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  • doses
  • Optimization: Radiation doses should all be kept as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). (wikipedia.org)
  • This means that it is not enough to remain under the radiation dose limits, but that radiation doses are as low as reasonably achievable, which often means much lower than the permitted limit. (wikipedia.org)
  • An example of reducing radiation doses by reducing the time of exposures might be improving operator training to reduce the time they take to handle a radioactive source. (wikipedia.org)
  • The emphasis in the past had been on radiation protection of staff and this emphasis has helped to reduce radiation doses to staff to levels much below the dose limits prescribed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and accepted by most countries. (wikipedia.org)
  • The recent emphasis on radiation protection of patients is helping in developing strategies to reduce radiation doses to patient without compromising on diagnostic or therapeutic purpose. (wikipedia.org)
  • ALARA" ("As Low As Reasonably Achievable") should be maintained to reduce radiation doses to staff as well as patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is most frequently used to calculate the probability of radiation induced cancer at both high doses where epidemiology studies support its application but, controversially, it likewise finds applications in calculating the effects of low doses, a dose region that is fraught with much less statistical confidence in its predictive power but that nonetheless has resulted in major personal and policy decisions in regards to public health. (wikipedia.org)
  • Its recommendation states that "the Scientific Committee does not recommend multiplying very low doses by large numbers of individuals to estimate numbers of radiation-induced health effects within a population exposed to incremental doses at levels equivalent to or lower than natural background levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • It opposes two competing schools of thought: the threshold model, which assumes that very small exposures are harmless, and the radiation hormesis model, which claims that radiation at very small doses can be beneficial. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pending any definitive answer to these questions and the precautionary principle, the model is sometimes used to quantify the cancerous effect of collective doses of low-level radioactive contaminations, even though it estimates a positive number of excess deaths at levels that would have had zero deaths, or saved lives, in the two other models. (wikipedia.org)
  • Radiation hormesis is the hypothesis that low doses of ionizing radiation (within the region of and just above natural background levels) are beneficial, stimulating the activation of repair mechanisms that protect against disease, that are not activated in absence of ionizing radiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • While the effects of high and acute doses of ionising radiation are easily observed and understood in humans (e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, children are particularly sensitive to radioactivity, with childhood leukemias and other cancers increasing even within natural and man-made background radiation levels (under 4 mSv cumulative with 1 mSv being an average annual dose from terrestrial and cosmic radiation excluding radon which primarily doses the lung). (wikipedia.org)
  • Radiation hormesis stands in stark contrast to the more generally accepted linear no-threshold model (LNT), which states that the radiation dose-risk relationship is linear across all doses, so that small doses are still damaging, albeit less so than higher ones. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, 167 Fukushima plant workers received radiation doses that slightly elevate their risk of developing cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Estimated effective doses from the accident outside of Japan are considered to be below, or far below the dose levels regarded as very small by the international radiological protection community. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, a December 2012 UNSCEAR statement to the Fukushima Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Safety advised that "because of the great uncertainties in risk estimates at very low doses, UNSCEAR does not recommend multiplying very low doses by large numbers of individuals to estimate numbers of radiation-induced health effects within a population exposed to incremental doses at levels equivalent to or lower than natural background levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Preliminary dose-estimation reports by the World Health Organization and United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation indicate that 167 plant workers received radiation doses that slightly elevate their risk of developing cancer, however like the Chernobyl nuclear disaster that it may not be statistically detectable. (wikipedia.org)
  • After the Chernobyl accident, only 0.1% of the 110,000 cleanup workers surveyed have so far developed leukemia, although not all cases resulted from the accident Estimated effective doses from the accident outside Japan are considered to be below (or far below) the dose levels regarded as very small by the international radiological protection community. (wikipedia.org)
  • Even in the most severely affected areas, radiation doses never reached more than a quarter of the radiation dose linked to an increase in cancer risk (25 mSv whereas 100 mSv has been linked to an increase in cancer rates among victims at Hiroshima and Nagasaki). (wikipedia.org)
  • cosmic radiation
  • The responses of microbes, such as viruses, bacterial cells, bacterial and fungal spores, and lichens, to isolated factors of outer space (microgravity, galactic cosmic radiation, solar UV radiation, and space vacuum) were determined in space and laboratory simulation experiments. (wikipedia.org)
  • UNSCEAR
  • One of the organizations for establishing recommendations on radiation protection guidelines internationally, the UNSCEAR, recommended in 2014 policies that do not agree with the Linear No-Threshold model at exposure levels below background levels of radiation to the UN General Assembly from the Fifty-Ninth Session of the Committee. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reports by the United States National Research Council and the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements and the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) argue that there is no evidence for hormesis in humans and in the case of the National Research Council hormesis is outright rejected as a possibility. (wikipedia.org)
  • Preliminary dose-estimation reports by WHO and the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) indicate that, outside the geographical areas most affected by radiation, even in locations within Fukushima prefecture, the predicted risks remain low and no observable increases in cancer above natural variation in baseline rates are anticipated. (wikipedia.org)
  • sickness
