• toxicities
  • Indeed, a major drawback of RCTs is their inability to definitively evaluate the safety profile of new cancer therapies - the true incidence of drug-related toxicities may not be determined, and newly emergent or rare events may go unreported ( Avorn 2007 , Ray 2003 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • psychoactive drugs
  • Hypnotic (from Greek Hypnos, sleep) or soporific drugs, commonly known as sleeping pills, are a class of psychoactive drugs whose primary function is to induce sleep and to be used in the treatment of insomnia (sleeplessness), or surgical anesthesia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Benzodiazepines (BZD, BZs), sometimes called "benzos", are a class of psychoactive drugs whose core chemical structure is the fusion of a benzene ring and a diazepine ring. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Maya, and later the Aztecs, smoked tobacco and other psychoactive drugs in religious rituals and frequently depicted priests and deities smoking on pottery and temple engravings. (wikipedia.org)
  • seizures
  • WOODCLIFF LAKE, N.J. , Oct. 22, 2012 /PRNewswire/ -- Eisai Inc. announced today that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved FYCOMPA (perampanel) as an adjunctive treatment for partial-onset seizures with or without secondarily generalized seizures in patients with epilepsy age 12 and older. (biospace.com)
  • FYCOMPA's approval was primarily based on three Phase III studies (304, 305 and 306), which were multi-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation, parallel group studies to evaluate the efficacy and safety of perampanel compared to placebo given as adjunctive therapy in patients age 12 and older with partial-onset seizures. (biospace.com)
  • The most important side effect is an increase in risk for epileptic seizures, which caused the drug to be withdrawn from the market for some time and then caused the recommended dosage to be reduced. (wikipedia.org)
  • Spontaneous reports to the U.S. FDA Adverse Effects Reporting System at the time of the 20 September 2011 U.S. FDA Pediatric Drugs Advisory Committee included musculoskeletal events (39, including 5 cases of tendon rupture) and central nervous system events (19, including 5 cases of seizures) as the most common spontaneous reports between April 2005 and March 2008. (wikipedia.org)
  • Paramethadione (brand name Paradione) is an anticonvulsant in the oxazolidinedione class developed by the Illinois-based pharmaceutical company Abbott Laboratories (known as AbbVie since January 1, 2013 ), and approved by the Food and Drug Administration in 1949 for the treatment of absence seizures, also called partial seizures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Paramethadione (brand name Paradione) was originally approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1949, as a second-line treatment for petit mal and absence seizures. (wikipedia.org)
  • dose
  • Part 1 of the study is a dose escalation phase to select the recommended Part 2 dose (RP2D) based on the safety, PK, and PD profiles observed after oral administration of GSK525762. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Safety and effectiveness have not been established for any dose. (blackmountainnaturalfoods.com)
  • Based on data from the manufacturer, it is expected that 0.6% of the maternal weight-adjusted dose would reach a breastfed infant, though the effects in the infant are unknown. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because these two functions frequently overlap, and because drugs in this class generally produce dose-dependent effects (ranging from anxiolysis to loss of consciousness) they are often referred to collectively as sedative-hypnotic drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interventions
  • Bigelow JH, Fonkych K, Fung C, and Wang J (2005) Analysis of Healthcare Interventions that Change Patient Trajectories . (springer.com)
  • Are prescription drug-based synthetic interventions the answer to our health imbalances or is this system the most nefarious exacerbation of health crises imaginable today? (naturalnews.com)
  • Many hypnotic drugs are habit-forming and, due to a large number of factors known to disturb the human sleep pattern, a physician may instead recommend changes in the environment before and during sleep, better sleep hygiene, the avoidance of caffeine or other stimulating substances, or behavioral interventions such as Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia (CBT-I) before prescribing medication for sleep. (wikipedia.org)
  • opioids
  • Opioids are also frequently used non-medically for their euphoric effects or to prevent withdrawal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Opioid drugs include partial agonists, like the anti-diarrhea drug loperamide and antagonists like naloxegol for opioid-induced constipation, which do not cross the blood-brain barrier, but can displace other opioids from binding in those receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Opioids include opiates, an older term that refers to such drugs derived from opium, including morphine itself. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some types of chronic pain, including the pain caused by fibromyalgia or migraine, are preferentially treated with drugs other than opioids. (wikipedia.org)
  • cocaine
  • In the 50-year period following the first 1912 international convention restricting use of opium, heroin and cocaine, the United States' use of illicit drugs other than cannabis was consistently below 0.5% of the population, with cannabis rising to 1-2% of the population between 1955 and 1965. (wikipedia.org)
  • severity
  • Greater standardization of definitions, classifications, and severity assessments of drug interactions would help prescribers to better understand the clinical significance of a particular DDI. (springer.com)
