• myeloid precursor cells
  • Hematopoietic stem cells give rise to: 1) myeloid precursor cells that differentiate into red blood cells, mast cells, blood platelet-forming megakaryocytes, or myeloblasts, which latter cells subsequently differentiate into white blood cells viz. (wikipedia.org)
  • bone
  • Substantial progress on understanding the cell hierarchy within ALL bone marrow (BM) has been recorded in the last few years, suggesting that both primitive cell fractions and committed lymphoid blasts with immature stem cell-like properties contain leukemia-initiating cells. (hindawi.com)
  • this disorder is a form of plasma cell dyscrasia in which no myeloma protein is detected in serum or urine (at least as determined by conventional laboratory methods) of individuals who have clear evidence of an increase in clonal bone marrow plasma cells and/or evidence of clonal plasma cell-mediated tissue injury (e.g. plasmacytoma tumors). (wikipedia.org)
  • Other genetic manipulation studies in mice indicate that the gene is required for the development and maintenance of bone marrow-based blood cell formation and the vascular network. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rare missense and other loss of function mutations in ETV6 cause thrombocytopenia 5, an autosomal dominant familial disease characterized by variable thrombocytopenia (blood platelet counts from 5% to 90% of normal), mild to modest bleeding tendencies, and bone marrow biopsy findings of abnormal appearing megakaryocytes (i.e. nuclei with fewer than the normal number of lobulations) and red cell macrocytosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Absent these causes, patients were diagnosed in the World Health Organization's classification as having either 1) Chronic eosinophilic leukemia, not otherwise specified, (CEL-NOS) if blood or bone marrow blast cells exceeded 2% or 5% of total nucleated cells, respectively, and other criteria were met or 2) idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) if there was evidence of eosinophil-induced tissue damage but no criteria indicating chronic eosinophilic leukemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a cancer of the myeloid line of blood cells, characterized by the rapid growth of abnormal cells that build up in the bone marrow and blood and interfere with normal blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The underlying mechanism involves replacement of normal bone marrow with leukemia cells, which results in a drop in red blood cells, platelets, and normal white blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rarely, the first sign of leukemia may be the development of a solid leukemic mass or tumor outside of the bone marrow, called a chloroma. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor
  • Cancers most frequently associated with TLS include any leukemia or lymphoma with high tumor burden (hyperleukocytosis, bulky disease), especially Burkitt's lymphoma which has the most rapid doubling time of any pediatric cancer. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • This can also result from primary solid tumors which occur in the chest, such as sarcoma, neuroblastoma, or germ cell tumor. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • This property along with the heterogeneity of the tumor cell population makes cancer a particularly difficult disease to treat and eradicate. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) are the most common type of testicular tumor and encompass different histologic types that greatly influence treatment and prognosis. (stanford.edu)
  • A neoplasm or tumor is a group of cells that have undergone unregulated growth and will often form a mass or lump, but may be distributed diffusely. (wikipedia.org)
  • Syngeneic lymphocytes were transferred from rodents heavily immunized against the tumor to inhibit growth of small established tumors, becoming the first example of ACT. (wikipedia.org)
  • High doses of IL-2 could inhibit tumor growth in mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2006 administration of normal circulating lymphocytes transduced with a retrovirus encoding a T-cell receptor (TCR) that recognized the MART-1 melanoma-melanocyte antigen, mediated tumor regression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using prediction algorithms, they found miR-19 targets to the pro-survival functions: * PTEN tumor suppressor gene * PTEN mRNA * Sbf2 gene * Bcl7a gene * Rnf44 gene In the cell response to stress, the most important is the post-transcriptional control of the important gene expression to cell survival and apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutations
  • Through successive rounds of mutation and natural selection, a group of abnormal cells, generally originating from a single mutant cell, accumulates additional mutations that provide selective growth advantage over other cells, and thus evolves into a cell type that predominates in the cell mass. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • The underlying mechanism involves multiple genetic mutations that results in rapid cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, the activating mutations of miR-17~92 have been identified in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, whereas the miRNA constituents of the clusters are overexpressed in a multiple cancer types. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mutations cause these proteins to be continuously active and thereby to stimulate growth in an uncontrolled and continuous manner. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • CAR+ T cells containing the CD28 endodomain showed strikingly enhanced sustained T cell activation, growth, survival. (creative-biolabs.com)
