• secondhand smoke
  • On the individual level, there is good evidence to suggest that some people who use e-cigarettes reduce or eliminate their use of traditional cigarettes, decreasing harm to themselves and reducing exposure to secondhand smoke to those around them. (drugpolicy.org)
  • The only way to advance these policies, then, is to artificially build up the severity of the harms of secondhand smoke so that you can convince people that any exposure - even a few wisps of smoke - is a severe health hazard. (blogspot.com)
  • abstinence
  • In England, where leading medical organizations regard nicotine alone as relatively benign, the pressing need to reduce the risks for current smokers frames the debate, [while] the overwhelming focus in the United States is abstinence," write the commentary's authors, which include Amy Fairchild , a historian of public health policy at Columbia University in New York City. (minnpost.com)
  • Abstinence, be faithful, use a condom, also known as the ABC strategy or abstinence-plus sex education, also known as abstinence-based sex education, is a sex education policy based on a combination of "risk avoidance" and harm reduction which modifies the approach of abstinence-only sex education by including education about the value of partner reduction safe sex and birth control methods. (wikipedia.org)
  • Advocating this ideal, whilst pragmatically dealing with the fact that abstinence only sex education is ineffective by itself, has made the ABC approach popular with many African governments and relief agencies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Versions of this approach have been used for abstinence-only sex education in Uganda, among others. (wikipedia.org)
  • Abstinence, be faithful, use a Condom consists of three components: Abstinence: The ABC approach encourages young adults to delay "sexual debut" (age of first sexual intercourse), or to use abstinence until marriage, the most effective way to avoid HIV infection, as advocated as the ideal by Christianity. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Be Faithful: In addition to abstinence, the ABC approach encourages participants to eliminate casual or other concurrent sex partners and to practice fidelity within their marriages and other sexual relationships. (wikipedia.org)
  • In September 1995, Hawaii passed the Abstinence-Based Education Policy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Its focus is a shift from abstinence only approach towards preventive and safer approach. (wikipedia.org)
  • Heroin
  • Today, the focus of the world's drug policy reform organisations is on the promotion of harm reduction in the Western World, and attempting to prevent the catastrophic loss of human life in developing countries where much of the world's supply of heroin, cocaine, and marijuana are produced. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another approach is Heroin assisted treatment, in which medical prescriptions for pharmaceutical heroin (diacetylmorphine) are provided to heroin-dependent people. (wikipedia.org)
  • needle
  • By Scott Douglas Jacobsen Ottawa's program for harm reduction, which is a pilot, for needle and pipe vending machines as well as safe injection sites has been a success while make one resident feel unsafe in the neighbourhood now. (cssdp.org)
  • Harm reduction was implemented in the form of methadone maintenance and needle exchange programmes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pisani has been a vocal advocate of the harm reduction approach to addressing HIV/AIDS, supporting needle exchange programmes, making condoms widely available, and giving aid to countries that have policies of legalized prostitution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Drug Policy Alliance never lobbied for Nadelmann, however once media reports alleged that James Ramstad (R-MN) would be appointed to the post the organization urged people to oppose the appointment due to his opposition to medical marijuana and needle exchange among other things. (wikipedia.org)
  • Policies which may help mitigate the effects of drug abuse include needle exchange and drug substitution programs, as well as free facilities for testing a drug's purity. (wikipedia.org)
  • severe
  • Thus, the statement is not only fallacious, but it is a dangerous one which undermines years of education of the public about the severe harms of active smoking. (blogspot.com)
  • commitment
  • Focusing on TB/HIV co-infection is urgently needed in the areas of political commitment (to strengthen political commitment to and policies for TB/HIV co-infection), operational and service integration research (to address urgent TB/HIV operational and service integration research gaps) and awareness and stigma (to raise TB awareness among the HIV community and address TB stigma). (iasociety.org)
  • 1994
  • In 1994 he co-founded with businessman and philanthropist Robert E. Field and attorney Melvin R. Allen, Ph.D. Common Sense for Drug Policy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Evidence
  • Will Myanmar complete its transition towards an evidence-based approach to drug control? (tni.org)
  • What does it mean for the country's transition towards an evidence-based approach to drug control, and how can the gaps between the two documents be addressed? (tni.org)
  • It directs the University of New Mexico's Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Health Policy Center to undertake the study of emerging and evidence-based harm reduction approaches, including SIJs, and report back to the legislature by November 1. (stopthedrugwar.org)
