• rats
  • Compared with untreated sham-operated rats, vehicle-treated MI animals had significantly lower cardiac index and stroke volume index and higher systemic vascular resistance, indicating heart failure developed. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Fifteen female Spontaneously Hypertensive Heart Failure rats and 10 control rats were housed with running wheels beginning at 6 months of age. (ahajournals.org)
  • At 22 months of age, heart function of the trained rats was compared with heart function of age-matched sedentary hypertensive and control rats. (ahajournals.org)
  • At 22 months of age, heart function of the trained SHHF (SHHFex, n=15) rats was compared with the heart function of age- and size-matched SHHF (SHHFsed, n=14) rats that were housed similarly but without access to running wheels. (ahajournals.org)
  • Seven days after coronary artery ligation, BMSCs transfected with genes for either adeno-elastin (BMSC+Elastin) or adeno-green fluorescence protein (BMSC), or media (control group) were injected into the infarct area of adult rats (n=8/group). (ahajournals.org)
  • Bye A, Høydahl MA, Catalucci D, Langaas M, Kemi OJ, Beisvåg V, Koch LG, Britton SL, Ellingsen Ø, Wisløff U. Gene expression profiling of skeletal muscle in exercise-trained and sedentary rats with inborn high and low VO2max. (wikipedia.org)
  • In rats, oxymatrine also inhibits the expression of the Smad3 ligand which binds to TGF-β1 type I and activates the signal transduction pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibition
  • MiRNA-210 in particular, has been studied for its effects in rescuing cardiac function after myocardial infarcts via the up-regulation of angiogenesis and inhibition of cardiomyocyte apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ephrin-A3 (Efna3) is a gene that is involved in the inhibition of angiogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Through combined effects of CNP and DNP, CD-NP treatment results in a reduction in stress on the heart (through natriuresis/diuresis) and inhibition of pro-fibrotic, remodelling pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pharmacological and genetic inhibition of p38α MAPK not only revealed its biological significance in physiological function but also the potential of targeting p38α MAPK in human diseases such as immune disorder and heart failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • Western blot and immuno-staining confirmed expression of elastin protein. (ahajournals.org)
  • Jun dimerization protein 2 (JUNDM2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the JDP2 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • CA1 is closely linked to CA2 and CA3 genes on chromosome 8, and it encodes a cytosolic protein which is found at the highest level in erythrocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • More specifically, a biomarker indicates a change in expression or state of a protein that correlates with the risk or progression of a disease, or with the susceptibility of the disease to a given treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • S100A1, also known as S100 calcium-binding protein A1 is a protein which in humans is encoded by the S100A1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The second target gene, protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B (Ptp1b) is involved in the induction of apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ptp1b gene protein has been known to regulate apoptosis by regulating the phosphorylation status of apoptotic proteins such as caspase-3 and caspase-8. (wikipedia.org)
  • CARP, also known as Cardiac adriamycin-responsive protein or Cardiac ankyrin repeat protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ANKRD1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • An additional study showed that beta-adrenergic signaling via protein kinase A and CaM kinase induces the expression of CARP, and that CARP may have a negative effect on contractile function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Myosin heavy chain, α isoform (MHC-α) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MYH6 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Journal of Asian Natural Products Research 13: 215-224 Kacimi, R., Gerdes, A. (2003) Alterations in G protein and MAP kinase signaling pathways during cardiac remodeling in hypertension and heart failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • The PTGIR gene is located on human chromosome 19 at position q13.32 (i.e. 19q13.32), contains 6 exons, and codes for a G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) of the rhodopsin-like receptor family, Subfamily A14 (see rhodopsin-like receptors#Subfamily A14). (wikipedia.org)
  • Cysteine and glycine-rich protein 3 gene codes for the Muscle LIM Protein (MLP) or CSRP3, a small 194 amino acid protein, which is specifically expressed in skeletal muscles and cardiac muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mitogen-activated protein kinase 14, also called p38-α, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MAPK14 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the MAP kinase family. (wikipedia.org)
  • myocardium
  • 1 Expression of cytokine-inducible, calcium-insensitive NOS isoform (NOS2) was first reported in the ventricular myocardium of patients with dilated cardiomyopathy after myocarditis 2 and, subsequently, in the myocardium of failing hearts, regardless of the underlying cause. (ahajournals.org)
  • Molecular research in heart failure points to the hypothesis that a generic cardiac genomic response is activated in the failing myocardium regardless of the original inciting cause. (ahajournals.org)
  • As development progresses up to embryonic day 17.5, S100A1 expression shifts to a lower levels in atria and higher levels in ventricular myocardium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Binding to beta-1 receptors in the myocardium increases the heart rate and makes contractions more forceful in an attempt to increase cardiac output. (wikipedia.org)
  • The chronically high levels of circulating neuroendocrine hormones such as catecholamines, renin, angiotensin, and aldosterone affect the myocardium directly, causing structural remodelling of the heart over the long term. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • Gene knockout mice have a shorter tail, are smaller, have low neutrophil count. (wikipedia.org)