  • Abarca J, Malone DC, Armstrong EP, Grizzle AJ, Hansten PD, Van Bergen RC, and Lipton RB (2004) Concordance of severity ratings provided in four drug interaction compendia. (springer.com)
  • As the severity of the crisis gains national recognition, it is important to recognize that this is not the only drug crisis ravaging American families. (naturalnews.com)
  • addiction
  • The vast majority of correctional facilities reject the use of methadone, used for addiction treatment since 1964 and approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for addiction treatment in 1972, as well as a newer anti-addiction drug called buprenorphine, approved in 2002 . (pewtrusts.org)
  • Two-thirds of the nation's 2.3 million inmates are addicted to drugs or alcohol, compared to 9 percent in the general population, according to a study by the National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University. (pewtrusts.org)
  • Because of opioid drugs' reputation for addiction and fatal overdose, most are controlled substances. (wikipedia.org)
  • patients
  • Vietnamese guy scammed the UN for a lot of money claiming he discovered a miracle drug for Buy Kratom In Las Vegas painless opiate detox and had some patients die on top of that. (kratomextractworld.com)
  • Patients should call their healthcare provider right away if they have any new or worsening mental problems while taking FYCOMPA. (biospace.com)
  • Patients must not stop FYCOMPA without first talking to their healthcare provider. (biospace.com)
  • Patients should tell their healthcare provider if they have abused prescription medicines, street drugs, or alcohol in the past. (biospace.com)
  • Patients should tell their healthcare provider right away if they become pregnant while taking FYCOMPA. (biospace.com)
  • Patients and their healthcare providers will decide if they should take FYCOMPA while they are pregnant. (biospace.com)
  • Many physicians also receive commissions from prescribing prescription drugs and get "red envelopes" from patients (patients give money or gifts to their wanted physicians for getting treatment) or from sales representatives of drug companies. (wikipedia.org)
  • About 330,000 American and European patients die annually from appropriately prescribed prescription drugs. (naturalnews.com)
  • Hypnotic drugs are regularly prescribed for insomnia and other sleep disorders, with over 95% of insomnia patients being prescribed hypnotics in some countries. (wikipedia.org)
  • Early classes of drugs, such as barbiturates, have fallen out of use in most practices but are still prescribed for some patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to sickle-cell disease patients' being at increased risk for developing osteomyelitis from the Salmonella genus, fluoroquinolones are the "drugs of choice" due to their ability to enter bone tissue without chelating it, as tetracyclines are known to do. (wikipedia.org)
  • illicit
  • As with any controlled substance, corrections officials are wary of methadone and buprenorphine being diverted to other inmates who are not in drug treatment or leaking out of the prison to illicit drug markets. (pewtrusts.org)
  • Supporters of prohibition claim that drug laws have a successful track record suppressing illicit drug use since they were introduced 100 years ago. (wikipedia.org)
  • With the advent of the counter-culture movement from the late 1950s, where illicit drug use was promoted as mind-expanding and relatively harmless, illicit drug use rose sharply. (wikipedia.org)
  • They must not lose sight of the fact that illicit drugs are dangerous - that is why the world agreed to restrict them. (wikipedia.org)
  • The UNODC argues that when Sweden reduced spending on education and rehabilitation in the 1990s in a context of higher youth unemployment and declining GDP growth, illicit drug use rose but restoring expenditure from 2002 again sharply decreased drug use as student surveys indicate. (wikipedia.org)
  • clinical
  • Randomized controlled trials - the gold standard for clinical drug evaluation -can't always predict adverse events in real-world settings. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Establishing and applying stronger clinical trial methodologies in TCM is imperative for integrating it with modern medicine and achieving the end goal of creating evidence-based options for patient care. (davidsnaturalmarket.com)
  • Spina JR, Glassman PA, Belperio P, Cader R, Asch S. (2005) Clinical relevance of automated drug alerts from the perspective of medical providers. (springer.com)
  • The controversy led to several lawsuits and strengthened calls for drug companies to disclose all their clinical research data. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bupropion is one of the most widely prescribed antidepressants, and the available evidence indicates that it is effective in clinical depression - as effective as several other widely prescribed drugs, including fluoxetine (Prozac) and paroxetine (Paxil), although trends favoring the efficacy of escitalopram (Lexapro), sertraline (Zoloft) and venlafaxine (Effexor) over bupropion have been observed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reviews of clinical stimulant research have established the safety and effectiveness of long-term continuous amphetamine use for the treatment of ADHD. (wikipedia.org)
  • Morphine
  • Morphine base has a pK a of 7.9, with an octanol/water partition coefficient of 1.42 at physiologic pH 7.4. (rxlist.com)
  • Vials of DepoDur (morphine sulfate xr liposome injection) should be gently inverted to re-suspend the particles immediately prior to withdrawal from the vial. (rxlist.com)
  • 1994
