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  • secondhand smoke
  • On the individual level, there is good evidence to suggest that some people who use e-cigarettes reduce or eliminate their use of traditional cigarettes, decreasing harm to themselves and reducing exposure to secondhand smoke to those around them. (drugpolicy.org)
  • The only way to advance these policies, then, is to artificially build up the severity of the harms of secondhand smoke so that you can convince people that any exposure - even a few wisps of smoke - is a severe health hazard. (blogspot.com)
  • enforcement
  • Canada and the Netherlands take the harm-reduction approach in their policies, meaning that they hope to reduce higher risk use, like drinking and driving, but keep the costs to society of enforcement (incarceration, etc.) low. (drugs-forum.com)
  • They argue that, rather than using laws and enforcement as the primary means to responding to substance use, governments and citizens would be better served by reducing harm and regulating the production, marketing, and distribution of currently illegal drugs in a manner similar to (or some would say better than) how alcohol and tobacco are regulated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hence, the strong British influence on Australia's drug policies waned, and Australia's illicit drug policies shifted from a health and social focus to an increased focus on law enforcement and criminal justice. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the case of illegal drugs, supply reduction efforts generally involves attempts to disrupt the manufacturing and distribution supply chains for these drugs, by both civilian law enforcement and sometimes military forces. (wikipedia.org)
  • Report Three: Law Enforcement and Supply Reduction" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • Heroin
  • Today, the focus of the world's drug policy reform organisations is on the promotion of harm reduction in the Western World, and attempting to prevent the catastrophic loss of human life in developing countries where much of the world's supply of heroin, cocaine, and marijuana are produced. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another approach is Heroin assisted treatment, in which medical prescriptions for pharmaceutical heroin (diacetylmorphine) are provided to heroin-dependent people. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gettman stated, "If the federal government wants to keep marijuana in schedule 1, or if they believe that placing marijuana in schedule 2 is a viable policy, then we're going to cross-examine under oath and penalty of perjury every HHS official and scientist who claims that marijuana use is as dangerous as the use of cocaine or heroin. (wikipedia.org)
  • tobacco
  • This harm-reduction approach has been similarly applied over the years in the U.K. to tobacco products. (minnpost.com)
  • In the United States, however, public health officials have overwhelmingly taken a "prohibitionist" approach to tobacco products, according to Fairchild and her colleagues. (minnpost.com)
  • Tobacco harm reduction (THR) is a public health strategy to lower the health risks to individuals and wider society associated with using tobacco products. (wikipedia.org)
  • The main hazardous component is the smoke which results from the combustion of tobacco, so if nicotine could be effectively and acceptably delivered without smoke, it is likely that most if not all the harm of smoking could be avoided. (wikipedia.org)
  • The concept of tobacco harm reduction was established in 1976 when Professor Michael Russell wrote: "People smoke for nicotine but they die from the tar" and suggested that the ratio of tar to nicotine could be the key to safer smoking. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since then, the harm from smoking has been well-established as being caused almost exclusively by toxins released through the combustion of tobacco. (wikipedia.org)
  • Debates on tobacco harm reduction tend to be geographically defined arguments, because of the varying legal, moral, and historical status of tobacco, and the different types of tobacco products and use in different cultures around the world. (wikipedia.org)
  • In October 2008 the American Association of Public Health Physicians (AAPHP) became the first medical organization in the U.S. to officially endorse tobacco harm reduction as a viable strategy to reduce the death toll related to cigarette smoking. (wikipedia.org)
  • commitment
  • Focusing on TB/HIV co-infection is urgently needed in the areas of political commitment (to strengthen political commitment to and policies for TB/HIV co-infection), operational and service integration research (to address urgent TB/HIV operational and service integration research gaps) and awareness and stigma (to raise TB awareness among the HIV community and address TB stigma). (iasociety.org)
  • safer
  • But manygay men who are HIV-positive do not disclose,and AIDS Service Organizations (ASOs) promotepublic-health policies based on safer sex byall, rather than disclosure by those who knowthat they are infected. (springer.com)
  • Show off your support for drug policy reform with our new Party Safer t-shirts and tank tops. (drugpolicy.org)
  • 1990s
  • Studies confirmed significant opiate use in the 1990s, when action to reduce harm caused by drug use became favoured. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some analysts have argued that the abject failure of supply reduction in the US actually contributed to a significant and lasting reduction in crime and violence beginning in the 1990s, when cocaine prices hit record lows. (wikipedia.org)
  • America's
  • He discussed the United States' incarceration rates, which are at 743 people per 100,000 inhabitants, and how America's drug policies are affecting that number. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a result of the Four Pillar Approach, Vancouver opened Insite, North America's first legal safe injection site for intravenous drug users, in 2003. (wikipedia.org)
  • practices
  • Erin Petrow of the Saskatoon Starphoenix wrote on Indigenous communities within Saskatchewan showing signs of improvement with harm reduction practices implemented inside of the community (2017). (cssdp.org)
  • cartels
  • In an interview with Foreign Policy , Dudley explained that cartels use local and international criminal activity as a way to fund what is essentially an army. (foreignpolicy.com)
  • reduce
  • We know that substitution and maintenance therapies can dramatically reduce the harms associated with drug use , and the public health community should be working to expand them. (drugpolicy.org)
  • Harm reduction refers to a range of public health policies designed to reduce the harmful consequences associated with recreational drug use and other high risk activities. (wikipedia.org)
