• chain of nucleotides
  • These enzymes covalently link the free -OH group on the 3' carbon of a growing chain of nucleotides to the α-phosphate on the 5' carbon of the next (d)NTP, releasing the β- and γ-phosphate groups as pyrophosphate (PPi). (wikipedia.org)
  • Like DNA, RNA is assembled as a chain of nucleotides, but unlike DNA it is more often found in nature as a single-strand folded onto itself, rather than a paired double-strand. (wikipedia.org)
  • The chemical structure of RNA is very similar to that of DNA, but differs in three main ways: Unlike double-stranded DNA, RNA is a single-stranded molecule in many of its biological roles and has a much shorter chain of nucleotides. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • monomers
  • Both DNA and RNA are built from nucleoside phosphates, also known as mononucleotide monomers, which are thermodynamically less likely to combine than amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzymes
  • The nucleotide passes through numerous biochemical steps while being processed, adding and removing atoms through the use of numerous enzymes . (bionity.com)
  • For reference, the syntheses of the purine and pyrimidine nucleotides are carried out by several enzymes in the cytoplasm of the cell, not within a specific organelle. (wikipedia.org)
  • This self-inhibition occurs as they also activate the enzymes needed for pyrimidine formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • A variety of enzymes are able to catalyze the final phosphorylation step for NRTIs, including nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDP kinase), phosphoglycerate kinase, pyruvate kinase and creatine kinase, resulting in formation of respective antivirally active triphosphate analogues. (wikipedia.org)

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  • pseudouridine
  • The greatest structural diversity of modifications can be found in tRNA, while pseudouridine and nucleosides with 2'-O-methylribose often present in rRNA are the most common. (wikipedia.org)