• Fibroblast
  • The term cytokine is now generally used to include molecules that were originally defined as growth factors, e.g., the insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), the transforming growth factors (TGF alpha and TGF beta), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), and fibroblast growth factors (FGFs). (unu.edu)
  • The highly conserved receptors and pathways can be organized into four major families based on similar structures: Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family, Hedgehog family, Wnt family, and TGF-β superfamily. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phenotype and survival of mice after knockout of some FGFR genes: Paracrine signaling through fibroblast growth factors and its respective receptors utilizes the receptor tyrosine pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ligands that bind to RTKs include fibroblast growth factors, epidermal growth factors, platelet-derived growth factors, and stem cell factor. (wikipedia.org)
  • skeletal
  • Of the growth factors, those with the most potent effects on growing skeletal tissue are the IGFs, previously known as somatomedins. (unu.edu)
  • limb growth
  • In mice, one gene known to regulate limb growth is prx1, which encodes a transcription factor. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the forelimb initiation and limb growth in mice, axial (lengthwise) cues from the intermediate mesoderm produces Tbx5, which subsequently signals to the same mesoderm to produce Fgf10. (wikipedia.org)
  • epidermal
  • Those cytokines and growth factors considered to be of particular importance during bone development and growth include the IGFs, TGF a and b , bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), FGF, PDGF and epidermal growth factor (EGF). (unu.edu)
  • structures
  • These ligamentous structures are two to five times stronger than the growth plates at either end of a long bone and therefore are less often injured in children sustaining excessive external loads to the joints. (medscape.com)
  • rapid bone growth
  • It is believed that the disease may be brought on by continuous overuse of the elbow and that puts pressure on the elbow and also strains the elbow in children during the period of rapid bone growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • occur
  • These more often occur in very young children, who still have years of bone growth ahead of them. (arthroscopy.com)
  • After growth slows, typically age 16 in boys and 14 in girls, the pain will no longer occur despite a bump potentially remaining. (wikipedia.org)
  • secretion
  • 1985). The major factors regulating IGF concentrations in serum are growth hormone, nutritional intake and thyroid hormones, the latter being necessary for growth hormone secretion. (unu.edu)
  • hormonal
  • 1989). (This close relationship between circulating IGFs and growth hormone will be discussed in more detail in the chapter covering the hormonal regulation of growth. (unu.edu)