• doses
  • Radiation doses should all be kept as low as reasonably achievable ( ALARA ). (wikipedia.org)
  • This means that it is not enough to remain under the radiation dose limits, but that radiation doses are as low as reasonably achievable, which often means much lower than the permitted limit. (wikipedia.org)
  • An example of reducing radiation doses by reducing the time of exposures might be improving operator training to reduce the time they take to handle a radioactive source. (wikipedia.org)
  • The recent emphasis on radiation protection of patients is helping in developing strategies to reduce radiation doses to patient without compromising on diagnostic or therapeutic purpose. (wikipedia.org)
  • ALARA" ("As Low As Reasonably Achievable") should be maintained to reduce radiation doses to staff as well as patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is most frequently used to calculate the probability of radiation induced cancer at both high doses where epidemiology studies support its application but, controversially, it likewise finds applications in calculating the effects of low doses, a dose region that is fraught with much less statistical confidence in its predictive power but that nonetheless has resulted in major personal and policy decisions in regards to public health. (wikipedia.org)
  • Its recommendation states that "the Scientific Committee does not recommend multiplying very low doses by large numbers of individuals to estimate numbers of radiation-induced health effects within a population exposed to incremental doses at levels equivalent to or lower than natural background levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • It opposes two competing schools of thought: the threshold model, which assumes that very small exposures are harmless, and the radiation hormesis model, which claims that radiation at very small doses can be beneficial. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pending any definitive answer to these questions and the precautionary principle, the model is sometimes used to quantify the cancerous effect of collective doses of low-level radioactive contaminations, even though it estimates a positive number of excess deaths at levels that would have had zero deaths, or saved lives, in the two other models. (wikipedia.org)
  • Radiation hormesis is the hypothesis that low doses of ionizing radiation (within the region of and just above natural background levels) are beneficial, stimulating the activation of repair mechanisms that protect against disease, that are not activated in absence of ionizing radiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, children are particularly sensitive to radioactivity, with childhood leukemias and other cancers increasing even within natural and man-made background radiation levels (under 4 mSv cumulative with 1 mSv being an average annual dose from terrestrial and cosmic radiation excluding radon which primarily doses the lung). (wikipedia.org)
  • Radiation hormesis stands in stark contrast to the more generally accepted linear no-threshold model (LNT), which states that the radiation dose-risk relationship is linear across all doses, so that small doses are still damaging, albeit less so than higher ones. (wikipedia.org)
  • ICRP
  • In most countries a national regulatory authority works towards ensuring a secure radiation environment in society by setting dose limitation requirements that are generally based on the recommendations of the ICRP. (wikipedia.org)
  • In accordance with ICRP recommendations, most regulators permit nuclear energy workers to receive up to 20 times more radiation dose than is permitted for the general public. (wikipedia.org)
  • undergo
  • Additionally, less stable fission products are less likely to decay to stable nuclides, instead decaying to other radionuclides, which undergo further decay and radiation emission, adding to the radiation output. (wikipedia.org)
  • nuclear
  • 3. The Nucleus and Nuclear Radiation. (valorebooks.com)
  • The term 'biological shield' is used for absorbing material placed around a nuclear reactor, or other source of radiation, to reduce the radiation to a level safe for humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • The purpose of the tests was to investigate the effect of nuclear weapons on warships. (wikipedia.org)
  • The field also includes the study of medical and other applications of (generally ionizing) radiation, nuclear safety, heat/thermodynamics transport, nuclear fuel or other related technology (e.g., radioactive waste disposal), and the problems of nuclear proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nuclear powerplant B-61 thermonuclear weapon An important field is medical physics, and its subfields nuclear medicine, radiation therapy, health physics, and diagnostic imaging. (wikipedia.org)