  • Neither the precise origins of the leukemic cell, nor the biological behavior of the hematopoietic primitive cells in the leukemic setting are known. (hindawi.com)
  • Furthermore, data showing that only cells with immature phenotypes are capable of engraftment and leukemia reconstitution in immunodeficient mice models support this [ 9 - 12 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • These proteins are expressed and non-infectious particles are released in various cells, particularly in tumors and cancer cell lines derived from teratocarcinomas and melanomas ( 5 - 7 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Cancer is a group of varied diseases characterized by uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • The pathways regulating cell division and/or cellular communication become altered in cancer cells such that the effects of these regulatory mechanisms in controlling and limiting cell growth fails or is bypassed. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • These treatments are particularly effective for those types of cancers that have defects in cell cycle checkpoints, which limits the ability of these cells to repair damaged DNA before undergoing additional cell division. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • If these gene alterations are successful in coding for a functional antibody (termed Ig for immunoglobulin), the maturing B cells and to a greater extent their plasma cell descendants make and secrete an intact antibody, initially IgM but after class switch recombinations, either IgG, IgA, IgE, or IgD. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the cited gene changes can go awry in plasma cells by, for example, placing a gene that ordinarily controls cell growth adjacent to the normally highly active antibody gene promotor thereby creating a cancer-causing oncogene or, more commonly, by forming extra chromosomes (see trisomy) or chromosomes that have deleted or repetitive sections, any of which such changes may promote malignancy in more complex and less well understood ways. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells prepare for cell division by making some of the enzymes required during the division. (wikipedia.org)
  • The enzyme is not set free from cells undergoing normal division where the cells have a special mechanism to degrade the proteins no longer needed after the cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • Of the three B cell subsets, FO B cells preferentially undergo T cell-dependent activation while MZ B cells and B1 B cells preferentially undergo T cell-independent activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antigens that activate B cells with the help of T-cell are known as T cell-dependent (TD) antigens and include foreign proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once a BCR binds a TD antigen, the antigen is taken up into the B cell through receptor-mediated endocytosis, degraded, and presented to T cells as peptide pieces in complex with MHC-II molecules on the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • T helper (TH) cells, typically follicular T helper (TFH) cells, that were activated with the same antigen recognize and bind these MHC-II-peptide complexes through their T cell receptor (TCR). (wikipedia.org)
  • Adoptive cell transfer (ACT) is the transfer of cells into a patient. (wikipedia.org)
  • By 2010, doctors had begun experimental treatments for leukemia patients using CD19-targeted T cells with added DNA to stimulate cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antigen CD19 appears only on B cells, which go awry in lymphoma and leukemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2017, researchers announced the first use of donor cells (rather than the patients' own cells) to defeat leukemia in two infants for whom other treatments had failed. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fundamental driver of these hypereosinophilic (or uncommonly eosinophilic) disorders is the mutation which increases the proliferation, survival, and further mutation of cells descendant from the originally mutated cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • while the leukemic cells themselves are derived from white blood cell precursors, they have no infection-fighting capacity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other chemotherapy agents, specifically epipodophyllotoxins and anthracyclines, have also been associated with treatment-related leukemias, which are often associated with specific chromosomal abnormalities in the leukemic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transcription
  • ETV6 (i.e. translocation-Ets-leukemia virus) protein is a transcription factor that in humans is encoded by the ETV6 (previously known as TEL) gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, a single transcription unit separated by 2 internally transcribed spacers encodes a precursor, 45S. (wikipedia.org)
  • proliferative diseases
  • The present disclosure provides 4-pyrimidineamine compounds having antiproliferative activity, compositions comprising the compounds and methods of using the compounds to inhibit cellular proliferation and to treat proliferative diseases such as tumorigenic cancers. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • tyrosine kinase
  • The product of PDGFRA, platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRA), is a tyrosine kinase receptor of the RTK class III. (wikipedia.org)
