• chain of nucleotides
  • These enzymes covalently link the free -OH group on the 3' carbon of a growing chain of nucleotides to the α-phosphate on the 5' carbon of the next (d)NTP, releasing the β- and γ-phosphate groups as pyrophosphate (PPi). (wikipedia.org)
  • Like DNA, RNA is assembled as a chain of nucleotides, but unlike DNA it is more often found in nature as a single-strand folded onto itself, rather than a paired double-strand. (wikipedia.org)
  • The chemical structure of RNA is very similar to that of DNA, but differs in three main ways: Unlike double-stranded DNA, RNA is a single-stranded molecule in many of its biological roles and has a much shorter chain of nucleotides. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleic acid
  • Nucleotides are the monomers of nucleic acids , with three or more bonding together in order to form a nucleic acid. (bionity.com)
  • The encoded information is contained and conveyed via the nucleic acid sequence, which provides the 'ladder-step' ordering of nucleotides within the molecules of RNA and DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Well-studied biological nucleic acid molecules range in size from 21 nucleotides (small interfering RNA) to large chromosomes (human chromosome 1 is a single molecule that contains 247 million base pairs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Nucleotides are organic molecules that serve as the monomer units for forming the nucleic acid polymers deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), both of which are essential biomolecules in all life-forms on Earth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Individual phosphate molecules repetitively connect the sugar-ring molecules in two adjacent nucleotide monomers, thereby connecting the nucleotide monomers of a nucleic acid end-to-end into a long chain. (wikipedia.org)
  • degradation
  • The clinical conditions associated with defects of enzymes catalysing nucleotide degradation provide a valuable insight into the importance of this network. (els.net)
  • Metabolic end products of purine and pyrimidine degradation in humans. (els.net)
  • Further catabolism of nonrecycled degradation products in the liver leads to the formation of β‐alanine and β‐aminoisobutyric acid for pyrimidines, which enter the CAC, and the metabolic end product uric acid for purines (blue). (els.net)
  • Because uridine phosphorylase (URP) is not present in the intestinal mucosa in humans, dietary pyrimidines escaping bacterial degradation are absorbed in the form of uridine and thymidine. (els.net)
  • Enzymes defective in inborn errors of nucleotide degradation. (els.net)
  • monomers
  • Both DNA and RNA are built from nucleoside phosphates, also known as mononucleotide monomers, which are thermodynamically less likely to combine than amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzymes
  • The nucleotide passes through numerous biochemical steps while being processed, adding and removing atoms through the use of numerous enzymes . (bionity.com)
  • For reference, the syntheses of the purine and pyrimidine nucleotides are carried out by several enzymes in the cytoplasm of the cell, not within a specific organelle. (wikipedia.org)
  • This self-inhibition occurs as they also activate the enzymes needed for pyrimidine formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • A variety of enzymes are able to catalyze the final phosphorylation step for NRTIs, including nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDP kinase), phosphoglycerate kinase, pyruvate kinase and creatine kinase, resulting in formation of respective antivirally active triphosphate analogues. (wikipedia.org)
  • pseudouridine
  • The greatest structural diversity of modifications can be found in tRNA, while pseudouridine and nucleosides with 2'-O-methylribose often present in rRNA are the most common. (wikipedia.org)

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