  • This includes detector design, fabrication and analysis, measurements of fundamental atomic and nuclear parameters, and radiation imaging systems, among other things. (wikipedia.org)
  • The French nuclear accident response organization Groupe INTRA shipped some of its radiation-hardened mobile robot equipment to Japan to help with the nuclear accident. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was reportedly made up of doctors, nurses and other individuals with expertise in dealing with radiation exposure, and had been taken by helicopter to a base 5 km from the nuclear plant. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some occupations are exposed to radiation without being classed as nuclear energy workers. (wikipedia.org)
  • The movie goes on to suggest that by ducking down low in the event of a nuclear explosion,(crawling under desks and covering their necks with clasped hands) the children would be safer than they would be standing, and explains some basic survival tactics for nuclear war (facing any wall that might lend protection). (wikipedia.org)
  • Play media "Duck and cover" is a method of personal protection against the effects of a nuclear explosion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ducking and covering is useful at conferring a degree of protection to personnel situated outside the radius of the nuclear fireball but still within sufficient range of the nuclear explosion that standing upright and un-covered is likely to cause serious injury or death. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a countermeasure to the lethal effects of nuclear explosions, it is effective in both the event of a surprise nuclear attack, and during a nuclear attack of which the public has received some warning, which would likely be about a few minutes prior to the nuclear weapon arriving. (wikipedia.org)
  • solar
  • In order to give citizens the opportunity to protect themselves against excessive UV - and thermal solar radiation , prevention specialists demand urban development policy to actively address this scenario. (bfs.de)
  • Green tea polyphenols (GTPs) show promise as anticarcinogenic agents and may prevent the development of solar UV radiation-induced skin cancer. (herbs.org)
  • Among the investigated variables, solar UV radiation had the most harmful effect on microbial samples. (wikipedia.org)
  • hazardous
  • If the linear model is correct, then natural background radiation is the most hazardous source of radiation to general public health, followed by medical imaging as a close second. (wikipedia.org)
  • Standart 29 CFR 1910.269 - for electric power generation, transmission, and distribution, contained comprehensive regulations and addressed control of hazardous energy sources for power plant locations Standards are compared with those of IEEE and NFPA(National Fire Protection Association). (wikipedia.org)
  • ANSI C95.3:1972 - Techniques & instrumentation for measurement of potentially hazardous electromagnetic radiation at microwave frequencies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scatter
  • Fine particles of various metal oxides, such ZnO and TiO 2 , are extensively used as agents to attenuate (scatter and/or absorb) UV radiation, and have many attractive characteristics, such as a long history of topical use, broad spectrum absorption, high photostability and low irritancy [ 3 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • radon
  • Numerous data on natural radiation and artificial radionuclides can be found, such as radon in the soil vapour, the radioactivity in rainfall or Caesium 137 in food. (bfs.de)
  • Epidemiological evidence shows a clear link between lung cancer and high concentrations of radon, with 21,000 radon-induced U.S. lung cancer deaths per year-second only to cigarette smoking-according to the United States Environmental Protection Agency. (wikipedia.org)
  • Radiation is a more potent source of cancer when it is combined with other cancer-causing agents, such as radon gas exposure plus smoking tobacco. (wikipedia.org)
  • risks
  • The purpose of this study is to evaluate the knowledge levels of orthopedic surgeons working in Turkey about the uses and possible risks of fluoroscopy and assess methods for preventing radiation damage. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • sickness
  • Planners attempted to protect participants in the Operation Crossroads tests against radiation sickness, but one study showed that the life expectancy of participants was reduced by an average of three months. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protects
  • Protects the nervous system from the effects of home electricity and microwave radiation. (emfnews.org)
  • In other words, UV -protective clothing primarily protects against UV B radiation. (bfs.de)
  • Principal investigator Melpo Christofidou-Solomidou of the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania and colleagues found that a diet of flaxseed given to mice not only protects lung tissues before exposure to radiation, but also can significantly reduce damage after exposure occurs. (medindia.net)
