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  • mRNA
  • From this discovery, cloning was born and he has extended his research to the understanding of mRNA translation and gene regulation. (biologists.org)
  • In many animals such as Drosophila and Xenopus, the mid blastula transition (MBT) is a crucial step in development during which the maternal mRNA is degraded and control over development is passed to the embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • In many organisms the development of the embryo up to this point and for the early part of the blastula stage is controlled by maternal mRNA, so called because it was produced in the egg prior to fertilization and is therefore exclusively from the mother. (wikipedia.org)
  • These two processes shift the control of the embryo from the maternal mRNA to the nuclei. (wikipedia.org)
  • SCNT
  • Therapeutic cloning, also known as somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is permitted in Australia under a licence issued by the NHMRC Embryo Research Licensing Committee. (nhmrc.gov.au)
  • In this type of cloning, known as somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) the nucleus is removed from an egg, (donated by any female) and the subject's own DNA is then fused with the egg to "fertilize" or jump start it into life. (lifeissues.net)
  • He supported the use of SCNT for the production of personalised stem cell therapies and for the study of human diseases and the use of cybrid embryo production to overcome the lack of human eggs available for research. (wikipedia.org)
  • vertebrate
  • In the vertebrate embryo, a rhombomere is a transiently divided segment of the developing neural tube, within the hindbrain region (a neuromere) in the area that will eventually become the rhombencephalon. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene expression
  • Cell type may be determined according to several criteria: location in the developing embryo, gene expression as indicated by protein and nucleic acid markers and surface antigens, and also position on the embryogenic tree. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the blastula stage of development, a significant amount of activity occurs within the early embryo to establish cell polarity, cell specification, axis formation, and regulate gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the first one, first messenger cross through the cell membrane, binding and activating intracellular receptors localized at nucleus or cytosol, which then act as transcriptional factors regulating directly gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each pathway leads to the activation of transcription factors which enter the nucleus to alter gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • cues
  • In the forelimb initiation and limb growth in mice, axial (lengthwise) cues from the intermediate mesoderm produces Tbx5, which subsequently signals to the same mesoderm to produce Fgf10. (wikipedia.org)
  • When there is a predator, vibration cues cause the embryos to hatch prematurely, in order to escape attack. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • Unlike previous attempts to clone monkeys, the donated nuclei came from fetal cells, not embryonic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • They extracted nuclei from the fibroblasts of an aborted fetal monkey (a crab-eating macaque or Macaca fascicularis) and inserted them into egg cells (ova) that had had their own nuclei removed. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this video article, we describe our technique for targeted laser ablation of kidney nephron cells in the zebrafish embryo kidney, or pronephros. (jove.com)
  • Once an embryo has more than 12 cells it is not possible to determine whether any individual cell has divided within a 24-hour period. (nhmrc.gov.au)
  • Scheme of the formation of embryo cells of cereals with the base chromosome numbers multiple of "7" at the initial stage of development, with the critical number of 588 cells. (intechopen.com)
  • The arrows in a circle indicate the direction of flows, the shaded rectangles - the location of the cells, and the shape of the envelope lines around the perimeter of the shaded rectangles - the shape of the embryo. (intechopen.com)
  • Embryonic stem (ES) cells are created by growing young embryos in artificial culture conditions. (blogspot.in)
  • Embryomics is the identification, characterization and study of the diverse cell types which arise during embryogenesis, especially as this relates to the location and developmental history of cells in the embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cell markers consist of select RNAs and proteins present inside, and surface antigens present on the surface of, the cells making up the embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • As an embryo develops from a fertilized egg, the single egg cell splits into many cells, which grow in number and migrate to the appropriate locations inside the embryo at appropriate times during development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each of the cells in an embryo contains the same genome, characteristic of the species, but the level of activity of each of the many thousands of genes that make up the complete genome varies with, and determines, a particular cell's type (e.g. neuron, bone cell, skin cell, muscle cell, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • The entire process of embryogenesis can be described with the aid of two maps: an embryo map, a temporal sequence of 3-dimensional images of the developing embryo, showing the location of cells of the many cell types present in the embryo at a given time, and an embryogenic tree, a diagram showing how the cell types are derived from each other during embryogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Embryo development begins with a sperm fertilizing an egg to become a zygote which undergoes many cleavages to develop into a ball of cells called a morula. (wikipedia.org)
  • The addition of the two growth phases into the cell cycle allows for the cells to increase in size, as up to this point the blastomeres undergo reductive divisions in which the overall size of the embryo does not increase, but more cells are created. (wikipedia.org)
  • Paracrine signaling of growth factors between nearby cells has been shown to exacerbate carcinogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • These embryos had been created by in vitro fertilization (IVF) for fertility treatments. (blogspot.in)