  • When bound by its proper ligand, Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), it [tyrosine kinase]] becomes active in phosphorylating proteins that, among other functions, promote cell growth and proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • FIP1L1-PDGFRA fusion proteins retain PDGFRA-related Tyrosine kinase activity but, unlike PDGFRA, their tyrosine kinase is constitutive, i.e. continuously active: the fusion proteins lack the intact protein's 3'-end that includes its juxtamembrane domain which normally blocks tyrosine kinase activity unless PDGFRA is bound to its activating ligand, platelet-derived growth factor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Burkitt
  • Central nervous system (CNS) symptoms such cranial neuropathies due to meningeal infiltration are identified in less than 10% of adults and less than 5% of children, particularly mature B-cell ALL (Burkitt leukemia) at presentation. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptor
  • CD3ζ, also known as T-cell receptor zeta, which together with T-cell receptor and CD3γ, δ , ε chain, forms the TCR-CD3 complex. (creative-biolabs.com)
  • In humans, an interstitial chromosomal deletion of about 800 kilobases at 4q12 deletes the CHIC2 gene (i.e.cysteine rich hydrophobic domain 2 gene) to create an in-frame fusion of the FIP1L1 gene with the platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha gene (PGDFRA) gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the BCR can bind strongly to self-antigen, then the B cell undergoes one of four fates: clonal deletion, receptor editing, anergy, or ignorance (B cell ignores signal and continues development). (wikipedia.org)
  • B cell activation is enhanced through the activity of CD21, a surface receptor in complex with surface proteins CD19 and CD81 (all three are collectively known as the B cell coreceptor complex). (wikipedia.org)
  • In many clinical settings, however, studies on the T cell receptor and IL-5 are not available and therefore not routine parts of the diagnostic work-up or criteria for the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene expression
  • The proteasomal degradation pathway is essential for many cellular processes, including the cell cycle, the regulation of gene expression, and responses to oxidative stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • mRNA
  • However, alternative splicing of its Precursor mRNA results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct FIP1L1 protein isoforms. (wikipedia.org)
  • FIP1L1 is a subunit of the cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor subunit 1 (CPSF1) complex that polyadenylates the 3' end of precursor mRNAs (pre-mRNA) (see CPSF). (wikipedia.org)
  • renal
  • The L249P kindred also had one family member with renal cell carcinoma and another family member with Duodenal cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • erythroid
  • Primary Objective: To evaluate the erythroid response rate as measured by rate of red blood cell transfusion independence [MDS International Working Group (IWG) 2000 Criteria will be applied]. (stanford.edu)
  • stem
  • 10. The aptamer according to any preceding claim, wherein the EpCAM+ cell(s) are cancer stem cell(s). (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 13. The aptamer according to any one of claims 9 to 11, wherein the cell is a breast cancer stem cell, a prostate cancer stem cell, a pancreatic cancer stem cell, a colon cancer stem cell, a liver cancer stem cell, a lung cancer stem cell, an ovarian cancer stem cell, or a head and neck cancer stem cell. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 19. A method for isolating, purifying or enriching a EpCAM expressing cell(s) and/or cancer stem cell(s) from a biological sample obtained from a subject, the method comprising contacting the cell with an RNA aptamer according to any one of claims 1 to 13 or the diagnostic agent according to claim 14 or 15. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Stem cell transplantation may be used if the disease recurs following standard treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • People may than go on to receive additional chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a stem cell transplant. (wikipedia.org)
  • neuroblastoma
  • As of 2015 the technique had expanded to treat cervical cancer, lymphoma, leukemia, bile duct cancer and neuroblastoma and in 2016, lung cancer, breast cancer, sarcoma and melanoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumors
  • More recently, the addition of OCT3/4 and SALL4 has increased sensitivity for immunohistochemical detection of germ cell tumors. (stanford.edu)
  • Although cyclinA2 is a sensitive marker of seminomas and embryonal carcinomas (98%), its specificity is lower if focal and weak staining of nongerm cell tumors is considered positive. (stanford.edu)
  • binds
  • 9. The aptamer according to any preceding claim, wherein the aptamer specifically binds to EpCAM + cell(s). (freepatentsonline.com)
  • At the SLO, B cell activation begins when the B cell binds to an antigen via its BCR. (wikipedia.org)
  • When a BCR binds an antigen tagged with a fragment of the C3 complement protein, CD21 binds the C3 fragment, co-ligates with the bound BCR, and signals are transduced through CD19 and CD81 to lower the activation threshold of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • analyses
  • The human miR-16 precursor was discovered through detailed expression profile and Karyotype analyses of patients by Calin and colleagues. (wikipedia.org)