• mammalian
  • Subsequently, western blot analyses evidenced significantly increased mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activity, a major regulator of translation and cell growth, in Hccs+/- hearts compared to controls. (ahajournals.org)
  • It was harder to get food in the hot savannas and as mammalian brains are prone to overheating - 5 or 6 °C rise in temperature can lead to heatstroke - so there was a need for the development of better heat regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • maternal blood
  • There is relatively high pressure as the maternal blood fills intervillous space through these spiral arteries bathes the fetal villi in blood, allowing an exchange of gases to take place. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans and other hemochorial placentals, the maternal blood comes into direct contact with the fetal chorion, though no fluid is exchanged. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • To clarify its role for compensatory growth of the Hccs+/- myocardium, we inhibited mTOR in fetal and neonatal mice by rapamycin treatment of pregnant dams. (ahajournals.org)
  • The growth deficits in the F1 offspring resolved following separation from the dam and cessation of exposure in male mice, but did not resolve in female mice up to six weeks of age. (mblwhoilibrary.org)
  • birth
  • Birth outcomes, the growth of the F1 offspring, and health of the dams were assessed by a variety of measurements. (mblwhoilibrary.org)
  • However, exposure during the in utero and postnatal period resulted in significant growth deficits in the offspring after birth, which was principally a result of decreased nutrients in the dam's breast milk. (mblwhoilibrary.org)
  • The birth of a child is a fascinating time of growth and discovery. (firstbabymall.com)
  • Growth delays continue after birth throughout childhood and adolescence, ultimately leading to a short stature. (wikipedia.org)
  • First, the diagnosis will vary depending on whether the Bochdalek hernia was found during fetal development or after birth. (wikipedia.org)
  • The study focuses on five primary areas of research: Growth and physical development Behavioral and cognitive development Asthma and atopy Diseases in childhood Health and healthcare The children form a prenatally recruited birth cohort that will be followed until young adulthood. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • The survivin protein is expressed highly in most human tumours and fetal tissue, but is completely absent in terminally differentiated cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Effects mediated by the AT2 receptor are suggested to include inhibition of cell growth, fetal tissue development, modulation of extracellular matrix, neuronal regeneration, apoptosis, cellular differentiation, and maybe vasodilation and left ventricular hypertrophy. (wikipedia.org)
  • hormones
  • Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF-2) is one of three protein hormones that share structural similarity to insulin. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the somatotropin/prolactin family of hormones, playing an important role in growth control. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alternative splicing generates additional isoforms of each of the five growth hormones, leading to further diversity and potential for specialization. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vicki Rubian Sara AO, FTSE, FAA (born 17 September 1946) is an Australian endocrinologist, who specialises in research into growth hormones and foetal brain development. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • Genetic evidence also supports this notion, demonstrating that around 1.2 million years ago there was a strong evolutionary pressure which acted on the development of dark skin in early members of the genus Homo. (wikipedia.org)
  • thyroid
  • This new research found that thyroid hormone levels impair the growth and development the fetal pancreas by affecting the number and rate of cell division of the beta cells. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Figuring out the full picture of how thyroid hormone influences the fetal pancreas will help ensure the health of babies with congenital thyroid hormone disorders and those born to mothers with thyroid hormone disorders. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Cretinism is a condition of severely stunted physical and mental growth owing to untreated congenital deficiency of thyroid hormone (congenital hypothyroidism) usually owing to maternal hypothyroidism. (wikipedia.org)
  • deficiency
  • 8 Fetal-neonatal iron deficiency causes diminished auditory recognition memory in infants, a reflection of its impact on the developing hippocampus. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Mutations in this gene lead to placental growth hormone/lactogen deficiency. (wikipedia.org)
  • Iodine deficiency results in the impairments in varying degrees of physical and mental development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dwarfism may also be caused by malnutrition or other hormonal deficiencies, such as insufficient growth hormone secretion, hypopituitarism, decreased secretion of growth hormone-releasing hormone, deficient growth hormone receptor activity and downstream causes, such as insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) deficiency. (wikipedia.org)
  • apoptosis
  • This has been shown by disruption of survivin induction pathways leading to increase in apoptosis and decrease in tumour growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • whereas
  • From a functional standpoint, PAX3c, PAX3d, and PAX3h stimulate activities such as cell growth whereas PAX3e and PAX3g inhibit these activities, and PAX3a and PAX3b show no activity or inhibit these endpoints. (wikipedia.org)
  • epigenetic
  • Investigations over the past 2 decades have demonstrated that vital epigenetic processes occur in the embryo during the preimplantation stages of development. (publish.csiro.au)
  • pregnant
  • Eventually, results forthcoming from the Generation R Study have to contribute to the development of strategies for optimizing health and healthcare for pregnant women and children. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • Analysis of early gene expression has shown that the loss of Nog expression in the floorplate, notochord, and roofplate results in a progressive failure of ventral development in the CNS and somites. (jax.org)
  • Growth hormone 2 (GH2), also known more commonly as placental growth hormone (PGH) or as growth hormone variant (GH-V), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GH2 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • outcomes
  • Exposure to As at the current U.S. drinking water standard during critical windows of development induces a number of adverse health outcomes for both the dam and offspring. (mblwhoilibrary.org)
  • neural
  • 1998. Noggin-mediated antagonism of BMP signaling is required for growth and patterning of the neural tube and somite. (jax.org)
  • Among the PAX3 target genes, there is one group associated with muscle development and a second group associated with neural and melanocyte development. (wikipedia.org)
  • hormone
  • Its cogener is growth hormone 1 (GH1), or pituitary growth hormone. (wikipedia.org)
  • As in the case of its pituitary counterpart, growth hormone 1, the predominant isoform of this particular family member shows similar somatogenic activity, with reduced lactogenic activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • life
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a low-protein diet during fetal life on the passive mechanical properties of a postural muscle (soleus) and a nonpostural muscle (extensor digitorum longus, EDL). (scielo.br)
  • Poor length growth is apparent as early as the first year of life. (wikipedia.org)
  • Generation R is a prospective, population based cohort study from fetal life until young adulthood in a multi-ethnic urban population in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. (wikipedia.org)
  • body
  • It is also good for healthy body growth, fetal development and vision. (hubpages.com)
  • In the heat of the savannas, better cooling mechanisms were required, which were achieved through the loss of body hair and development of more efficient perspiration. (wikipedia.org)
  • The loss of body hair led to the development of dark skin, which acted as a mechanism of natural selection against folate depletion, and to a lesser extent, DNA damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • risk
  • Low cobalamin is associated with an increased fetal risk of low lean mass and excess adiposity, increased insulin resistance, and impaired neurodevelopment. (bloodjournal.org)
  • shown
  • Insulin-like growth factor 2 has been shown to interact with IGFBP3 and transferrin. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a previous study, we have shown modifications in both contractile and series elastic properties of rat muscles undernourished during fetal development. (scielo.br)