• inhibition
  • MiRNA-210 in particular, has been studied for its effects in rescuing cardiac function after myocardial infarcts via the up-regulation of angiogenesis and inhibition of cardiomyocyte apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ephrin-A3 (Efna3) is a gene that is involved in the inhibition of angiogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Through combined effects of CNP and DNP, CD-NP treatment results in a reduction in stress on the heart (through natriuresis/diuresis) and inhibition of pro-fibrotic, remodelling pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pharmacological and genetic inhibition of p38α MAPK not only revealed its biological significance in physiological function but also the potential of targeting p38α MAPK in human diseases such as immune disorder and heart failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • rats
  • Fifteen female Spontaneously Hypertensive Heart Failure rats and 10 control rats were housed with running wheels beginning at 6 months of age. (ahajournals.org)
  • At 22 months of age, heart function of the trained rats was compared with heart function of age-matched sedentary hypertensive and control rats. (ahajournals.org)
  • At 22 months of age, heart function of the trained SHHF (SHHFex, n=15) rats was compared with the heart function of age- and size-matched SHHF (SHHFsed, n=14) rats that were housed similarly but without access to running wheels. (ahajournals.org)
  • Seven days after coronary artery ligation, BMSCs transfected with genes for either adeno-elastin (BMSC+Elastin) or adeno-green fluorescence protein (BMSC), or media (control group) were injected into the infarct area of adult rats (n=8/group). (ahajournals.org)
  • Bye A, Høydahl MA, Catalucci D, Langaas M, Kemi OJ, Beisvåg V, Koch LG, Britton SL, Ellingsen Ø, Wisløff U. Gene expression profiling of skeletal muscle in exercise-trained and sedentary rats with inborn high and low VO2max. (wikipedia.org)
  • In rats, oxymatrine also inhibits the expression of the Smad3 ligand which binds to TGF-β1 type I and activates the signal transduction pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • infarcts
  • Interest in stem cell repair of myocardial infarcts to mitigate post-MI remodeling needs more information on aging of stem cells, and potential effects on stem cell use in infarct repair. (hindawi.com)
  • diastolic
  • Conclusions -In patients with dilated cardiomyopathy, an increase in endomyocardial NOS2 or NOS3 gene expression augments LV stroke volume and LV stroke work because of a NO-mediated rightward shift of the diastolic LV pressure-volume relation and a concomitant increase in LV preload reserve. (ahajournals.org)
  • In isolated guinea pig hearts, administration of a NOS inhibitor reduced LV diastolic distensibility, 9 and in the beating rabbit heart, a porphyrinic microsensor in the LV wall revealed a prominent diastolic peak of myocardial NO concentration. (ahajournals.org)
  • Both DHF and CRT hearts remained dilated and had evidence of failure with similarly elevated end-diastolic pressure. (ahajournals.org)
  • protein
  • A significant number of these genes were highly represented in gene ontology pathways involved in ion transport and G-protein-coupled receptor signaling. (umd.edu)
  • Many factors prevent or accelerate aging including immunosenescence, recruitment and regeneration of stem cells, telomere shortening, oxidative damage, antiaging hormones klotho and melatonin, nutrition, and Sirtiun protein family, and these factors could affect post-MI remodeling and heart failure. (hindawi.com)
  • Total RNA was extracted from hearts, and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to evaluate the expression of α myosin heavy chain, superoxide dismutase, heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), nitric oxide synthase 2 and 3 (NOS2, NOS3), heme oxygenase 1, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), muscle phosphofructokinase. (springer.com)
  • Western blot and immuno-staining confirmed expression of elastin protein. (ahajournals.org)
  • In addition to the mentioned pathways, there are many databases containing pairwise connections, such as protein-protein interactions, transcription factors binding to genes and protein sequence similarities. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Jun dimerization protein 2 (JUNDM2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the JDP2 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • CA1 is closely linked to CA2 and CA3 genes on chromosome 8, and it encodes a cytosolic protein which is found at the highest level in erythrocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • More specifically, a biomarker indicates a change in expression or state of a protein that correlates with the risk or progression of a disease, or with the susceptibility of the disease to a given treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • S100A1, also known as S100 calcium-binding protein A1 is a protein which in humans is encoded by the S100A1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The second target gene, protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B (Ptp1b) is involved in the induction of apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ptp1b gene protein has been known to regulate apoptosis by regulating the phosphorylation status of apoptotic proteins such as caspase-3 and caspase-8. (wikipedia.org)
