• secondhand smoke
  • On the individual level, there is good evidence to suggest that some people who use e-cigarettes reduce or eliminate their use of traditional cigarettes, decreasing harm to themselves and reducing exposure to secondhand smoke to those around them. (drugpolicy.org)
  • The only way to advance these policies, then, is to artificially build up the severity of the harms of secondhand smoke so that you can convince people that any exposure - even a few wisps of smoke - is a severe health hazard. (blogspot.com)
  • abstinence
  • In England, where leading medical organizations regard nicotine alone as relatively benign, the pressing need to reduce the risks for current smokers frames the debate, [while] the overwhelming focus in the United States is abstinence," write the commentary's authors, which include Amy Fairchild , a historian of public health policy at Columbia University in New York City. (minnpost.com)
  • Abstinence, be faithful, use a condom, also known as the ABC strategy or abstinence-plus sex education, also known as abstinence-based sex education, is a sex education policy based on a combination of "risk avoidance" and harm reduction which modifies the approach of abstinence-only sex education by including education about the value of partner reduction safe sex and birth control methods. (wikipedia.org)
  • Advocating this ideal, whilst pragmatically dealing with the fact that abstinence only sex education is ineffective by itself, has made the ABC approach popular with many African governments and relief agencies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Versions of this approach have been used for abstinence-only sex education in Uganda, among others. (wikipedia.org)
  • Abstinence, be faithful, use a Condom consists of three components: Abstinence: The ABC approach encourages young adults to delay "sexual debut" (age of first sexual intercourse), or to use abstinence until marriage, the most effective way to avoid HIV infection, as advocated as the ideal by Christianity. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Be Faithful: In addition to abstinence, the ABC approach encourages participants to eliminate casual or other concurrent sex partners and to practice fidelity within their marriages and other sexual relationships. (wikipedia.org)
  • In September 1995, Hawaii passed the Abstinence-Based Education Policy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Providing reduced-harm alternatives to smokers is likely to result in lower total population risk than pursuing abstinence-only policies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Opponents have argued that some aspects of harm reduction interfere with cessation and abstinence and might increase initiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Heroin
  • Today, the focus of the world's drug policy reform organisations is on the promotion of harm reduction in the Western World, and attempting to prevent the catastrophic loss of human life in developing countries where much of the world's supply of heroin, cocaine, and marijuana are produced. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another approach is Heroin assisted treatment, in which medical prescriptions for pharmaceutical heroin (diacetylmorphine) are provided to heroin-dependent people. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gettman stated, "If the federal government wants to keep marijuana in schedule 1, or if they believe that placing marijuana in schedule 2 is a viable policy, then we're going to cross-examine under oath and penalty of perjury every HHS official and scientist who claims that marijuana use is as dangerous as the use of cocaine or heroin. (wikipedia.org)
  • tobacco
  • United States and England have staked out widely diverging positions on whether electronic cigarettes help or hinder the goal of reducing tobacco smoking - positions that reflect longstanding differences between the countries in their approaches to treating drug addiction in general, according to a provocative "Perspectives"commentary published Thursday in the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM). (minnpost.com)
  • This harm-reduction approach has been similarly applied over the years in the U.K. to tobacco products. (minnpost.com)
  • In the United States, however, public health officials have overwhelmingly taken a "prohibitionist" approach to tobacco products, according to Fairchild and her colleagues. (minnpost.com)
  • Tobacco harm reduction (THR) is a public health strategy to lower the health risks to individuals and wider society associated with using tobacco products. (wikipedia.org)
  • The main hazardous component is the smoke which results from the combustion of tobacco, so if nicotine could be effectively and acceptably delivered without smoke, it is likely that most if not all the harm of smoking could be avoided. (wikipedia.org)