  • Margaret Adaline Reed Lewis (1881-1970) was an American cell biologist and embryologist who made contributions to cancer research and cell culture techniques, and was likely the first person to successfully grow mammalian tissue in vitro. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1908, Margaret Reed researched in Berlin in Max Hartmann's lab where she performed probably the first in vitro mammalian cell culture with guinea pig bone marrow by explanting the bone marrow and placing it into a nutrient-rich agar produced by fellow lab researcher Rhoda Erdmann and incubating the sample. (wikipedia.org)
  • sperm
  • When the sperm fertilizes the egg, the sperm nucleus and centrosomes are deposited within the egg, which causes a cytoplasmic flux resulting in the movement of the sperm pronucleus and centrosomes towards one pole. (wikipedia.org)
  • The centrosomes deposited by the sperm seem to be responsible for the establishment of the posterior pole within the one cell embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • fetal
  • The issue arises in a number of fields including science, religion, philosophy, and law, and is most acute in debates relating to abortion, stem cell research, reproductive rights, and fetal rights. (wikipedia.org)
  • Developmental Biology
  • Flat Mount Preparation for Observation and Analysis of Zebrafish Embryo Specimens Stained by Whole Mount In situ Hybridization Christina N. Cheng 1 , Yue Li 1 , Amanda N. Marra 1 , Valerie Verdun 1 , Rebecca A. Wingert 1 1 Department of Biological Sciences, University of Notre Dame The zebrafish embryo is an excellent model for developmental biology research. (jove.com)
  • stages
  • Led by NYU School of Medicine, a research team fused together chromosomes in stages until the 6,000 genes in a species of one-celled fungus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, were contained in two massive chromosomes instead of the naturally occurring 16 in each cell nucleus. (newkerala.com)
  • tissue
  • I started work with the tissue called endoderm in the embryo. (biologists.org)
  • As a result, this couple's greatest impact on embryology and cell biology in the twentieth century was teaching later generations of biologists the basic factors involved in tissue culture based on what they had learned from their research. (wikipedia.org)
  • In her work with chick embryos, Margaret Lewis studied connective tissue formation within the tissues as well as outside of an environment where factors involved in coagulation are present. (wikipedia.org)
  • artificial
  • She is the first "cloned" primate by artificial twinning, which is a much less complex procedure than the DNA transfer used for the creation of Zhong Zhong and Hua Hua. (wikipedia.org)
  • observations
  • With so many avenues opened by cell culture to explore, Margaret Lewis and her husband diverged in their area of study, with Margaret Lewis choosing to focus on microbiological problems, which involved close observations of chick embryo intestines reacting to typhoid bacilli in the medium in which it was grown. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • However, instead of each branch on this tree representing a species, as in the tree of life, each branch represents a particular cell type present in the embryo at a particular time. (wikipedia.org)
  • zygote
  • These proteins are initially distributed uniformly throughout the zygote and then become polarized with the creation of the posterior pole. (wikipedia.org)
  • early
  • This protocol describes a methodology to create haploid zebrafish embryos that can be utilized for forward screen strategies to identify recessive mutations in genes essential for early embryogenesis. (jove.com)
  • Only when the blastocoele is formed does the early embryo become a blastula. (wikipedia.org)
  • The blastula stage of early embryo development begins with the appearance of the blastocoele. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diagram
  • The embryogenic tree is a diagram which shows the temporal development of each of the cell lines in the embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • stage
  • After fertilization, events are already occurring in the one cell stage embryo to allow for the first asymmetric cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • development
  • Read more about his research into this phenomenon, also known as "handedness," which plays an important role in embryonic development as well as in genetic diseases and birth defects. (pewtrusts.org)
  • This can be either for growth and development, or for replenishment and repair. (nhmrc.gov.au)
  • mice were slow to reach normal milestones of growth and development, while others were grossly obese. (lifeissues.net)
  • Campbell believed all potential stem cell populations should be used for both basic and applied research which may provide basic scientific knowledge and lead to the development of cell therapies. (wikipedia.org)
  • rapidly
  • In 1993, the United States President Bill Clinton had lifted an existing moratorium on government funding for embryonic research, only to rapidly reverse the order under public pressure. (blogspot.in)
  • The embryo map is a sequence of 3-D images, or slices of 3-D images, of the developing embryo which, if viewed rapidly in temporal order, forms a time-lapse view of the growing embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • create
  • Since the Lewises main interest was microscopic cell structures, their objective was to create optically clear media, which led to the creation of the Locke-Lewis solution. (wikipedia.org)
  • If a hypothetical nucleus is too small, the energy that would be released by forming its volume is not enough to create its surface, and nucleation does not proceed. (wikipedia.org)
  • structure
  • In addition, it possesses a thick biconcave disc shape, an embryonic cartilage with a small mineralized nucleus structure, and ginglymus and monoaxial penultimate phalange. (wikipedia.org)
  • shown
  • Vestibular nuclei have been shown to span all the rhombomeres, some correlating with the boundaries of the rhombomeres. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptors
  • The highly conserved receptors and pathways can be organized into four major families based on similar structures: Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family, Hedgehog family, Wnt family, and TGF-β superfamily. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phenotype and survival of mice after knockout of some FGFR genes: Paracrine signaling through fibroblast growth factors and its respective receptors utilizes the receptor tyrosine pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • vertebrate
  • In the vertebrate embryo, a rhombomere is a transiently divided segment of the developing neural tube, within the hindbrain region (a neuromere) in the area that will eventually become the rhombencephalon. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor growth
  • Our study found that when loaded with anticancer drugs, these nanotrains inhibited tumor growth in mice more than in those that received drugs injected freely into the bloodstream. (regenerativemedicine.net)