  • Committee
  • The unit is also the executive and advisory unit for the National Radiation Safety Committee. (hse.ie)
  • Develop and provide guidance and direction to holders, practitioners, other staff and statutory bodies on relevant matters as guided by the National Radiation Safety Committee. (hse.ie)
  • Support and manage the work of the National Radiation Safety Committee and the subcommittees. (hse.ie)
  • One of the organizations for establishing recommendations on radiation protection guidelines internationally, the UNSCEAR, recommended in 2014 policies that do not agree with the Linear No-Threshold model at exposure levels below background levels of radiation to the UN General Assembly from the Fifty-Ninth Session of the Committee. (wikipedia.org)
  • These included COMARE (Committee on Medical Aspects of Radiation in the Environment) for the Department of Health. (wikipedia.org)
  • Retrieved 13 January 2016 COMARE - Committee on Medical Aspects of Radiation in the Environment . (wikipedia.org)
  • Fission
  • Thus, fission events normally result in beta and gamma radiation, even though this radiation is not produced directly by the fission event itself. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is these short lived fission products that are the immediate hazard of spent fuel, and the energy output of the radiation also generates significant heat which must be considered when storing spent fuel. (wikipedia.org)
  • Environmental
  • The new study, conducted jointly by the Environmental Protection Agency and the University of North Carolina, found that levels of ozone smog that until now have been considered safe, actually pose a serious public health threat. (usmessageboard.com)
  • Although many environmental and genetic factors contribute to the development of skin cancers, epidemiologic, clinical and biological studies have established that chronic exposure to UV radiation is a well-recognized etiological agent for both nonmelanoma and melanoma skin cancers, and accounts for ~1.3 million new cases of skin cancers each year in the United States (1). (herbs.org)
  • The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is responsible for protecting and improving the environment as a valuable asset for the people of the Ireland. (wikipedia.org)
  • The EPA was founded in 1993, following the passing into law of the Environmental Protection Agency Act of 1992. (wikipedia.org)
  • Any act passed by the Environmental Protection Agency is legally binding unto every citizen in Ireland as it is a statute. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Office of Environmental Sustainability is responsible for advocating for environmental protection and sustainability, with a goal in particular to meet Ireland's multiple environmental commitments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additional offices are located in: Dublin Inniscarra, Co. Cork Castlebar, Co. Mayo Monaghan Kilkenny Athlone, Co. Westmeath Limerick Environment portal Ecology portal Conservation biology Ecology Environmental protection Habitat conservation Natural environment Natural capital Natural resource Renewable resource Sustainable development Sustainability (EPA), Environmental Protection Agency. (wikipedia.org)
  • Review of the Environmental Protection Agency - Consultation Document (PDF) (Report). (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, even if a safe low dose threshold was found to exist at cellular level for radiation induced mutagenesis, the threshold would not exist for environmental pollution with hot particles, and could not be safely assumed to exist when the distribution of dose is unknown. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is because the baseline cancer rate is already very high and the risk of developing cancer fluctuates 40% because of individual life style and environmental effects, obscuring the subtle effects of low-level radiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • primarily
  • The degree of protection provided by clothing primarily depends on the fabric type and density. (bfs.de)
  • In the most literal interpretation, the focus of the maneuver is primarily on protective actions one can take during the first few crucial seconds-to-minutes after the event, while the film by the same name and a full encompassing of the advice, also caters to providing protection up to weeks after the event. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the classroom scene of the film, the rapid employment of school desks, as an improvized shelter following the awareness of the initital light Flash, is a countermeasure primarily to offer protection from potential ballistic window glass lacerations when the slower moving blast wave arrived. (wikipedia.org)
  • microwave
