• doses
  • 1965), doses of a few hundred rads to the whole body will cause death within days, while doses of several thousands of rads are delivered to focal points of the body in radiation therapy without lethal effect. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Radiation doses should all be kept as low as reasonably achievable ( ALARA ). (wikipedia.org)
  • This means that it is not enough to remain under the radiation dose limits, but that radiation doses are as low as reasonably achievable, which often means much lower than the permitted limit. (wikipedia.org)
  • An example of reducing radiation doses by reducing the time of exposures might be improving operator training to reduce the time they take to handle a radioactive source. (wikipedia.org)
  • The emphasis in the past had been on radiation protection of staff and this emphasis has helped to reduce radiation doses to staff to levels much below the dose limits prescribed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and accepted by most countries. (wikipedia.org)
  • The recent emphasis on radiation protection of patients is helping in developing strategies to reduce radiation doses to patient without compromising on diagnostic or therapeutic purpose. (wikipedia.org)
  • ALARA" ("As Low As Reasonably Achievable") should be maintained to reduce radiation doses to staff as well as patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is most frequently used to calculate the probability of radiation induced cancer at both high doses where epidemiology studies support its application but, controversially, it likewise finds applications in calculating the effects of low doses, a dose region that is fraught with much less statistical confidence in its predictive power but that nonetheless has resulted in major personal and policy decisions in regards to public health. (wikipedia.org)
  • Its recommendation states that "the Scientific Committee does not recommend multiplying very low doses by large numbers of individuals to estimate numbers of radiation-induced health effects within a population exposed to incremental doses at levels equivalent to or lower than natural background levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • It opposes two competing schools of thought: the threshold model, which assumes that very small exposures are harmless, and the radiation hormesis model, which claims that radiation at very small doses can be beneficial. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pending any definitive answer to these questions and the precautionary principle, the model is sometimes used to quantify the cancerous effect of collective doses of low-level radioactive contaminations, even though it estimates a positive number of excess deaths at levels that would have had zero deaths, or saved lives, in the two other models. (wikipedia.org)
  • Radiation hormesis is the hypothesis that low doses of ionizing radiation (within the region of and just above natural background levels) are beneficial, stimulating the activation of repair mechanisms that protect against disease, that are not activated in absence of ionizing radiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • While the effects of high and acute doses of ionising radiation are easily observed and understood in humans (e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, children are particularly sensitive to radioactivity, with childhood leukemias and other cancers increasing even within natural and man-made background radiation levels (under 4 mSv cumulative with 1 mSv being an average annual dose from terrestrial and cosmic radiation excluding radon which primarily doses the lung). (wikipedia.org)
  • Radiation hormesis stands in stark contrast to the more generally accepted linear no-threshold model (LNT), which states that the radiation dose-risk relationship is linear across all doses, so that small doses are still damaging, albeit less so than higher ones. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, 167 Fukushima plant workers received radiation doses that slightly elevate their risk of developing cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Estimated effective doses from the accident outside of Japan are considered to be below, or far below the dose levels regarded as very small by the international radiological protection community. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, a December 2012 UNSCEAR statement to the Fukushima Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Safety advised that "because of the great uncertainties in risk estimates at very low doses, UNSCEAR does not recommend multiplying very low doses by large numbers of individuals to estimate numbers of radiation-induced health effects within a population exposed to incremental doses at levels equivalent to or lower than natural background levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Preliminary dose-estimation reports by the World Health Organization and United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation indicate that 167 plant workers received radiation doses that slightly elevate their risk of developing cancer, however like the Chernobyl nuclear disaster that it may not be statistically detectable. (wikipedia.org)
  • After the Chernobyl accident, only 0.1% of the 110,000 cleanup workers surveyed have so far developed leukemia, although not all cases resulted from the accident Estimated effective doses from the accident outside Japan are considered to be below (or far below) the dose levels regarded as very small by the international radiological protection community. (wikipedia.org)
  • Even in the most severely affected areas, radiation doses never reached more than a quarter of the radiation dose linked to an increase in cancer risk (25 mSv whereas 100 mSv has been linked to an increase in cancer rates among victims at Hiroshima and Nagasaki). (wikipedia.org)