  • The withdrawal from market of Manoplax due to safety concerns in 1993 caused major pressure from investors, and in 1994, Boots divested its prescription drugs division, which had become no longer viable, to BASF. (wikipedia.org)
  • sedative
  • Where as the term sedative describes drugs that serve to calm or relieve anxiety, the term hypnotic generally describes drugs whose main purpose is to initiate, sustain, or lengthen sleep. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adults
  • Another class of drugs that is re-wiring the brains of young people and adults is selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). (naturalnews.com)
  • asthma
  • Objective To determine the comparative effectiveness and safety of current maintenance strategies in preventing exacerbations of asthma. (bmj.com)
  • Previous research syntheses on the effectiveness of different strategies in asthma have been informative but have drawbacks, such as only comparing pairs of strategies, non-standardised definitions of drug dosages and outcomes, and inclusion of mainly trials with a follow-up of less than 20 weeks. (bmj.com)
  • Abuse
  • however some psychiatrists recommend these drugs, citing research suggesting they are equally potent with less potential for abuse. (wikipedia.org)
  • Arguments for and against drug prohibition discuss which system is more effective to protects human rights, prevent drug abuse and violence, and which system is more ethical. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1998, a poll run by SIFO of 1,000 Swedes found that 96% wanted stronger action by government to stop drug abuse, and 95% wanted drug use to remain illegal. (wikipedia.org)
  • practice
  • Safety was best for conventional best (guideline based) practice and combined maintenance and reliever therapy. (bmj.com)
  • Chui MA and Rupp MT (2000) Evaluation of online prospective DUR (drug utilization review) programs in community pharmacy practice. (springer.com)
  • Repression has driven this vice underground and produced the narcotic smugglers and supply agents, who have grown wealthy out of this evil practice and who, by devious methods, have stimulated traffic in drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • doses
  • The below doses are based on scientific research, publications, traditional use, or expert opinion. (mayoclinic.org)
  • You should read product labels, and discuss doses with a qualified healthcare provider before starting therapy. (mayoclinic.org)
  • With over 70 vaccine doses routinely given to children and with no studies showing efficacy or safety of this immune system overload, immunization practices put perpetual burden on the human immune system, cognitive function, and normal development. (naturalnews.com)
  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a drug class that groups together drugs that reduce pain, decrease fever, and, in higher doses, decrease inflammation. (wikipedia.org)
  • 11.7
  • The drug attracted sales of $11.7 billion in the United States alone from 1997 to 2006, including $2.12 billion in 2002, the year before it lost its patent. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2002
  • According to a 2002 statistics from Beijing Physicians Association, between 2000 and 2001, in Beijing about 2300 physicians resigned, and most of them went to work as sales representatives of drug companies. (wikipedia.org)
  • assessment
  • Safety and tolerability assessment includes: routine physical examinations, vital sign measurements, echocardiograms, and monitoring of AEs, cardiac safety monitoring consisting of 24 hours of Holter monitoring and triplicate 12-lead ECGs. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The panel's safety assessment must look at risk (side effects, adverse reactions, and dosage limits) in the context of expected benefit. (sciencebasedmedicine.org)
  • Vitry AI (2007) Comparative assessment of four drug interaction compendia. (springer.com)
  • suicidal
  • Antiepileptic drugs, including FYCOMPA, may cause suicidal thoughts or actions in a very small number of people, about 1 in 500. (biospace.com)
  • In 2003 Britain's Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) analysed study 329 and other GSK studies of paroxetine, concluding that, while there was no evidence of paroxetine's efficacy in children and adolescents, there was "robust evidence" of a causal link between the drug and suicidal behaviour. (wikipedia.org)
  • approval
  • Such data may come from additional randomized and nonrandomized interventional trials or observational cohort studies (OCSs), any of which may be mandated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration as a phase 4 post-approval commitment. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • To represent a broad and diverse patient base and to detect rare adverse events, large community-based, multicenter OCSs are useful in the post-approval setting for new therapeutics. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • When the FDA judges that the unanswered questions are not of sufficient concern to postpone approval to market the drug, they will direct "post-marketing" studies to fill in the blanks. (sciencebasedmedicine.org)
  • Abbott Labbortories continued to hold the patent to paramethadione until the approval was withdrawn in 2004 due to the drug no longer being in use. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2004). Withdrawal of Approval of 92 New Drug Applications and 49 Abbreviated New Drug Applications (Report). (wikipedia.org)
  • stimulant
  • There is also a psychiatric drug crisis, a central nervous system stimulant crisis (amphetamine for children), an immunization overload crisis, among other prescription drug dependency issues. (naturalnews.com)
  • Central nervous system stimulant drugs that are used to treat a new-age diagnosis called Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, are addicting children to similar rushes of dopamine to control their attention spans and focus. (naturalnews.com)
