• virophage
  • Therefore, it is hypothesized that the virophage could be a source of vehicle mediating lateral gene transfer between giant viruses, which constitute a significant part of the DNA virus population in marine environments. (wikipedia.org)
  • I believe the term 'virophage' is unfortunate because it implies one virus is infecting another virus and eating it. (virology.ws)
  • A satellite virus of mamavirus that inhibits the replication of its host has been termed a virophage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because the CRISPR-Cas system is an adaptive immune system that protects bacteria and Archaea from virus infections and invasion of foreign DNA, the authors propose that they have discovered a new adaptive immune system that protects mimiviruses from virophage infection. (virology.ws)
  • propagate
  • Foxtail millet (Setaria italica), white proso millet (Panicum miliaceum) and pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) have also been used to propagate PMV and panicum mosaic satellite virus (SPMV), and mechanical transmission can occur to maize and some cultivars of common wheat (Triticum aestivum). (wikipedia.org)
  • genus
  • Panicum mosaic virus is the type species of the genus Panicovirus, a member of the plant virus family Tombusviridae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viral classification starts at the level of order and continues as follows, with the taxon suffixes given in italics: Order (-virales) Family (-viridae) Subfamily (-virinae) Genus (-virus) Species Species names often take the form of [Disease] virus, particularly for higher plants and animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Within the family parvoviridae, the dependovirus genus was given a distinct classification due to their dependence on another virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacteria
  • By this reasoning the term 'bacteriophage' is equally unfortunate as viruses of bacteria do not 'eat' their hosts. (virology.ws)
  • Because these properties are shared by certain bacteria ( rickettsiae , chlamydiae ), viruses are now characterized by their simple organization and their unique mode of replication. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Viruses can infect all types of life forms, from animals and plants to microorganisms, including bacteria and archaea. (wikipedia.org)
  • The origins of viruses in the evolutionary history of life are unclear: some may have evolved from plasmids-pieces of DNA that can move between cells-while others may have evolved from bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • taxonomy
  • The latest report by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (2005) lists 5450 viruses, organized in over 2,000 species, 287 genera, 73 families and 3 orders. (wikipedia.org)
  • In: King AMQ, Adams MJ, Carstens EB and Lefkowitz EJ (eds) Virus Taxonomy. (els.net)
  • Ninth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses, pp. 904-919. (els.net)
  • eds) Virus Taxonomy. (els.net)
  • Sixth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses, pp. 479-482. (els.net)
  • Currently, two main schemes are used for the classification of viruses: the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) system and Baltimore classification system, which places viruses into one of seven groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • The International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses began to devise and implement rules for the naming and classification of viruses early in the 1970s, an effort that continues to the present. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ICTV is the only body charged by the International Union of Microbiological Societies with the task of developing, refining, and maintaining a universal virus taxonomy. (wikipedia.org)
  • eukaryotic
  • They provide three reasons to dispute their findings, and 'propose a simpler protein-based interaction model that explains the observed phenomena without having to extend the realm of adaptive immunity to the world of eukaryotic viruses, a revolutionary step that would require stronger experimental evidences. (virology.ws)
  • Herpesvirales contain large eukaryotic dsDNA viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been suggested that similarity in virion assembly and structure observed for certain viral groups infecting hosts from different domains of life (e.g., bacterial tectiviruses and eukaryotic adenoviruses or prokaryotic Caudovirales and eukaryotic herpesviruses) reflects an evolutionary relationship between these viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • giant viruses
  • He prefers calling the giant viruses "megaviruses," and considers the name "Megavirus-Associated Virus (MAV) more consistent with currently accepted virus nomenclature. (virology.ws)
  • Thank you for bringing my article in Microbe magazine before an even larger audience and please note that Matthias Fischer has explained at the end of this article why Mavirus and Sputnick are fully functional viruses and do "infect" giant viruses. (virology.ws)
  • Do giant viruses have a CRISPR-like immune system or a protein restriction factor? (virology.ws)
  • A battle is brewing between two research groups in Marseille, France that are involved in the discovery and study of giant viruses. (virology.ws)
  • lysis
  • Some viruses do not produce rapid lysis of host cells, but rather remain latent for long periods in the host before the appearance of clinical symptoms. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Latin
  • The English plural is viruses (sometimes also viri or vira), whereas the Latin word is a mass noun, which has no classically attested plural (Neo-Latin had vīra is used). (wikipedia.org)
  • Acanthamoeba
  • Zamilon was discovered in 2013, in Acanthamoeba polyphaga amoebae co-infected with the giant virus Mont1, isolated from a Tunisian soil sample. (wikipedia.org)
  • plant
  • Turnip crinkle virus (TCV) is a plant pathogenic virus of the family Tombusviridae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Panicum mosaic virus is a plant disease that infects monocots by invading through mechanical wounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because panicum mosaic virus pathogen cannot create its own wound in a host plant, the pathogen must survive until a wound is formed by living epiphytically on its future host or in plant debris. (wikipedia.org)