  • While the vast majority of harm reduction initiatives are educational campaigns or facilities that aim to reduce drug-related harm, a unique social enterprise was launched in Denmark in September 2013 to reduce the financial burden of illicit drug use for people with a drug dependence. (wikipedia.org)
  • involves
  • Supply side reduction involves measures such as enacting foreign policy aimed at eradicating the international cultivation of plants used to make drugs and interception of drug trafficking. (wikipedia.org)
  • AIDS
  • AIDS and Public Policy Journal 9 , 3-18. (springer.com)
  • This approach has been credited by some with the falling numbers of those infected with AIDS in Uganda, Kenya and Zimbabwe, among others. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2008, she published The Wisdom of Whores, which argues that a substantial portion of the funding devoted to HIV/AIDS is wasted on ineffective programming, the result of science and good public health policy being trumped by politics and ideology. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Federal government of the United States requires non-governmental organizations (NGOs) that receive federal anti-HIV/AIDS or anti-trafficking funds to adopt an organization-wide policy opposing prostitution and sex-trafficking. (wikipedia.org)
  • The policy has been criticized as counterproductive, as it hampers enlisting those involved in the sex industry in the fight against AIDS. (wikipedia.org)
  • drugs
  • The use of narcotics or dangerous drugs on the college campus violates campus policy and Rhode Island state law. (ccri.edu)
  • Any student who violates institutional policy or law as it relates to the use of alcohol and drugs may be subject to disciplinary action taken by the college including suspension or expulsion. (ccri.edu)
  • This MOOC is the first of its kind, since it addresses critical issues related to drugs from a multidisciplinary, health and human rights-based approach. (coursera.org)
  • What are the benefits and harms of taking drugs? (coursera.org)
  • Drug Policy Foundation formed in America and Release, a charity which gives free legal advice to drugs users and currently campaigns for drug decriminalization, also incorporated in the 1970s. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ethan Nadelmann (born March 13, 1957) is the founder and executive director of the Drug Policy Alliance, a New York City-based non-profit organization working to end the War on Drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the Executive Director of the Drug Policy Alliance, Nadelmann takes a public health - rather than a criminal justice - approach to the War on Drugs advocating for the application of harm reduction principles. (wikipedia.org)
  • This approach, sometimes characterized as the "War on Drugs", has been the dominant approach to drugs policy since the 1960s. (wikipedia.org)
  • A drug policy is the policy, usually of a government, regarding the control and regulation of drugs considered dangerous, particularly those which are addictive. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ethan Nadelmann
  • Described by Rolling Stone as, "The driving force for the legalization of marijuana in America," Ethan Nadelmann is known as a high-profile critic and commentator on U.S. and international drug control policies. (wikipedia.org)
  • After Barack Obama won the presidential election, Matt Elrod, the director of the drug policy reform group DrugSense, filed an internet petition for Ethan Nadelmann as the new Drug Czar. (wikipedia.org)
  • governments
  • Drug policy reform, also known as drug law reform, is any proposed changes to the way governments respond to the socio-cultural influence on perception of psychoactive substance use. (wikipedia.org)
  • Britain signed the treaties on behalf of Australia, and from this point on, Australia's State and Territory governments have created their own laws and policies relating to illicit drug use. (wikipedia.org)
  • injection sites
  • By Scott Douglas Jacobsen Ottawa's program for harm reduction, which is a pilot, for needle and pipe vending machines as well as safe injection sites has been a success while make one resident feel unsafe in the neighbourhood now. (cssdp.org)
  • In a groundbreaking move, the New Mexico legislature has approved a proposal to study how to enhance and expand the state's already cutting edge harm reduction programs, including a look a medically supervised injection sites (SIJs -- sometimes also known as safe injection sites) for hard drug users. (stopthedrugwar.org)
  • challenges
  • In fact, it would be fair to say that it is U.S. policies that have most contributed to these challenges for Mexico. (coha.org)
  • marijuana
  • In 2014 within the European Union, a European Citizens' Initiative called Weed like to talk was launched with the aim of starting a debate in Europe about the legalization of the production, sale and use of marijuana in the European Union and finding a common policy for all EU member states. (wikipedia.org)
  • Drug Policy Alliance never lobbied for Nadelmann, however once media reports alleged that James Ramstad (R-MN) would be appointed to the post the organization urged people to oppose the appointment due to his opposition to medical marijuana and needle exchange among other things. (wikipedia.org)
  • years
  • Amélie Goyette, who has worked at CACTUS for 13 years (a harm reduction service), described the learned lesson. (cssdp.org)
  • Thus, the statement is not only fallacious, but it is a dangerous one which undermines years of education of the public about the severe harms of active smoking. (blogspot.com)
  • different
  • Bruce Simons-Morton, William Pickett, Will Boyce, Tom F.M. ter Bogt and Wilma Vollebergh chose the United States, Canada and the Netherlands - countries with significantly different drug and alcohol policies - for their case studies . (drugs-forum.com)
  • This different approach recognised that the harms of drug use, such as the spread of HIV, were of a greater danger to society than drug use itself. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alcohol
  • The Netherlands, home of Amsterdam's legendary " coffee shops", takes the cake for the most liberal drug and alcohol policies of the three nations. (drugs-forum.com)
  • report
  • Their report recommended funding community facilities in deprived areas, but this was at odds with government policy at the time, so the report went unpublished. (wikipedia.org)
  • In an interview about the report with Swedish Television News, she said she was surprised to see that Sweden lagged behind other countries in terms of its drug policies. (wikipedia.org)
  • considerable
  • Built around unreasoning fear and xenophobia, American immigration policy as presently constructed is causing considerable damage. (coha.org)
  • While he was at Princeton, Nadelmann lectured and wrote extensively on drug policy, attracting considerable attention with his articles in such periodicals as Science, Foreign Affairs, American Heritage and National Review. (wikipedia.org)