerase chain reaction, direct specimen immunofluorescence and cell culture 1,2 . (jove.com)
  • Complications of influenza may include viral pneumonia, secondary bacterial pneumonia, sinus infections, and worsening of previous health problems such as asthma or heart failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Morbidity
  • Influenza virus is a respiratory pathogen that causes a high degree of morbidity and mortality every year in multiple parts of the world. (jove.com)
  • Influenzavirus B mutates at a rate 2 to 3 times slower than type A. It is currently accepted that influenza B viruses cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide, and significantly impacts adolescents and schoolchildren. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ebola
  • We have produced a new Ebola virus pseudotype, E-S-FLU, that can be handled in biosafety level 1/2 containment for laboratory analysis. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The E-S-FLU virus was neutralized specifically by an anti-Ebolavirus glycoprotein antibody and a variety of small drug molecules that are known to inhibit the entry of wild-type Ebola virus. (ox.ac.uk)
  • There are no FDA-approved therapeutics for Ebola virus. (ox.ac.uk)
  • These characteristics warrant the development of surrogates for Ebola virus that can be handled in more convenient laboratory containment to study the biology of the virus and screen for inhibitors. (ox.ac.uk)
  • We show that E-S-FLU virus uses the same cell entry pathway as wild-type Ebola virus. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Wiley was world-renowned for finding new ways to help the human immune system battle such viral scourges as smallpox, influenza, HIV/AIDS, Ebola, and herpes simplex. (wikipedia.org)
  • respiratory
  • It is the second most common cause after human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) of lower respiratory infection in young children. (wikipedia.org)
  • VLPs
  • Mice vaccinated with VLPs were protected against challenge with lethal reassortant viruses expressing the H5N1 HA and NA, regardless if the H5N1 clade was homologous or heterologous to the vaccine. (nih.gov)
  • 2016
  • In 2016 a DNA vaccine for the Zika virus began testing at the National Institutes of Health. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice
  • An attenuated West Nile virus (WNV), a nonstructural (NS) 4B-P38G mutant, induced higher innate cytokine and T cell responses than the wild-type WNV in mice. (jove.com)
  • However, rHA-vaccinated mice showed considerable weight loss and death following challenge with the heterovariant clade virus. (nih.gov)
  • Yap and Ada, "Transfer of specific sytitoxic T lymphocytes protects mice inoculated with influenza virus," Nature 273: 238-239, 1978. (patentgenius.com)
  • particles
  • In 1989, based on the appearance of the virus particles under the electron microscope, H.G. Zeller and colleagues suggested that they should be classified as arenaviruses, but this was not accepted by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). (wikipedia.org)
  • bacteria
  • A standardized amount of virus or bacteria is added to each well, and the mixture is allowed to incubate at room temperature for 30 minutes. (wikipedia.org)