  • Slowed relaxation and preserved maximal force in soleus muscles of mice with targeted disruption of the Serca-2 gene in skeletal muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • In mice with ablation of the S100A1 gene (S100A1-/-), cardiac reserve upon beta adrenergic stimulation was impaired, showing reduced contraction rate and relaxation rate, as well as reduced calcium sensitivity. (wikipedia.org)
  • IP gene knockout mice (i.e. (wikipedia.org)
  • skeletal muscle
  • Creatine is in highest concentrations in the skeletal muscle, heart, spermatozoa and photoreceptor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a mouse model of muscular dystrophy with myositis (mdm) caused by a small deletion in titin, CARP mRNA expression was shown to be 30-fold elevated in skeletal muscle tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Receptors
  • Reply: Histamine H2 Receptors and Heart Failure: A Complex Cross-Talk. (nih.gov)
  • Huang and Chen (2013) claim that oxymatrine may even be involved in inhibiting the expression of TGF-β1 receptors, which would further support that oxymatrine attenuates the signal transduction pathway involved in collagen production. (wikipedia.org)
  • transcripts
  • 5%), global heart failure-related gene expression patterns, encompassing ~2400 and ~5300 transcripts in ventricles and atria, respectively, were largely unaffected by CRT. (ahajournals.org)
  • Here, we performed Illumina microarray-based gene expression profiling to quantify the relative abundance of transcripts in peripheral blood that are associated with AMI and/or CAD. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We show that two axes of gene expression co-variation, each including hundreds of transcripts related to lymphocyte and neutrophil activity, are differentially expressed during AMI. (biomedcentral.com)
  • atrial
  • Dogs underwent left bundle branch ablation (LBBB) and right atrial pacing at 200 bpm for either 6 weeks (dyssynchronous heart failure, DHF, n=12) or 3 weeks followed by 3 weeks of resynchronization by bi-ventricular pacing at the same pacing rate (CRT, n=11). (ahajournals.org)
  • MYH6 has been shown to be the predominant sarcomeric disease gene for secundum-type atrial septal defects. (wikipedia.org)
  • MYH7
  • The MYH6 gene is located on chromosome 14q12, approximately ~4kb downstream of the MYH7 gene encoding the other major cardiac muscle isoform of myosin heavy chain, MHC-β. (wikipedia.org)
  • aortic
  • Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 2 levels are increased in the hearts of patients with aortic valvular stenosis and patients with pressure-overloaded cardiomyopathy. (ahajournals.org)
  • humans
  • Carbonic anhydrase 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CA1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Effects of oxymatrine on heart disease in humans has not been studied and the long term side-effects of clinical oxymatrine use have not yet been identified. (wikipedia.org)
  • IP is encoded in humans by the PTGIR gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neuregulin 1 or NRG1 is a cell adhesion molecule that in humans is encoded by the NRG1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • diastolic
  • Conclusions -In patients with dilated cardiomyopathy, an increase in endomyocardial NOS2 or NOS3 gene expression augments LV stroke volume and LV stroke work because of a NO-mediated rightward shift of the diastolic LV pressure-volume relation and a concomitant increase in LV preload reserve. (ahajournals.org)
  • In isolated guinea pig hearts, administration of a NOS inhibitor reduced LV diastolic distensibility, 9 and in the beating rabbit heart, a porphyrinic microsensor in the LV wall revealed a prominent diastolic peak of myocardial NO concentration. (ahajournals.org)
  • Both DHF and CRT hearts remained dilated and had evidence of failure with similarly elevated end-diastolic pressure. (ahajournals.org)
  • contraction
  • The short- and long-term use of this therapy enhances the strength of ventricular contraction and therefore the heart's pumping capacity by modulating (adjusting) the myocardial contractility. (wikipedia.org)
  • Over time these increases in workload will produce changes to the heart itself: The heart of a person with heart failure may have a reduced force of contraction due to overloading of the ventricle. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a healthy heart, increased filling of the ventricle results in increased contraction force (by the Frank-Starling law of the heart) and thus a rise in cardiac output. (wikipedia.org)
  • In heart failure, this mechanism fails, as the ventricle is loaded with blood to the point where heart muscle contraction becomes less efficient. (wikipedia.org)
  • The increase in ventricular volume also causes a reduction in stroke volume due to mechanical and inefficient contraction of the heart. (wikipedia.org)
  • systolic
  • To date, CRT is the only heart failure treatment that can both acutely and chronically increase systolic function and prolong survival, something not yet achieved by drug therapy. (ahajournals.org)
  • apoptosis
  • A number of signalling modulators in the vasculature milieu are known to regulate heart mass including those that influence gene expression, apoptosis, cytokine release and growth factor signalling. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • However, miRNA-210 also targets the Efna3 and Ptp1b genes, which are genes which endogenously regulate angiogenesis and apoptosis, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • Decreased expression of CARP in cardiac cells within the ischemic region was detected in a rat model of ischemic injury, and was thought to be linked to the induction of GADD153, an apoptosis-related gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • ventricles
  • S100A1 is expressed during development in the primitive heart at embryonic day 8 in levels that are similar between atria and ventricles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Enlargement of the ventricles can also occur and contributes to the enlargement and spherical shape of the failing heart. (wikipedia.org)
  • MHC-α isoform is expressed predominantly in human cardiac atria, exhibiting only minor expression in human cardiac ventricles. (wikipedia.org)
  • MYOSIN HEAVY