  • Little evidence supports the claimed effectiveness of zero-tolerance policies. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1990s
  • Some analysts have argued that the abject failure of supply reduction in the US actually contributed to a significant and lasting reduction in crime and violence beginning in the 1990s, when cocaine prices hit record lows. (wikipedia.org)
  • enforcement
  • They argue that, rather than using laws and enforcement as the primary means to responding to substance use, governments and citizens would be better served by reducing harm and regulating the production, marketing, and distribution of currently illegal drugs in a manner similar to (or some would say better than) how alcohol and tobacco are regulated. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the case of illegal drugs, supply reduction efforts generally involves attempts to disrupt the manufacturing and distribution supply chains for these drugs, by both civilian law enforcement and sometimes military forces. (wikipedia.org)
  • Report Three: Law Enforcement and Supply Reduction" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • challenges
  • In fact, it would be fair to say that it is U.S. policies that have most contributed to these challenges for Mexico. (coha.org)
  • Bearing this in mind, this analysis makes a first attempt to identify and highlight emerging challenges for policy and service provision linked with the various manifestations of methamphetamine use that have recently been identified. (europa.eu)
  • prohibition
  • Demand reduction measures include prohibition, fines for drug offenses, incarceration for persons convicted for drug offenses, treatment (such as voluntary rehabilitation, coercive care, or supply on medical prescription for drug abusers), awareness campaigns, community social services, and support for families. (wikipedia.org)
  • involves
  • Supply side reduction involves measures such as enacting foreign policy aimed at eradicating the international cultivation of plants used to make drugs and interception of drug trafficking. (wikipedia.org)
  • humanitarian
  • The Program on Humanitarian Policy and Conflict Research (HPCR), which studies public health and humanitarian law and policy in the context of conflict-torn regions like the Gaza Strip and transnational issues like terrorism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ethan Nadelmann
  • Ethan Nadelmann (born March 13, 1957) is the founder and executive director of the Drug Policy Alliance, a New York City-based non-profit organization working to end the War on Drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Described by Rolling Stone as, "The driving force for the legalization of marijuana in America," Ethan Nadelmann is known as a high-profile critic and commentator on U.S. and international drug control policies. (wikipedia.org)
  • After Barack Obama won the presidential election, Matt Elrod, the director of the drug policy reform group DrugSense, filed an internet petition for Ethan Nadelmann as the new Drug Czar. (wikipedia.org)
  • users
  • Prior peer-based social-network oriented interventions have demonstrated success in training drug users to promote HIV risk reduction to other drug users 9 - 12 . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In a groundbreaking move, the New Mexico legislature has approved a proposal to study how to enhance and expand the state's already cutting edge harm reduction programs, including a look a medically supervised injection sites (SIJs -- sometimes also known as safe injection sites) for hard drug users. (stopthedrugwar.org)
  • Drug Policy Foundation formed in America and Release, a charity which gives free legal advice to drugs users and currently campaigns for drug decriminalization, also incorporated in the 1970s. (wikipedia.org)
  • range
  • A range of health-related harms are linked to its use and the route of administration, including somatic and mental health problems as well as an increased risk of transmission of infectious diseases such as hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) that are associated with injecting. (europa.eu)
  • In particular, the range of public health concerns linked with methamphetamine use make close surveillance of new developments an important policy priority. (europa.eu)
  • Increasing awareness of these diverse emerging patterns of methamphetamine use has served to put the spotlight on the range of harms associated with its use, and the availability and adequacy of health and social responses. (europa.eu)
  • AIDS
  • This approach has been credited by some with the falling numbers of those infected with AIDS in Uganda, Kenya and Zimbabwe, among others. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2008, she published The Wisdom of Whores, which argues that a substantial portion of the funding devoted to HIV/AIDS is wasted on ineffective programming, the result of science and good public health policy being trumped by politics and ideology. (wikipedia.org)
  • social
  • By having a peer serve as an agent to diffuse information and risk reduction skills to their network within the actual social environments where risk may be taking place 14 - 16 , the salience of the message is increased and potentially sustained. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Harm Reduction is also a movement for social justice built on a belief in, and respect for, the rights of people and compassionate pragmatism. (wikipedia.org)
  • This new approach to drug policy was also discussed at a conference co-sponsored by DPA and Baldy Center for law and Social Policy called Leading the Way: Toward a Public Health and Safety Approach to Drug Policy in New York State. (wikipedia.org)
