• hypothalamus
  • In some cases, the presence of inflammation within the pituitary gland leads to interruption of dopamine flow from the hypothalamus into the pituitary causing high levels of the hormone prolactin and, often as a consequence, milk production from the breasts (in older girls and women). (wikipedia.org)
  • The hypophyseal portal system is a system of blood vessels in the microcirculation at the base of the brain, connecting the hypothalamus with the anterior pituitary. (wikipedia.org)
  • Its main function is to quickly transport and exchange hormones between the hypothalamus arcuate nucleus and anterior pituitary gland. (wikipedia.org)
  • The capillaries in the portal system are fenestrated (have many small channels with high vascular permeability) which allows a rapid exchange between the hypothalamus and the pituitary. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hormone-exchanging blood vessels between the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland, similar to those of the hypophyseal portal system, can be observed in early developmental stages of the fetus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The following is a list of hormones that rely on the hypophyseal portal system to indirectly mediate their function by acting as a means of transportation from various nuclei of the hypothalamus to the anterior pituitary. (wikipedia.org)
  • visual field defects
  • An exaggerated "physiological" trophic response to prolonged hypothyroidism presenting with visual field defects is well described but is, like pituitary carcinoma, very rare. (bmj.com)
  • craniopharyngioma
  • Craniopharyngioma is a cancer which arises in the pituitary gland, in tissue originally found in the embryo. (encyclopedia.com)
  • If originating superior to the optic chiasm, more commonly in a craniopharyngioma of the pituitary stalk, the visual field defect will first appear as bitemporal inferior quadrantanopia, if originating inferior to the optic chiasm the visual field defect will first appear as bitemporal superior quadrantanopia. (wikipedia.org)
  • headaches
  • Follow up and optimisation of pituitary hormone replacement is also relatively straightforward, but management of visual impairment, reduced fertility, coarsened facial features, arthritis, obesity, headaches, and obstructive sleep apnoea is often much more troublesome. (bmj.com)
  • Apoplexy, in addition to sudden headaches and rapidly worsening visual loss, may also be associated with double vision that results from compression of the nerves in the adjacent cavernous sinus that control the eye muscles. (wikipedia.org)
  • endocrine glands
  • Recent research has focused on a defect at the CTLA-4 gene which, coupled with other factors, may result in autoimmunity primarily focusing on certain endocrine glands including the pituitary and thyroid. (wikipedia.org)
  • inflammation
  • Treatment==inflammation resolves usually after several months of glucocorticoid treatment A large scale study on cadavers done in Sweden, performed biopsies on hundreds of pituitary glands. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diagnosis
  • The diagnosis of pituitary disease is generally uncomplicated. (bmj.com)
  • In this brief overview, the presentation, classification, and general investigation of pituitary lesions is followed by a discussion of the diagnosis and management of specific secretory subtypes. (bmj.com)
  • Diagnosis involves blood tests to measure growth hormone levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diagnosis is by measuring growth hormone after a person has drunk glucose or by measuring insulin-like growth factor I in the blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • microadenomas
  • Gadolinium enhancement of pituitary MRI can be helpful for small microadenomas. (bmj.com)
  • A majority of pituitary microadenomas often remain undiagnosed and those that are diagnosed are often found as an incidental finding, and are referred to as incidentalomas. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neuroendocrine
  • Examination of her tumor after its removal revealed several things, says Ronald Lechan, MD , Chief of the Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism and Co-Director of the Neuroendocrine and Pituitary Program at Tufts MC. (tuftsmedicalcenter.org)