  • The R403Q mutation interferes with the beta-myosin heavy chain and therefore greatly hinders the functionality of the heart muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Variants
  • We report strong evidence for genetic variants in 9p21 near the CDKN2B and CDKN2A genes and in 6p24 within the PHACTR1 gene. (ahajournals.org)
  • Four alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene encoding distinct isoforms have been reported. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • Biochemical analysis detected over-expression of recombinant elastin, and histological examination revealed that collagen fiber length and diameter were preserved in the scar tissue. (ahajournals.org)
  • With our technology today, heart surgeries are performed to treat the damaged heart tissue that resulted from a heart attack. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first method uses nanotechnology combined with tissue engineering, and gold nanowires are placed and woven into the damaged parts of the heart, essentially replacing the non-functioning or dead tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • The other approach would potentially use minuscule nanoparticles that would travel through the body and find dying heart tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Then the nanoparticles would release the compounds and inject them into the damaged heart tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • S100A1 has shown great promise as an effective candidate for gene therapy to treat post-myocardially infarcted cardiac tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prolong ischemia will eventually kill the cells and the destruction of cardiac cells leads to tissue death, which can lead to heart failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • The development of fibrotic tissue in the heart occurs when fibroblasts produce excessive amounts of collagen (particularly types I and III), which accumulate and deposit in the heart. (wikipedia.org)
  • The excessive transformation to fibrotic tissue negatively affects the function and structure of the heart. (wikipedia.org)
  • patients
  • Background -Patients with heart failure have modified myocardial expression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), as is evident from induction of calcium-insensitive NOS isoforms. (ahajournals.org)
  • Methods and Results -In patients with dilated, nonischemic cardiomyopathy, invasive measures of LV contractile performance were derived from LV microtip pressure recordings and angiograms and correlated with intensity of gene expression of inducible (NOS2) and constitutive (NOS3) NOS isoforms in simultaneously procured LV endomyocardial biopsies (n=20). (ahajournals.org)
  • Background CCM is a device-based therapy for patients with advanced heart failure. (onlinejacc.org)
  • Many patients with advanced heart failure (HF) are refractory to optimal standard medical therapy. (onlinejacc.org)
  • Results of recent clinical studies suggest that CCM therapy is safe and improves exercise tolerance and quality of life in patients with HF ( 3,9-11 ) without increasing myocardial oxygen consumption ( 12 ). (onlinejacc.org)
  • On the basis of our study, the rise in TIMP2 in the hearts of patients with pressure-overloaded cardiomyopathy is a compensatory response to overcome the elevated proteolytic activities in these diseased hearts, although it may not reach a sufficiently high level to prevent the disease progression. (ahajournals.org)
  • A Tale of Two Hearts: Patients with Decompensated Right Heart Failure in the Intensive Care Unit. (nih.gov)
  • This long recovery process is an inconvenience to the patients, and with the growth of medicine it most likely won't be very long before a more efficient method for treating heart attack patients will be developed and used. (wikipedia.org)
  • To investigate whether the use of Corus CAD (Age/Sex/Gene Expression score - ASGES) blood assay changes the diagnostic testing pattern in patients referred to a cardiologist for the evaluation of chest pain or anginal equivalent symptoms. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Patients presenting with chest pain or anginal equivalent who did not receive an age, sex and gene expression score (ASGES) to assist in diagnosis. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The objective of this study is to collect data on the commercial use of Corus CAD (Age/Sex/Gene Expression score - ASGES) blood test to evaluate the clinical referral patterns of Primary Care Physicians after receipt of their patients' Corus Score, and to better understand patient management patterns for clinicians ordering the test. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • A meta-analysis in 2014 and an overview of device-based treatment options in heart failure in 2013 concluded that Cardiac contractility modulation treatment is safe, that it is generally beneficial to patients and that the treatment increases the exercise tolerance (ET) and quality of life (QoL) of patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • In diabetic mellitus type 2 patients with postinfarct heart failure who were undergoing surgical coronary revascularization, myocardial levels of CA1 were sixfold higher than nondiabetic patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • Higher expression indicates lower probability for survival in patients with breast cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • isoforms
  • It is known that an extraordinary variety of different isoforms are produced from the NRG1 gene by alternative splicing. (wikipedia.org)
  • ASGES
  • A prospective cohort of 88 subjects receiving the Corus CAD (Age/Sex/Gene Expression score - ASGES) assay were compared to a retrospective cohort of 83 subjects that did not receive the assay. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Patient presenting with chest pain or anginal equivalent and receiving a resulted age, sex and gene expression score (ASGES) to assist in diagnosis. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Since it takes approximately two days for the physician to receive the result of the Corus CAD (Age/Sex/Gene Expression score - ASGES) , initial diagnostic testing will reflect local standard of care. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • peripheral
  • This helps restore blood pressure but also increases the total peripheral resistance, increasing the workload of the heart. (wikipedia.org)