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  • GHSR1a
  • Acylated ghrelin occurs in pancreas tissues, and GHSR1a receptor blockade with specific antagonists or treatments with antiserum against acylated ghrelin enhance glucose-induced increases in insulin release whereas acylated ghrelin decreases insulin release ( 5 , 7 ⇓ ⇓ - 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • regulatory
  • Cortistatin downregulated the production of various inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, decreased the antigen‐specific Th1‐cell expansion, and induced the production of regulatory cytokines, such as interleukin 10 and transforming growth factor β1. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Growth hormone is required for normal postnatal growth, bone growth, regulatory effects on protein, carbohydrate, and lipid metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • intracellular
  • When growth hormone secretagogue receptor is activated, a variety of different intracellular signaling cascades can result, depending on the cell type in which the receptor is expressed. (wikipedia.org)
  • PLC activation produces both diacylglycerol (DAG) and inositol triphosphate (IP3), the latter leading to release of intracellular Ca2+ from the endoplasmic reticulum, increasing cytosolic Ca2+ concentration, resulting in vesicle fusion and release of secretory vesicles containing premade growth hormone. (wikipedia.org)
  • dopamine
  • Current studies, furthermore, suggest that the VTA may contain dimers of GHS-R1a and dopamine receptor type 2 (DRD2). (wikipedia.org)
  • Current studies, furthermore, suggest that the VTA may contain dimers of GHS-R1a and dopamine receptor type 2 (DRD2). (wikipedia.org)
  • Ghrelin also plays an important role in regulating reward perception in dopamine neurons that link the ventral tegmental area to the nucleus accumbens (a site that plays a role in processing sexual desire, reward, and reinforcement, and in developing addictions) through its colocalized receptors and interaction with dopamine and acetylcholine. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed
  • medical citation needed] Insulin-like growth factor 1 has been shown to bind and interact with all the IGF-1 binding proteins (IGFBPs), of which there are seven: IGFBP1, IGFBP2, IGFBP3, IGFBP4, IGFBP5, IGFBP6, and IGFBP7. (wikipedia.org)
  • medical citation needed] Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) and other tyrosine kinase growth factor receptors signal through multiple pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • glucose
  • It does not activate the GHS-R receptor but does have other effects: cardiac, anti-ghrelin, appetite stimulation, and inhibition of hepatic glucose output Side-chains other than octanoyl have also been observed: these can also trigger the ghrelin receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • GH is a stress hormone that raises the concentration of glucose and free fatty acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • A recent study in normal mice showed significant differences in body composition, muscle growth, glucose metabolism, memory and cardiac function in the mice being administered the GHRP-6 (2). (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor
  • Pituitary tumor enlargement in two patients with acromegaly during pegvisomant therapy. (healthtap.com)
  • OBJECTIVE Phosphoinositide 3-kinase enhancer A (PIKE-A) is a proto-oncogene that promotes tumor growth and transformation by enhancing Akt activity. (diabetesjournals.org)