  • hazards
  • Perhaps the most recent application of this field to applied sciences has taken place since the advent of the space age, when those concerned with the effects of unusual environmental conditions upon man have focused attention on the radiation hazards in space (Hanrahan & Bushnell 1960, pp. 155-188). (encyclopedia.com)
  • He is currently on the Advisory Group for Ionising Radiation for Public Health England and the Advisory Group for The National Institute for Health Research Health Protection Research Unit (HPRU) in Chemical and Radiation Threats and Hazards at Newcastle University. (wikipedia.org)
  • undergo
  • Additionally, less stable fission products are less likely to decay to stable nuclides, instead decaying to other radionuclides, which undergo further decay and radiation emission, adding to the radiation output. (wikipedia.org)
  • solar
  • In order to give citizens the opportunity to protect themselves against excessive UV - and thermal solar radiation , prevention specialists demand urban development policy to actively address this scenario. (bfs.de)
  • Green tea polyphenols (GTPs) show promise as anticarcinogenic agents and may prevent the development of solar UV radiation-induced skin cancer. (herbs.org)
  • Among the investigated variables, solar UV radiation had the most harmful effect on microbial samples. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scatter
  • Fine particles of various metal oxides, such ZnO and TiO 2 , are extensively used as agents to attenuate (scatter and/or absorb) UV radiation, and have many attractive characteristics, such as a long history of topical use, broad spectrum absorption, high photostability and low irritancy [ 3 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • risks
  • The purpose of this study is to evaluate the knowledge levels of orthopedic surgeons working in Turkey about the uses and possible risks of fluoroscopy and assess methods for preventing radiation damage. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • With any application involving the use of ionizing radiation, the risks of its use must be balanced against its benefits. (springer.com)
  • Each individual must be protected against risks that are far too large through individual radiation dose limits. (wikipedia.org)
  • Preliminary dose-estimation reports by WHO and the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) indicate that, outside the geographical areas most affected by radiation, even in locations within Fukushima prefecture, the predicted risks remain low and no observable increases in cancer above natural variation in baseline rates are anticipated. (wikipedia.org)
  • radon
  • Epidemiological evidence shows a clear link between lung cancer and high concentrations of radon, with 21,000 radon-induced U.S. lung cancer deaths per year-second only to cigarette smoking-according to the United States Environmental Protection Agency. (wikipedia.org)
  • Radiation is a more potent source of cancer when it is combined with other cancer-causing agents, such as radon gas exposure plus smoking tobacco. (wikipedia.org)
  • levels of radiation
  • One of the organizations for establishing recommendations on radiation protection guidelines internationally, the UNSCEAR, recommended in 2014 policies that do not agree with the Linear No-Threshold model at exposure levels below background levels of radiation to the UN General Assembly from the Fifty-Ninth Session of the Committee. (wikipedia.org)
  • radiotherapy
  • It is intended to examine how the reaction of the tumour tissue can be influenced during radiotherapy without unintended side-effects to the normal tissue occurring. (bfs.de)
  • radioactive
  • Radiation poisoning happens when a radioactive substance gives off particles that get into a person's body and cause harm. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Exposure can be from a radiation source external to the human body or due to an intake of radioactive material into the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Internal dose, due to the inhalation or ingestion of radioactive substances, can result in stochastic or deterministic effects, depending on the amount of radioactive material ingested and other biokinetic factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • biological
  • Although many environmental and genetic factors contribute to the development of skin cancers, epidemiologic, clinical and biological studies have established that chronic exposure to UV radiation is a well-recognized etiological agent for both nonmelanoma and melanoma skin cancers, and accounts for ~1.3 million new cases of skin cancers each year in the United States (1). (herbs.org)
  • The model assumes that the long-term, biological damage caused by ionizing radiation (essentially the cancer risk) is directly proportional to the dose. (wikipedia.org)
  • Environmental health as used by the WHO Regional Office for Europe, includes both the direct pathological effects of chemicals, radiation and some biological agents, and the effects (often indirect) on health and well being of the broad physical, psychological, social and cultural environment, which includes housing, urban development, land use and transport. (wikipedia.org)
  • Environmental Protec
  • The new study, conducted jointly by the Environmental Protection Agency and the University of North Carolina, found that levels of ozone smog that until now have been considered safe, actually pose a serious public health threat. (usmessageboard.com)
  • The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is responsible for protecting and improving the environment as a valuable asset for the people of the Ireland. (wikipedia.org)
  • The EPA was founded in 1993, following the passing into law of the Environmental Protection Agency Act of 1992. (wikipedia.org)
