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  • antigens
  • Recently, helminth-derived antigens and molecules have been tested in vitro and in vivo to explore possible applications in the treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, including T1D. (nih.gov)
  • species
  • The number of different helminth species is vast: it is estimated to be around one million species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Characteristics that are common for all helminths include: Life time: The life time of adult worms varies tremendously from one species to another but is generally in the range of 1 to 8 years (see following table). (wikipedia.org)
  • The frequency of egg deposition from an adult helminth is generally daily, or up to six times per day for some Taenia species. (wikipedia.org)
  • While the latter four species may be considered to be mutualists - providing benefit to their host without causing longterm harm - there are other helminth species that have demonstrated therapeutic effects but which also have a potential to cause less desirable or even harmful effects and therefore do not share the ideal characteristics for a therapeutic helminth. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune system
  • Helminths are multicellular organisms that have developed a wide range of strategies to manipulate the host immune system to survive and complete their reproductive cycles successfully. (nih.gov)
  • Immunologists have focused on the excretory and secretory products that are released by the helminths, since they can change the host environment by modulating the immune system. (hindawi.com)
  • The effects of parasitic worms, or helminths, on the immune system is a recently emerging topic of study among immunologists and other biologists. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the academic journal EMBO Reports, Dr. Rook says that such helminths "are all either things that really do us no harm, or things where the immune system is forced to give in and avoid a fight because it's just a waste of time. (wikipedia.org)
  • roundworms
  • Helminths can be either hermaphrodites (i.e. can have both sexes), like tapeworms and the flukes (except the blood fluke which is not a hermaphrodite), or have their sexes differentiated, like the roundworms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Type
  • In the past, helminths were thought to simply suppress T-helper Type 1 (Th1) cells while inducing T-helper Type 2 (Th2) cells. (wikipedia.org)