• capsid
  • In one of the experiments done by inoculating Acanthamoeba polyphaga with water containing an original strain of APMV, it was discovered that several capsid layers accumulate asymmetrically on one side of the viral particle causing the virus to become ineffective. (wikipedia.org)
  • ssRNA
  • Mononegavirales include nonsegmented (-) strand ssRNA (Group V) plant and animal viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nidovirales are composed of (+) strand ssRNA (Group IV) viruses with vertebrate hosts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bunyavirales contain tripartite (-) ssRNA viruses (Group V). Other variations occur between the orders: Nidovirales, for example, are isolated for their differentiation in expressing structural and nonstructural proteins separately. (wikipedia.org)
  • mimivirus
  • It has been observed that when Mimivirus is cultured with germ-free amoeba, bald virions are produced that lack the surface fibers that are characteristic of this virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • it can be supported by viruses from Mimivirus-like Mimiviridae lineages B and C, but not from lineage A. This appears to be a consequence of a rudimentary immune system of the helper virus, termed MIMIVIRE (mimivirus virophage resistance element), akin to the CRISPR-Cas pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • Of particular interest here is mimivirus, a giant virus that infects amoebae and encodes much of the molecular machinery traditionally associated with bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • virions
  • There are conditions in which Sputnik cannot produce new virions within these viruses however. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the helper virus formed a high proportion of abnormal virions in the presence of Zamilon, these were also observed at a comparable level in the virophage's absence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once the virus has successfully invaded the plant, panicum mosaic virions spread through the plant by producing three proteins (p8, p6.6, and p15) as part of their capsids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most virus species have virions that are too small to be seen with an optical microscope. (wikipedia.org)
  • genus
  • Viral classification starts at the level of order and continues as follows, with the taxon suffixes given in italics: Order (-virales) Family (-viridae) Subfamily (-virinae) Genus (-virus) Species Species names often take the form of [Disease] virus, particularly for higher plants and animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Panicum mosaic virus is the type species of the genus Panicovirus, a member of the plant virus family Tombusviridae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Within the family parvoviridae, the dependovirus genus was given a distinct classification due to their dependence on another virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • The fact that three of these genes are derived from APMV indicates that Sputnik is able to participate in gene-transfer processes and mediate lateral gene transfer between giant viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, the presence of three APMV genes in Sputnik implies that gene transfer between a virophage and a giant virus is crucial to viral evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Is it a simplified version of a parasitic prokaryote, or did it originate as a simpler virus that acquired genes from its host? (wikipedia.org)
  • Latin
  • The English plural is viruses (sometimes also viri or vira), whereas the Latin word is a mass noun, which has no classically attested plural (Neo-Latin had vīra is used). (wikipedia.org)
  • taxonomy
  • Currently, two main schemes are used for the classification of viruses: the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) system and Baltimore classification system, which places viruses into one of seven groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • The International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses began to devise and implement rules for the naming and classification of viruses early in the 1970s, an effort that continues to the present. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ICTV is the only body charged by the International Union of Microbiological Societies with the task of developing, refining, and maintaining a universal virus taxonomy. (wikipedia.org)
  • The latest report by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (2005) lists 5450 viruses, organized in over 2,000 species, 287 genera, 73 families and 3 orders. (wikipedia.org)
  • Zamilon
  • Zamilon was discovered in 2013, in Acanthamoeba polyphaga amoebae co-infected with the giant virus Mont1, isolated from a Tunisian soil sample. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • Every cell that is successfully transfected with all three DNA fragments will produce the necessary proteins to produce infective viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • The ICTV had adopted the principle that a virus species is a polythetic class of viruses that constitutes a replicating lineage and occupies a particular ecological niche. (wikipedia.org)
  • In July 2013, the ICTV definition of species changed to state: "A species is a monophyletic group of viruses whose properties can be distinguished from those of other species by multiple criteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • The disease most commonly associated with the panicum mosaic virus pathogen is St. Augustine Decline Syndrome, which infects species of turf grass and causes chlorotic mottling. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since Dmitri Ivanovsky's 1892 article describing a non-bacterial pathogen infecting tobacco plants, and the discovery of the tobacco mosaic virus by Martinus Beijerinck in 1898, about 5,000 virus species have been described in detail, although there are millions of types. (wikipedia.org)
  • This can be narrow, meaning a virus is capable of infecting few species, or broad, meaning it is capable of infecting many. (wikipedia.org)
  • biological
  • The often-debated question of whether they are alive or not is a matter of definition that does not affect the biological reality of viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viruses are found in almost every ecosystem on Earth and are the most abundant type of biological entity. (wikipedia.org)
  • eukaryotic
  • Herpesvirales contain large eukaryotic dsDNA viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been suggested that similarity in virion assembly and structure observed for certain viral groups infecting hosts from different domains of life (e.g., bacterial tectiviruses and eukaryotic adenoviruses or prokaryotic Caudovirales and eukaryotic herpesviruses) reflects an evolutionary relationship between these viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • evolutionary
  • The origins of viruses in the evolutionary history of life are unclear: some may have evolved from plasmids-pieces of DNA that can move between cells-while others may have evolved from bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic material
  • Viruses are considered by some to be a life form, because they carry genetic material, reproduce, and evolve through natural selection, but lack key characteristics (such as cell structure) that are generally considered necessary to count as life. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1986
  • The structure of the virus was determined to 3.2 Ångstrom resolution using x-ray crystallography in 1986. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • Sputnik is one of the most convincing pieces of evidence for gene mixing and matching between viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, it is hypothesized that the virophage could be a source of vehicle mediating lateral gene transfer between giant viruses, which constitute a significant part of the DNA virus population in marine environments. (wikipedia.org)
  • These viruses have been used in the development of viral gene silencing studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • In evolution, viruses are an important means of horizontal gene transfer, which increases genetic diversity. (wikipedia.org)
  • plant
  • Turnip crinkle virus (TCV) is a plant pathogenic virus of the family Tombusviridae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because panicum mosaic virus pathogen cannot create its own wound in a host plant, the pathogen must survive until a wound is formed by living epiphytically on its future host or in plant debris. (wikipedia.org)
  • The virus can live up to nine years in infected plant debris. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV) is a plant pathogenic virus of the family Geminiviridae. (wikipedia.org)
  • organisms
  • Similar to the classification systems used for cellular organisms, virus classification is the subject of ongoing debate and proposals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because they possess some but not all such qualities, viruses have been described as "organisms at the edge of life", and as replicators. (wikipedia.org)
  • characteristic
  • In regard to pathogen composition, there are two characteristic components of panicum mosaic and its related panicum satellite mosaic viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • The second characteristic component of panicum mosaic virus is the 109S component which is approximately 30 nm in diameter, also isometric shaped, and has been shown to be infectious. (wikipedia.org)
  • range
  • Viruses range in size from about 30 nm to about 450 nm, which means that most of them cannot be seen with light microscopes. (wikipedia.org)
  • liver
  • Another example is the association of infection with hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses and liver cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore
  • Therefore, structural relationship between viruses has been suggested to be used as a basis for defining higher-level taxa - structure-based viral lineages - that could complement the existing ICTV classification scheme. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, lab methods often utilize minimal fragments of the helper DNA that can serve this purpose without creating unwanted virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • These viruses will only have transgenic DNA encapsidated and therefore once they've infected a patient's cell, they will not be capable of reproducing. (wikipedia.org)