  • Dr. Robert Becker, in his book, Cross Currents , describes how the body's nervous system is negatively impacted by both the high frequencies of microwave radiation from wireless technology and the lower range frequencies generated by a home's electrical system. (emfnews.org)
  • sunscreen
  • Beyond that, care must be taken to ensure that all parts of the body not covered by textiles are given additional protection with sunscreen suitable for your individual skin type, and to observe all sun protection rules ! (bfs.de)
  • The UPF, like the Sun Protection Factor (SPF) of a sunscreen, indicates the factor by which a person wearing sun protective textiles or UV protective clothing can extend their time spent in the sun without getting sunburnt. (bfs.de)
  • Sunscreen protection factors range from 2-45. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • An effective aesthetic water-proof sunscreen composition which includes ultraviolet light protection to the skin includes polybutene polymers in an amount from 5% up to about 98% by weight and from about 1% to about 30% by weight of an active sunscreen agent. (google.com)
  • rays
  • Although fluoroscopic imaging is a convenient method for obtaining such indirect views, operating with X-rays and exposing the patient to radiation for every image are obvious disadvantages [ 1 , 2 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • sun·screen/ ( -skrēn ) a substance applied to the skin to protect it from the effects of the sun's rays. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • high
  • Argentina (ARG) CNC-St2-44.01 V02.1.1 Mexico (MEX) NOM-152 Israel (ISR) MET MOC 023/96 Few standard were introduced for the harmful impact from high frequency, Canada (CAN) CB-02 Radio Equipment ANSI/IEEE 1.2 mW/Cm for antennas 1800-2000 MHz range. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first beta decays are rapid and may release high energy beta particles or gamma radiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • skin
  • Moreover, it is expected that the dramatic recent increase in the incidence of skin cancer will be sustained due to the aging of the population, the greater amounts of UV radiation reaching the surface of the earth because of depletion of the ozone layer (2-4), and the continuing use of sun tanning devices for cosmetic purposes. (herbs.org)
  • Ultraviolet (UV) radiation that reaches the earth and damages skin can be divided into three key wavelengths: (i) UVC (32-280 nm), (ii) UVB (280-320 nm) and (iii) UVA (320-400 nm). (mdpi.com)
  • UVA radiation is a major culprit in photoaging and skin cancers. (mdpi.com)
  • risk
  • Greenpeace has said that radiation risk still looms large at the scrap market in New Delhi which was in the news recently following the death of a person after exposure to Cobalt-60 isotope. (medindia.net)
  • According to the prevalent model, any radiation exposure can increase the risk of cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lightning and Earthing protection systems are essential for the protection of humans, structures,protecting buildings from mechanical destruction caused by lightning effects and the associated risk of fire, Transmission lines, and electrical equipment from electric shock and Overcurrent. (wikipedia.org)
  • radioactive
  • Internal dose, due to the inhalation or ingestion of radioactive substances, can result in stochastic or deterministic effects, depending on the amount of radioactive material ingested and other biokinetic factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Levels
  • Monitor Radiation Diagnostic Reference Levels as established by the Medical and Dental Councils. (hse.ie)
  • Zinc or DFO alone afforded lower levels of protection. (arvojournals.org)
  • Mice on flaxseed displayed improved survival rates and mitigation of radiation pneumonitis, with increased blood oxygenation levels, higher body weight, lower pro-inflammatory cytokine levels, and greatly reduced pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis. (medindia.net)
  • cancer
  • A detailed account of radiation, its mode of action, side effects and dosage in the treatment of cancer. (medindia.net)
  • If a particular dose of radiation is found to produce one extra case of a type of cancer in every thousand people exposed, LNT projects that one thousandth of this dose will produce one extra case in every million people so exposed, and that one millionth of the original dose will produce one extra case in every billion people exposed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Older people have much higher cancer rates even in the absence of excess radiation exposure. (wikipedia.org)
  • side effects
  • Testosterone - FDA prescribing information, side effects. (herbalyzer.com)
  • Clomid - FDA prescribing information, side effects and uses (https://www.drugs.com/pro/clomid.html) Bayer AG was founded in Barmen (today a part of Wuppertal), Germany in 1863 by Friedrich Bayer and his partner, Johann Friedrich Weskott. (herbalyzer.com)