  • The concept of tobacco harm reduction was established in 1976 when Professor Michael Russell wrote: "People smoke for nicotine but they die from the tar" and suggested that the ratio of tar to nicotine could be the key to safer smoking. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since then, the harm from smoking has been well-established as being caused almost exclusively by toxins released through the combustion of tobacco. (wikipedia.org)
  • Debates on tobacco harm reduction tend to be geographically defined arguments, because of the varying legal, moral, and historical status of tobacco, and the different types of tobacco products and use in different cultures around the world. (wikipedia.org)
  • In October 2008 the American Association of Public Health Physicians (AAPHP) became the first medical organization in the U.S. to officially endorse tobacco harm reduction as a viable strategy to reduce the death toll related to cigarette smoking. (wikipedia.org)
  • commitment
  • Focusing on TB/HIV co-infection is urgently needed in the areas of political commitment (to strengthen political commitment to and policies for TB/HIV co-infection), operational and service integration research (to address urgent TB/HIV operational and service integration research gaps) and awareness and stigma (to raise TB awareness among the HIV community and address TB stigma). (iasociety.org)
  • 1990s
  • Studies confirmed significant opiate use in the 1990s, when action to reduce harm caused by drug use became favoured. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some analysts have argued that the abject failure of supply reduction in the US actually contributed to a significant and lasting reduction in crime and violence beginning in the 1990s, when cocaine prices hit record lows. (wikipedia.org)
  • practices
  • Erin Petrow of the Saskatoon Starphoenix wrote on Indigenous communities within Saskatchewan showing signs of improvement with harm reduction practices implemented inside of the community (2017). (cssdp.org)
  • cartels
  • In an interview with Foreign Policy , Dudley explained that cartels use local and international criminal activity as a way to fund what is essentially an army. (foreignpolicy.com)
  • prohibition
  • Demand reduction measures include prohibition, fines for drug offenses, incarceration for persons convicted for drug offenses, treatment (such as voluntary rehabilitation, coercive care, or supply on medical prescription for drug abusers), awareness campaigns, community social services, and support for families. (wikipedia.org)
  • involves
  • Supply side reduction involves measures such as enacting foreign policy aimed at eradicating the international cultivation of plants used to make drugs and interception of drug trafficking. (wikipedia.org)
  • reduce
  • While the vast majority of harm reduction initiatives are educational campaigns or facilities that aim to reduce drug-related harm, a unique social enterprise was launched in Denmark in September 2013 to reduce the financial burden of illicit drug use for people with a drug dependence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ethan Nadelmann
  • Ethan Nadelmann (born March 13, 1957) is the founder and executive director of the Drug Policy Alliance, a New York City-based non-profit organization working to end the War on Drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Described by Rolling Stone as, "The driving force for the legalization of marijuana in America," Ethan Nadelmann is known as a high-profile critic and commentator on U.S. and international drug control policies. (wikipedia.org)
  • After Barack Obama won the presidential election, Matt Elrod, the director of the drug policy reform group DrugSense, filed an internet petition for Ethan Nadelmann as the new Drug Czar. (wikipedia.org)
  • governments
  • Drug policy reform, also known as drug law reform, is any proposed changes to the way governments respond to the socio-cultural influence on perception of psychoactive substance use. (wikipedia.org)
  • Britain signed the treaties on behalf of Australia, and from this point on, Australia's State and Territory governments have created their own laws and policies relating to illicit drug use. (wikipedia.org)
  • injection sites
  • By Scott Douglas Jacobsen Ottawa's program for harm reduction, which is a pilot, for needle and pipe vending machines as well as safe injection sites has been a success while make one resident feel unsafe in the neighbourhood now. (cssdp.org)
  • In a groundbreaking move, the New Mexico legislature has approved a proposal to study how to enhance and expand the state's already cutting edge harm reduction programs, including a look a medically supervised injection sites (SIJs -- sometimes also known as safe injection sites) for hard drug users. (stopthedrugwar.org)
  • social