  • Planners attempted to protect participants in the Operation Crossroads tests against radiation sickness, but one study showed that the life expectancy of participants was reduced by an average of three months. (wikipedia.org)
  • hazards
  • He is currently on the Advisory Group for Ionising Radiation for Public Health England and the Advisory Group for The National Institute for Health Research Health Protection Research Unit (HPRU) in Chemical and Radiation Threats and Hazards at Newcastle University. (wikipedia.org)
  • biological
  • The model assumes that the long-term, biological damage caused by ionizing radiation (essentially the cancer risk) is directly proportional to the dose. (wikipedia.org)
  • Environmental health as used by the WHO Regional Office for Europe, includes both the direct pathological effects of chemicals, radiation and some biological agents, and the effects (often indirect) on health and well being of the broad physical, psychological, social and cultural environment, which includes housing, urban development, land use and transport. (wikipedia.org)
  • radon
  • Epidemiological evidence shows a clear link between lung cancer and high concentrations of radon, with 21,000 radon-induced U.S. lung cancer deaths per year-second only to cigarette smoking-according to the United States Environmental Protection Agency. (wikipedia.org)
  • Radiation is a more potent source of cancer when it is combined with other cancer-causing agents, such as radon gas exposure plus smoking tobacco. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • Thus, even if a safe low dose threshold was found to exist at cellular level for radiation induced mutagenesis, the threshold would not exist for environmental pollution with hot particles, and could not be safely assumed to exist when the distribution of dose is unknown. (wikipedia.org)
  • Environmental
  • The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is responsible for protecting and improving the environment as a valuable asset for the people of the Ireland. (wikipedia.org)
  • The EPA was founded in 1993, following the passing into law of the Environmental Protection Agency Act of 1992. (wikipedia.org)
  • Any act passed by the Environmental Protection Agency is legally binding unto every citizen in Ireland as it is a statute. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Office of Environmental Sustainability is responsible for advocating for environmental protection and sustainability, with a goal in particular to meet Ireland's multiple environmental commitments. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Office of Radiation Protection and Environmental Monitoring - responsible for ensuring that the public is protected from the effects of harmful ionizing radiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additional offices are located in: Dublin Inniscarra, Co. Cork Castlebar, Co. Mayo Monaghan Kilkenny Athlone, Co. Westmeath Limerick Environment portal Ecology portal Conservation biology Ecology Environmental protection Habitat conservation Natural environment Natural capital Natural resource Renewable resource Sustainable development Sustainability (EPA), Environmental Protection Agency. (wikipedia.org)
  • Review of the Environmental Protection Agency - Consultation Document (PDF) (Report). (wikipedia.org)
  • This is because the baseline cancer rate is already very high and the risk of developing cancer fluctuates 40% because of individual life style and environmental effects, obscuring the subtle effects of low-level radiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other terms referring to or concerning environmental health are environmental public health, and public health protection / environmental health protection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Environmental health and environmental protection are very much related. (wikipedia.org)
  • Environmental health is focused on the natural and built environments for the benefit of human health, whereas environmental protection is concerned with protecting the natural environment for the benefit of human health and the ecosystem. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • Lightning and Earthing protection systems are essential for the protection of humans, structures,protecting buildings from mechanical destruction caused by lightning effects and the associated risk of fire, Transmission lines, and electrical equipment from electric shock and Overcurrent. (wikipedia.org)
  • widely
  • Ionizing radiation is widely used in industry and medicine, and can present a significant health hazard by causing microscopic damage to living tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is slightly more protection than the widely used standard of the European Union (see below), which requires that 95% of the radiation up to only 380 nm must be reflected or filtered out. (wikipedia.org)
  • high
  • The first beta decays are rapid and may release high energy beta particles or gamma radiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Argentina (ARG) CNC-St2-44.01 V02.1.1 Mexico (MEX) NOM-152 Israel (ISR) MET MOC 023/96 Few standard were introduced for the harmful impact from high frequency, Canada (CAN) CB-02 Radio Equipment ANSI/IEEE 1.2 mW/Cm for antennas 1800-2000 MHz range. (wikipedia.org)
  • radioactive
  • Exposure can be from a radiation source external to the human body or due to an intake of radioactive material into the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Internal dose, due to the inhalation or ingestion of radioactive substances, can result in stochastic or deterministic effects, depending on the amount of radioactive material ingested and other biokinetic factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • particular
  • If a particular dose of radiation is found to produce one extra case of a type of cancer in every thousand people exposed, LNT projects that one thousandth of this dose will produce one extra case in every million people so exposed, and that one millionth of the original dose will produce one extra case in every billion people exposed. (wikipedia.org)
  • thus
  • This estimate is criticized by the American College of Radiology (ACR), which maintains that the life expectancy of CT scanned patients is not that of the general population and that the model of calculating cancer is based on total-body radiation exposure and thus faulty. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, fission events normally result in beta and gamma radiation, even though this radiation is not produced directly by the fission event itself. (wikipedia.org)
  • studies
  • Irradiation effects studies have many purposes, from studying structural changes to reactor components to studying nano-modification of metals using ion-beams or particle accelerators. (wikipedia.org)
  • energy
  • Shielding: Sources of radiation can be shielded with solid or liquid material, which absorbs the energy of the radiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is these short lived fission products that are the immediate hazard of spent fuel, and the energy output of the radiation also generates significant heat which must be considered when storing spent fuel. (wikipedia.org)