  • Any act passed by the Environmental Protection Agency is legally binding unto every citizen in Ireland as it is a statute. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additional offices are located in: Dublin Inniscarra, Co. Cork Castlebar, Co. Mayo Monaghan Kilkenny Athlone, Co. Westmeath Limerick Environment portal Ecology portal Conservation biology Ecology Environmental protection Habitat conservation Natural environment Natural capital Natural resource Renewable resource Sustainable development Sustainability (EPA), Environmental Protection Agency. (wikipedia.org)
  • Review of the Environmental Protection Agency - Consultation Document (PDF) (Report). (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • Thus, even if a safe low dose threshold was found to exist at cellular level for radiation induced mutagenesis, the threshold would not exist for environmental pollution with hot particles, and could not be safely assumed to exist when the distribution of dose is unknown. (wikipedia.org)
  • microwave
  • Dr. Robert Becker, in his book, Cross Currents , describes how the body's nervous system is negatively impacted by both the high frequencies of microwave radiation from wireless technology and the lower range frequencies generated by a home's electrical system. (emfnews.org)
  • sunscreen
  • Beyond that, care must be taken to ensure that all parts of the body not covered by textiles are given additional protection with sunscreen suitable for your individual skin type, and to observe all sun protection rules ! (bfs.de)
  • The UPF, like the Sun Protection Factor (SPF) of a sunscreen, indicates the factor by which a person wearing sun protective textiles or UV protective clothing can extend their time spent in the sun without getting sunburnt. (bfs.de)
  • Sunscreen protection factors range from 2-45. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • An effective aesthetic water-proof sunscreen composition which includes ultraviolet light protection to the skin includes polybutene polymers in an amount from 5% up to about 98% by weight and from about 1% to about 30% by weight of an active sunscreen agent. (google.com)
  • rays
  • Although fluoroscopic imaging is a convenient method for obtaining such indirect views, operating with X-rays and exposing the patient to radiation for every image are obvious disadvantages [ 1 , 2 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • sun·screen/ ( -skrēn ) a substance applied to the skin to protect it from the effects of the sun's rays. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • human
  • Fundamental to radiation protection is the reduction of expected dose and the measurement of human dose uptake. (wikipedia.org)
  • Environmental health is focused on the natural and built environments for the benefit of human health, whereas environmental protection is concerned with protecting the natural environment for the benefit of human health and the ecosystem. (wikipedia.org)
  • cancer
  • Moreover, it is expected that the dramatic recent increase in the incidence of skin cancer will be sustained due to the aging of the population, the greater amounts of UV radiation reaching the surface of the earth because of depletion of the ozone layer (2-4), and the continuing use of sun tanning devices for cosmetic purposes. (herbs.org)
  • If a particular dose of radiation is found to produce one extra case of a type of cancer in every thousand people exposed, LNT projects that one thousandth of this dose will produce one extra case in every million people so exposed, and that one millionth of the original dose will produce one extra case in every billion people exposed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Non-ionizing radio frequency radiation from mobile phones, electric power transmission, and other similar sources have been described as a possible carcinogen by the World Health Organization's International Agency for Research on Cancer, but the link remains unproven. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to the prevalent model, any radiation exposure can increase the risk of cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is because the baseline cancer rate is already very high and the risk of developing cancer fluctuates 40% because of individual life style and environmental effects, obscuring the subtle effects of low-level radiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Older people have much higher cancer rates even in the absence of excess radiation exposure. (wikipedia.org)
  • electricity
  • Radiation is used in medicine, to generate electricity, to make food last longer, to sterilize equipment, for carbon dating of archeological finds, and many other reasons. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Electrical safety is a system of organizational measures and technical means to prevent harmful and dangerous effects on workers from electric current, electric arc, electromagnetic field and static electricity. (wikipedia.org)
  • risk
  • With medical uses of radiation, the benefits are immediately obvious and are directly received by the person exposed to the risk. (springer.com)
  • Lightning and Earthing protection systems are essential for the protection of humans, structures,protecting buildings from mechanical destruction caused by lightning effects and the associated risk of fire, Transmission lines, and electrical equipment from electric shock and Overcurrent. (wikipedia.org)
  • high
  • The first beta decays are rapid and may release high energy beta particles or gamma radiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Argentina (ARG) CNC-St2-44.01 V02.1.1 Mexico (MEX) NOM-152 Israel (ISR) MET MOC 023/96 Few standard were introduced for the harmful impact from high frequency, Canada (CAN) CB-02 Radio Equipment ANSI/IEEE 1.2 mW/Cm for antennas 1800-2000 MHz range. (wikipedia.org)