  • A well-known criticism to this approach is that it redefines social problems in terms of security, it considers the poor as criminals, and it reduces crimes to only "street crimes", those committed by lower social classes, excluding white-collar crimes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Supply reduction is one approach to social problems such as drug addiction. (wikipedia.org)
  • years
  • The recent publication of two single pieces of legislation - the amended 1993 Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Law and the first National Drug Control Policy - is likely to form the basis of Myanmar's drug policy for several years to come. (tni.org)
  • Amélie Goyette, who has worked at CACTUS for 13 years (a harm reduction service), described the learned lesson. (cssdp.org)
  • This harm-reduction approach has been similarly applied over the years in the U.K. to tobacco products. (minnpost.com)
  • On the other hand, some argue that in the years 1984-7 New York already experienced a policy similar to Giuliani's one, but it faced a crime increase instead. (wikipedia.org)
  • tobacco
  • United States and England have staked out widely diverging positions on whether electronic cigarettes help or hinder the goal of reducing tobacco smoking - positions that reflect longstanding differences between the countries in their approaches to treating drug addiction in general, according to a provocative "Perspectives"commentary published Thursday in the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM). (minnpost.com)
  • taken
  • Any student who violates institutional policy or law as it relates to the use of alcohol and drugs may be subject to disciplinary action taken by the college including suspension or expulsion. (ccri.edu)
  • Public health officials in England and throughout the rest of the United Kingdom have, in general, taken a "harm-reduction" approach toward e-cigarettes, Fairchild and her colleagues point out. (minnpost.com)
  • reform
  • Amongst reform options not requiring consensus, inter se modification appears to be the most 'elegant' approach and one that provides a useful safety valve for collective action to adjust a treaty regime arguably frozen in time. (tni.org)
  • Sign up to receive action alerts and news about drug policy reform. (drugpolicy.org)
  • We pulled aside a handful of experts to talk with us during the Drug Policy Alliance's 2017 International Drug Policy Reform Conference in Atlanta last month. (drugpolicy.org)
  • Zeese worked with Baltimore Mayor Kurt L. Schmoke's "Mayor's Working Group on Drug Policy Reform" in 1993 which developed model public health drug policies for Baltimore, Maryland. (wikipedia.org)
  • report
  • Their report recommended funding community facilities in deprived areas, but this was at odds with government policy at the time, so the report went unpublished. (wikipedia.org)
  • In an interview about the report with Swedish Television News, she said she was surprised to see that Sweden lagged behind other countries in terms of its drug policies. (wikipedia.org)
  • health
  • The U.S., using public health approaches, has made incredible strides in reducing the number of smokers. (drugpolicy.org)
  • The HIV Co-Infections and Co-Morbidities initiative contributes to the broader health policy environment, encouraging integration of HIV with co-infections and co-morbidities, and strengthening health and community systems. (iasociety.org)
  • Desmond Manderson, an expert on the history of Australian drug policy, has asserted that from this time forward, Australia's drug policies have been more dictated by international relations and a political need for moral panic than any concern for health and welfare (Manderson, 1993). (wikipedia.org)
  • U.S. News consistently ranks Harvard #1 in Health Policy and Management. (wikipedia.org)
  • On May 2 - 3, 2013, Myrick participated in a conference about establishing more effective approaches to drug policy in New York held in Buffalo, NY, by the New York Academy of Medicine (NYAM) and DPA, which jointly released a Blueprint for a Public Health and Safety to Approach to Drug Policy. (wikipedia.org)
  • considerable
  • Built around unreasoning fear and xenophobia, American immigration policy as presently constructed is causing considerable damage. (coha.org)
  • While he was at Princeton, Nadelmann lectured and wrote extensively on drug policy, attracting considerable attention with his articles in such periodicals as Science, Foreign Affairs, American Heritage and National Review. (wikipedia.org)
  • drugs
  • The use of narcotics or dangerous drugs on the college campus violates campus policy and Rhode Island state law. (ccri.edu)
  • This approach, sometimes characterized as the "War on Drugs", has been the dominant approach to drugs policy since the 1960s. (wikipedia.org)
  • A drug policy is the policy, usually of a government, regarding the control and regulation of drugs considered dangerous, particularly those which are addictive. (wikipedia.org)
  • itself
  • The focus of the attention is not the behavior itself, but the harm associated with it or the relative harmfulness. (wikipedia.org)
  • people
  • We can remove many of the harms associated with addictions if we provide people with less damaging and legal ways of obtaining the drug they want or need. (drugpolicy.org)
  • Peña Nieto has done rather little about immigration, and his policy on violence seems to be wishing it would stop, or at least that people would stop talking about it. (coha.org)
  • He discussed the United States' incarceration rates, which are at 743 people per 100,000 inhabitants, and how America's drug policies are affecting that number. (wikipedia.org)