  • equally
  • However, while effective, this drug presented with significant adverse effects, which led to the search for an equally effective analog. (wikipedia.org)
  • Food and Drug Admin
  • The U.S. Food and Drug Administration does not strictly regulate herbs and supplements. (blackmountainnaturalfoods.com)
  • The following month the MHRA and US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) advised doctors not to prescribe paroxetine to the under-18s. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bupropion was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), in 2006, for the prevention of seasonal affective disorder (SAD). (wikipedia.org)
  • Ibuprofen
  • Boots diversified into the research and manufacturing of drugs with its development of the Ibuprofen painkiller during the 1960s, invented by John Nicholson and Stewart Adams. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most prominent members of this group of drugs are aspirin, ibuprofen and naproxen, all available over the counter in most countries. (wikipedia.org)
  • evaluate
  • Upon determination of the MTD, twice daily (BID) dosing cohorts may be opened to collect additional safety data and evaluate the preliminary efficacy of GSK525762 administered BID. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • mood
  • The over diagnoses of "mental disorders" and "depression" has turned into a pill feeding frenzy, as subjects' brains are forever changed, forced to depend on serotonin intervention, causing metabolic disorders, sleep issues, and mood changes, especially during withdrawal. (naturalnews.com)
  • indications
  • Only inhalant anthrax and pseudomonal infections in cystic fibrosis infections are licensed indications in the UK due to ongoing safety concerns. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interactions
  • Hansten PD and Horn JR (2001) Drug Interactions: Analysis and Management . (springer.com)
  • Madani S., Winter H. (2010) Drug-Drug Interactions: Communicating Post-market Drug Safety Information in the USA. (springer.com)
  • In: Pang K., Rodrigues A., Peter R. (eds) Enzyme- and Transporter-Based Drug-Drug Interactions. (springer.com)
  • Zafirlukast inhibits the action of CYP3A4, leading to drug-drug interactions with other drugs that are metabolized by CYP3A4. (wikipedia.org)
  • GI complaints can be lessened by taking zafirlukast with food, though this can dramatically impair the amount of drug that gets absorbed into the body (see the section on drug-food interactions below). (wikipedia.org)
  • treatment
  • The goal of an OCS is to amass and record key disease- and/or treatment-related data over time for a large heterogeneous patient population treated by a broad base of practitioners ( Lubeck 2007 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Medical researchers have repeatedly found that the jail's methadone treatment program has resulted in overall health care cost savings, reduced crime and recidivism, reduced HIV and hepatitis C transmission, and better than average rates of recovery from drug use. (pewtrusts.org)
  • Subjects may continue treatment in the study until disease progression, unacceptable toxicity, or withdrawal of consent. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Acceptable comparators (where relevant) were placebo or another drug treatment. (york.ac.uk)
  • The story is a paradigm of how science and public opinion interact to determine the fate of a medical treatment where there is little dissent over effectiveness, but little agreement over safety. (sciencebasedmedicine.org)
  • Each drug has a benefit-risk profile and balancing the risk of no treatment with the competing potential risks of various therapies is the clinician's responsibility. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is a strong emphasis on prevention, drug laws have been progressively tightened, and extensive treatment and rehabilitation opportunities are available to users. (wikipedia.org)
  • outcome
  • Studies were combined in a narrative synthesis, organised by intervention, level of evidence, and outcome (efficacy or safety). (york.ac.uk)
  • The rate of withdrawal was analysed as a safety outcome. (bmj.com)
  • According to Melanie Newman, writing for the BMJ, "[t]he drug only produced a positive result when four new secondary outcome measures, which were introduced following the initial data analysis, were used instead. (wikipedia.org)
  • long-term
  • Although these therapies have improved survival in select cancers, their long-term benefits and safety profile have not yet been completely defined. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Criticizing governments that have relaxed their drug laws, Antonio Maria Costa, speaking in Washington before the launch of the World Drug Report in June 2006, said: After so many years of drug control experience, we now know that a coherent, long-term strategy can reduce drug supply, demand and trafficking. (wikipedia.org)
  • medical
  • Here in New York, where methadone was first researched at The Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research in the 1960s and methadone clinics are more plentiful than Broadway theaters, use of the drug in the city's jails has never been controversial. (pewtrusts.org)
  • They learned a lineage-based medical system from their parents (mostly from their fathers), took imperial exams to enter medical university pre-PRC, or study at TCM universities in modern China. (wikipedia.org)
  • The article, "The Epidemic of Sickness and Death from Prescription Drugs" penned by medical, ethics, and economics professor Donald W. Light , is a wakeup call to all people, calling for rational thinking when it comes to 21st-century healthcare. (naturalnews.com)