  • CARP, also known as Cardiac adriamycin-responsive protein or Cardiac ankyrin repeat protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ANKRD1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • An additional study showed that beta-adrenergic signaling via protein kinase A and CaM kinase induces the expression of CARP, and that CARP may have a negative effect on contractile function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Myosin heavy chain, α isoform (MHC-α) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MYH6 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Journal of Asian Natural Products Research 13: 215-224 Kacimi, R., Gerdes, A. (2003) Alterations in G protein and MAP kinase signaling pathways during cardiac remodeling in hypertension and heart failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • The PTGIR gene is located on human chromosome 19 at position q13.32 (i.e. 19q13.32), contains 6 exons, and codes for a G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) of the rhodopsin-like receptor family, Subfamily A14 (see rhodopsin-like receptors#Subfamily A14). (wikipedia.org)
  • Cysteine and glycine-rich protein 3 gene codes for the Muscle LIM Protein (MLP) or CSRP3, a small 194 amino acid protein, which is specifically expressed in skeletal muscles and cardiac muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mitogen-activated protein kinase 14, also called p38-α, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MAPK14 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the MAP kinase family. (wikipedia.org)
  • myocardium
  • Da Silva E, Lucchinetti E, Pasch T, Schaub MC, Zaugg M (2004) Ischemic but not pharmacological preconditioning elicits a gene expression profile similar to unprotected myocardium. (springer.com)
  • Binding to beta-1 receptors in the myocardium increases the heart rate and makes contractions more forceful in an attempt to increase cardiac output. (wikipedia.org)
  • The chronically high levels of circulating neuroendocrine hormones such as catecholamines, renin, angiotensin, and aldosterone affect the myocardium directly, causing structural remodelling of the heart over the long term. (wikipedia.org)
  • dilated cardiomyopathy
  • 55 years age group.Conclusions- Gene expression in dilated cardiomyopathy displayed evidence of sexual dimorphism similar to other somatic tissues and age dimorphism within the female cohort. (umd.edu)
  • Mutations in the CSRP3 gene have been detected in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) [e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathways
  • These genes were highly represented in gene ontology pathways involved in DNA damage. (umd.edu)
  • Often the set of genes or proteins identified as altered in genome-wide screens show a poor overlap with canonical disease pathways. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In pathway analysis, the list of significantly altered genes or molecules is mapped onto usually pre-compiled pathways. (biomedcentral.com)
  • After MI, the sustained activation of compensatory neurohormonal systems, coupled with the alteration of various cell signaling and gene expression pathways, triggers a domino effect that leads to severely compromised cardiac function. (spotidoc.com)
  • proteins
  • NADPH oxidase family of proteins (Nox1, Nox2, Nox3, Nox4, Nox5, Duox) are the most important for generating ROS in the heart and other tissues and cells [ 11 , 12 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Circulation
  • Several years ago, cardiovascular researchers largely focused on the other gaseous signaling molecules, nitric oxide (NO) and carbon dioxide (CO). Consensus formed that NO and CO based therapies protect the brain, heart, and circulation against a number of cardiovascular diseases [ 8 - 14 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • skeletal muscle
  • Creatine is in highest concentrations in the skeletal muscle, heart, spermatozoa and photoreceptor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a mouse model of muscular dystrophy with myositis (mdm) caused by a small deletion in titin, CARP mRNA expression was shown to be 30-fold elevated in skeletal muscle tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Receptors
  • Reply: Histamine H2 Receptors and Heart Failure: A Complex Cross-Talk. (nih.gov)
  • Huang and Chen (2013) claim that oxymatrine may even be involved in inhibiting the expression of TGF-β1 receptors, which would further support that oxymatrine attenuates the signal transduction pathway involved in collagen production. (wikipedia.org)
  • atrial
  • MYH6 has been shown to be the predominant sarcomeric disease gene for secundum-type atrial septal defects. (wikipedia.org)
  • MYH7
  • The MYH6 gene is located on chromosome 14q12, approximately ~4kb downstream of the MYH7 gene encoding the other major cardiac muscle isoform of myosin heavy chain, MHC-β. (wikipedia.org)
  • aortic
  • Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 2 levels are increased in the hearts of patients with aortic valvular stenosis and patients with pressure-overloaded cardiomyopathy. (ahajournals.org)
  • molecules
  • p38α MAPK is implicated in diverse cellular function, from gene expression to programmed cell death through a network of signaling molecules and transcription factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • systolic
  • To date, CRT is the only heart failure treatment that can both acutely and chronically increase systolic function and prolong survival, something not yet achieved by drug therapy. (ahajournals.org)
  • ventricles
  • Enlargement of the ventricles can also occur and contributes to the enlargement and spherical shape of the failing heart. (wikipedia.org)
  • S100A1 is expressed during development in the primitive heart at embryonic day 8 in levels that are similar between atria and ventricles. (wikipedia.org)
  • MHC-α isoform is expressed predominantly in human cardiac atria, exhibiting only minor expression in human cardiac ventricles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Localization
  • Localization of these genes revealed enrichment on both the sex chromosomes as well as chromosomes 3, 4, and 14. (umd.edu)
