• Fibroblast
  • The term cytokine is now generally used to include molecules that were originally defined as growth factors, e.g., the insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), the transforming growth factors (TGF alpha and TGF beta), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), and fibroblast growth factors (FGFs). (unu.edu)
  • The highly conserved receptors and pathways can be organized into four major families based on similar structures: Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family, Hedgehog family, Wnt family, and TGF-β superfamily. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phenotype and survival of mice after knockout of some FGFR genes: Paracrine signaling through fibroblast growth factors and its respective receptors utilizes the receptor tyrosine pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ligands that bind to RTKs include fibroblast growth factors, epidermal growth factors, platelet-derived growth factors, and stem cell factor. (wikipedia.org)
  • skeletal
  • Of the growth factors, those with the most potent effects on growing skeletal tissue are the IGFs, previously known as somatomedins. (unu.edu)
  • The procedure must be performed for an appropriate duration during the patient's adolescent growth phase so that the limbs are near-equal in length by the end of skeletal growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • limb
  • The purpose of this study is to find ways to change the way the growth plate grows to better treat pediatric limb disorders. (mayo.edu)
  • In mice, one gene known to regulate limb growth is prx1, which encodes a transcription factor. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the forelimb initiation and limb growth in mice, axial (lengthwise) cues from the intermediate mesoderm produces Tbx5, which subsequently signals to the same mesoderm to produce Fgf10. (wikipedia.org)
  • grows
  • that is, the whole bone is alive, with maintenance remodeling throughout its existing bone tissue, but the growth plate is the place where the long bone grows longer (adds length). (wikipedia.org)
  • The process of appositional growth occurs when the cartilage model also grows in thickness due to the addition of more extracellular matrix on the peripheral cartilage surface, which is accompanied by new chondroblasts that develop from the perichondrium. (wikipedia.org)
  • epidermal
  • Those cytokines and growth factors considered to be of particular importance during bone development and growth include the IGFs, TGF a and b , bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), FGF, PDGF and epidermal growth factor (EGF). (unu.edu)
  • structures
  • These ligamentous structures are two to five times stronger than the growth plates at either end of a long bone and therefore are less often injured in children sustaining excessive external loads to the joints. (medscape.com)
  • occur
  • These more often occur in very young children, who still have years of bone growth ahead of them. (arthroscopy.com)
  • After growth slows, typically age 16 in boys and 14 in girls, the pain will no longer occur despite a bump potentially remaining. (wikipedia.org)
  • secretion
  • 1985). The major factors regulating IGF concentrations in serum are growth hormone, nutritional intake and thyroid hormones, the latter being necessary for growth hormone secretion. (unu.edu)
  • hormonal
  • 1989). (This close relationship between circulating IGFs and growth hormone will be discussed in more detail in the chapter covering the hormonal regulation of growth. (unu.edu)
  • factors
  • Local factors are necessary for intercellular communication and include cytokines and growth factors. (unu.edu)
  • In hard tissues another mechanism of control exists, where locally produced growth factors, or those in the circulation, are incorporated into mineralised matrix and are released during matrix dissolution by osteoclasts or chondroclasts. (unu.edu)
  • Paracrine signaling of growth factors between nearby cells has been shown to exacerbate carcinogenesis. (wikipedia.org)