  • Prior peer-based social-network oriented interventions have demonstrated success in training drug users to promote HIV risk reduction to other drug users 9 - 12 . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • By having a peer serve as an agent to diffuse information and risk reduction skills to their network within the actual social environments where risk may be taking place 14 - 16 , the salience of the message is increased and potentially sustained. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Supply reduction is one approach to social problems such as drug addiction. (wikipedia.org)
  • challenges
  • In fact, it would be fair to say that it is U.S. policies that have most contributed to these challenges for Mexico. (coha.org)
  • marijuana
  • In 2014 within the European Union, a European Citizens' Initiative called Weed like to talk was launched with the aim of starting a debate in Europe about the legalization of the production, sale and use of marijuana in the European Union and finding a common policy for all EU member states. (wikipedia.org)
  • Drug Policy Alliance never lobbied for Nadelmann, however once media reports alleged that James Ramstad (R-MN) would be appointed to the post the organization urged people to oppose the appointment due to his opposition to medical marijuana and needle exchange among other things. (wikipedia.org)
  • users
  • Drug Policy Foundation formed in America and Release, a charity which gives free legal advice to drugs users and currently campaigns for drug decriminalization, also incorporated in the 1970s. (wikipedia.org)
  • report
  • Their report recommended funding community facilities in deprived areas, but this was at odds with government policy at the time, so the report went unpublished. (wikipedia.org)
  • In an interview about the report with Swedish Television News, she said she was surprised to see that Sweden lagged behind other countries in terms of its drug policies. (wikipedia.org)
  • health
  • The HIV Co-Infections and Co-Morbidities initiative contributes to the broader health policy environment, encouraging integration of HIV with co-infections and co-morbidities, and strengthening health and community systems. (iasociety.org)
  • Desmond Manderson, an expert on the history of Australian drug policy, has asserted that from this time forward, Australia's drug policies have been more dictated by international relations and a political need for moral panic than any concern for health and welfare (Manderson, 1993). (wikipedia.org)
  • taken
  • Any student who violates institutional policy or law as it relates to the use of alcohol and drugs may be subject to disciplinary action taken by the college including suspension or expulsion. (ccri.edu)
  • considerable
  • Built around unreasoning fear and xenophobia, American immigration policy as presently constructed is causing considerable damage. (coha.org)
  • While he was at Princeton, Nadelmann lectured and wrote extensively on drug policy, attracting considerable attention with his articles in such periodicals as Science, Foreign Affairs, American Heritage and National Review. (wikipedia.org)
  • drugs
  • The use of narcotics or dangerous drugs on the college campus violates campus policy and Rhode Island state law. (ccri.edu)
  • This approach, sometimes characterized as the "War on Drugs", has been the dominant approach to drugs policy since the 1960s. (wikipedia.org)
  • A drug policy is the policy, usually of a government, regarding the control and regulation of drugs considered dangerous, particularly those which are addictive. (wikipedia.org)
  • people
  • We can remove many of the harms associated with addictions if we provide people with less damaging and legal ways of obtaining the drug they want or need. (drugpolicy.org)
  • Peña Nieto has done rather little about immigration, and his policy on violence seems to be wishing it would stop, or at least that people would stop talking about it. (coha.org)
  • In the developed world, a reduction in the prevalence of smoking has been primarily achieved through reducing the uptake of smoking among younger people rather than improving the rates of quitting in established smokers. (wikipedia.org)
  • support
  • Indeed, if the U.S. decided to vastly deepen its financial support for its currents policies, the status quo could get considerably worse for Mexico. (coha.org)
  • This new policy had the support of over 80 per cent of Vancouver's residents, as well as the Federation of Canadian Municipalities' Big City Mayor's Caucus. (wikipedia.org)
  • director
  • In February 2005, a group of non-profit organizations including CARE, the International Rescue Committee, Save the Children and the International Center for Research on Women protested the anti-prostitution pledge policy in a letter to US Director of Foreign Assistance Randall L. Tobias. (wikipedia.org)
  • international
  • He is a member of the Hoover Institution, the Institute for International Economics, the Washington Institute for Near East Policy, and other groups. (wikipedia.org)