  • function
  • The long-term effects of exercise on cardiac function and myocyte remodeling in hypertension/progression of heart failure are poorly understood. (ahajournals.org)
  • As in the healthy heart, these adaptations include increased LV wall thickness and LV function 4,5 and enhanced myocardial β-adrenergic responsiveness. (ahajournals.org)
  • The excessive transformation to fibrotic tissue negatively affects the function and structure of the heart. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • Biochemical analysis detected over-expression of recombinant elastin, and histological examination revealed that collagen fiber length and diameter were preserved in the scar tissue. (ahajournals.org)
  • With our technology today, heart surgeries are performed to treat the damaged heart tissue that resulted from a heart attack. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first method uses nanotechnology combined with tissue engineering, and gold nanowires are placed and woven into the damaged parts of the heart, essentially replacing the non-functioning or dead tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • The other approach would potentially use minuscule nanoparticles that would travel through the body and find dying heart tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Then the nanoparticles would release the compounds and inject them into the damaged heart tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • S100A1 has shown great promise as an effective candidate for gene therapy to treat post-myocardially infarcted cardiac tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • The development of fibrotic tissue in the heart occurs when fibroblasts produce excessive amounts of collagen (particularly types I and III), which accumulate and deposit in the heart. (wikipedia.org)
  • transcription factors
  • 28:735-742 Eghbali M, Tomek R, Sukhatme VP, Woods C, Bhambi B. Differential effects of transforming growth factor-beta 1 and phorbol myristate acetate on cardiac fibroblasts: regulation of fibrillar collagen mRNAs and expression of early transcription factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Overexpression of MLP enhances myotube differentiation, an effect attributed to the direct association of MLP with muscle specific transcription factors such as MyoD, myogenin and MRF4 and consequently the transcriptional control of fundamental muscle-specific genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • oxygen
  • Results of recent clinical studies suggest that CCM therapy is safe and improves exercise tolerance and quality of life in patients with HF ( 3,9-11 ) without increasing myocardial oxygen consumption ( 12 ). (onlinejacc.org)
  • Furthermore, unlike most interventions that increase cardiac contractility, the Cardiac contractility modulation is not associated with an unfavorable increase in oxygen demand by the heart (measured in terms of Myocardial Oxygen Consumption or MVO2). (wikipedia.org)
  • As the heart works harder to meet normal metabolic demands, the amount cardiac output can increase in times of increased oxygen demand (e.g., exercise) is reduced. (wikipedia.org)
  • chronic
  • In the chronic model, significant changes in gene expression were detected: in particular, HSP70 was upregulated (1.06 ± 0.38 vs. 0.72 ± 0.20 arbitrary units, P = 0.025), while NOS3 was downregulated (0.66 ± 0.06 vs. 0.83 ± 0.18 arbitrary units, P = 0.007). (springer.com)
  • In the chronic model, liver samples were also assayed, but no significant change in the expression of any gene was detected. (springer.com)
  • isoforms
  • Background -Patients with heart failure have modified myocardial expression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), as is evident from induction of calcium-insensitive NOS isoforms. (ahajournals.org)
  • Methods and Results -In patients with dilated, nonischemic cardiomyopathy, invasive measures of LV contractile performance were derived from LV microtip pressure recordings and angiograms and correlated with intensity of gene expression of inducible (NOS2) and constitutive (NOS3) NOS isoforms in simultaneously procured LV endomyocardial biopsies (n=20). (ahajournals.org)
  • It is known that an extraordinary variety of different isoforms are produced from the NRG1 gene by alternative splicing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Four alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene encoding distinct isoforms have been reported. (wikipedia.org)
  • patients
  • Background CCM is a device-based therapy for patients with advanced heart failure. (onlinejacc.org)
  • Many patients with advanced heart failure (HF) are refractory to optimal standard medical therapy. (onlinejacc.org)
  • On the basis of our study, the rise in TIMP2 in the hearts of patients with pressure-overloaded cardiomyopathy is a compensatory response to overcome the elevated proteolytic activities in these diseased hearts, although it may not reach a sufficiently high level to prevent the disease progression. (ahajournals.org)
  • A Tale of Two Hearts: Patients with Decompensated Right Heart Failure in the Intensive Care Unit. (nih.gov)
  • The method was also applied to a microarray dataset on melanoma cancer patients with or without metastasis, where the main cluster was dominated by genes related to keratinocyte differentiation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This long recovery process is an inconvenience to the patients, and with the growth of medicine it most likely won't be very long before a more efficient method for treating heart attack patients will be developed and used. (wikipedia.org)
  • Higher expression indicates lower probability for survival in patients with breast cancer. (wikipedia.org)