  • The virus can live up to nine years in infected plant debris. (wikipedia.org)
  • Potexviruses and carlaviruses are plant‐infecting viruses belonging to the family Aphaflexiviridae and Betaflexiviridae , respectively. (els.net)
  • Cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV) is a plant pathogenic virus of the family Geminiviridae. (wikipedia.org)
  • plants
  • In plants, satellites and satellite viruses may attenuate or exacerbate disease caused by the helper virus. (virology.ws)
  • Natural hosts of both virus types are herbaceous (weeds, ornamentals, vegetables) rather than woody plants. (els.net)
  • Since Dmitri Ivanovsky's 1892 article describing a non-bacterial pathogen infecting tobacco plants, and the discovery of the tobacco mosaic virus by Martinus Beijerinck in 1898, about 5,000 virus species have been described in detail, although there are millions of types. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • Viruses arose from mobile genetic elements of cells (such as transposons , retrotransposons or plasmids ) that became encapsulated in protein capsids, acquired the ability to "break free" from the host cell and infect other cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Control is based on preventive measures, such as sanitary selection, production of virus‐free seed lots and resistance through conventional breeding and genetic engineering. (els.net)
  • In other viruses a reverse transcriptase contained in the virion transcribes the genetic message on the viral RNA into DNA, which is then replicated by the host cell. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In evolution, viruses are an important means of horizontal gene transfer, which increases genetic diversity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viruses are considered by some to be a life form, because they carry genetic material, reproduce, and evolve through natural selection, but lack key characteristics (such as cell structure) that are generally considered necessary to count as life. (wikipedia.org)
  • mosaic
  • For example, the Y-satellite RNA of cucumber mosaic virus causes systemic chlorosis in tobacco. (virology.ws)
  • The disease most commonly associated with the panicum mosaic virus pathogen is St. Augustine Decline Syndrome, which infects species of turf grass and causes chlorotic mottling. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to St. Augustine Decline, panicum mosaic virus is responsible for chlorotic streaking and mild green mosaicking in select cultivars of switchgrass and millet. (wikipedia.org)
  • There exists a satellite virus to panicum mosaic virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although little is known about the satellite panicum mosaic virus, the pathogen is believed to play a role in the infection process because when combined with panicum mosaic virus, the satellite virus causes symptoms to appear earlier in the growing season and results in a more severe infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of the change in disease virulence to the main viral pathogen, panicum mosaic virus and satellite panicum mosaic virus are believed to cause synergistic effects to their hosts. (wikipedia.org)
  • The incubation period of panicum mosaic virus is fastest in warm conditions, around 29 to 35 degrees Celsius, and can take as few as 7-18 days. (wikipedia.org)
  • In regard to pathogen composition, there are two characteristic components of panicum mosaic and its related panicum satellite mosaic viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • The second characteristic component of panicum mosaic virus is the 109S component which is approximately 30 nm in diameter, also isometric shaped, and has been shown to be infectious. (wikipedia.org)
  • At this time, the only method of control for panicum mosaic virus is planting resistant cultivars. (wikipedia.org)
  • Symptoms of panicum mosaic virus on millet-without its satellite virus-are slight chlorosis and mild stunting. (wikipedia.org)
  • Annamalai P, Hsu YH, Liu YP, Tsai CH and Lin NS (2003) Structural and mutational analyses of cis‐acting sequences in the 5′‐untranslated region of satellite RNA of bamboo mosaic potexvirus. (els.net)
  • Pea enation mosaic virus (PEMV) and the causal agents of groundnut rosette disease are diverse examples of disease complexes involving two RNA species, one of which is related to the genomes of luteoviruses and the other to those of umbraviruses. (www.gov.uk)
  • In 1892, the Russian biologist Dmitri Ivanovsky used this filter to study what is now known as the tobacco mosaic virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • organisms
  • Viruses are mainly classified by phenotypic characteristics, such as morphology, nucleic acid type, mode of replication, host organisms, and the type of disease they cause. (wikipedia.org)
  • A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because they possess some but not all such qualities, viruses have been described as "organisms at the edge of life", and as replicators. (wikipedia.org)
  • host
  • A satellite is a subviral agent composed of nucleic acid that depends on the co-infection of a host cell with a helper virus for its replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • It focuses on the following aspects of viruses: their structure, classification and evolution, their ways to infect and exploit host cells for reproduction, their interaction with host organism physiology and immunity, the diseases they cause, the techniques to isolate and culture them, and their use in research and therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Is it a simplified version of a parasitic prokaryote, or did it originate as a simpler virus that acquired genes from its host? (wikipedia.org)
  • These orders span viruses with varying host ranges. (wikipedia.org)
  • A number have been isolated from the New World but their association with their host viruses is still being studied. (wikipedia.org)