  • In addition to longer survival and inhibited tumor growth, the mice that were treated with nanotrain drug delivery experienced less weight loss and are in better condition physically than both the mice that received injected therapy and the mouse control group that received no treatment. (regenerativemedicine.net)
  • Angiogenesis is critical during normal physiological development, but it also occurs in adults during inflammation, wound healing, ischemia, and in pathological conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, hemangioma, and tumor growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • The role of matrix metalloproteases and TIMPs in several pathological conditions including angiogenesis, tumor growth, and metastasis has been investigated and very well described. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells in the dominant population have a similar potential for initiating tumor growth (Fig. 4). (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • Although some chimeras do arise naturally, most are produced experimentally, either by mixing cells of very early embryos or by tissue grafting in late embryos or adults. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Most glia are derived from ectodermal tissue of the developing embryo, in particular the neural tube and crest. (wikipedia.org)
  • Margaret Adaline Reed Lewis (1881-1970) was an American cell biologist and embryologist who made contributions to cancer research and cell culture techniques, and was likely the first person to successfully grow mammalian tissue in vitro. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a result, this couple's greatest impact on embryology and cell biology in the twentieth century was teaching later generations of biologists the basic factors involved in tissue culture based on what they had learned from their research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Experimental
  • In order to understand the phenomenon, the authors, including Biosciences researchers Professor James Wakefield, PhD student Daniel Hayward, and Experimental Officer in Image Analysis, Dr. Jeremy Metz, combined highly detailed microscopy and image analysis with genetic and protein manipulation of fruit fly embryos. (regenerativemedicine.net)
  • stem
  • The study of the blastula and of cell specification has many implications on the field of stem cell research as well as the continued improvement of fertility treatments. (wikipedia.org)
  • This functional heterogeneity among cancer cells has led to the creation of multiple propagation models to account for heterogeneity and differences in tumor-regenerative capacity: the cancer stem cell (CSC) and stochastic model. (wikipedia.org)
  • Within the cancer population of the tumors there are cancer stem cells (CSC) that are tumorigenic cells and are biologically distinct from other subpopulations They have two defining features: their long-term ability to self-renew and their capacity to differentiate into progeny that is non-tumorigenic but still contributes to the growth of the tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • He supported the use of SCNT for the production of personalised stem cell therapies and for the study of human diseases and the use of cybrid embryo production to overcome the lack of human eggs available for research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Campbell believed all potential stem cell populations should be used for both basic and applied research which may provide basic scientific knowledge and lead to the development of cell therapies. (wikipedia.org)
  • findings
  • These findings recommend that the mechanised properties of the matrix environment play a significant function in controlling the growth and the morphological properties of cancers cells, and that the solidity profile is certainly an inbuilt property or home of each cancers cell series. (techtasys.com)
  • cells
  • They develop spontaneously from germ cells in the gonads of certain mouse strains, or from cells in early embryos transplanted to ectopic sites. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In this research we possess modified a technique for culturing cells on biologically relevant smooth substrates using ECM-conjugated polyacrylamide (Pennsylvania) gel that can period the tightness range of 100 PaC150,000 Pennsylvania. (techtasys.com)
  • This program was utilized to determine how adjustments in the solidity of the ECM modulate the natural properties of growth cells, including development, morphology, and migratory properties. (techtasys.com)
  • Without the ability to grow cells in the lab, the fast progress in disciplines like cell biology, immunology, or cancer research would be unthinkable. (leica-microsystems.com)
  • Moreover, you can find basic information about the correct growth conditions and what kind of microscope you need to watch your cells. (leica-microsystems.com)
  • New research by scientists at the University of Exeter has shown that cells demonstrate remarkable flexibility and versatility when it comes to how they divide a finding with potential links to the underlying causes of many cancers. (regenerativemedicine.net)
  • Embryo development begins with a sperm fertilizing an egg to become a zygote which undergoes many cleavages to develop into a ball of cells called a morula. (wikipedia.org)
  • The addition of the two growth phases into the cell cycle allows for the cells to increase in size, as up to this point the blastomeres undergo reductive divisions in which the overall size of the embryo does not increase, but more cells are created. (wikipedia.org)
  • The team used two enzymes to erase the epigenetic memory of the transferred nuclei of being somatic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Microglial cells are small relative to macroglial cells, with changing shapes and oblong nuclei. (wikipedia.org)
  • Current research involving glial cells in the human cochlea proposes that these cells are the common precursor to both mature Schwann cells and satellite glial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The clonal evolution model, which occurs in both the CSC model and stochastic model, postulates that mutant tumor cells with a growth advantage outproliferate others. (wikipedia.org)
  • Campbell had a key role in the creation of Dolly, as he had the crucial idea of co-ordinating the stages of the "cell cycle" of the donor somatic cells and the recipient eggs and using diploid quiscent or "G0" arrested somatic cells as nuclear donors. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • The two gametes fuse during fertilization to produce DNA replication and the creation of a single-celled zygote which includes genetic material from both gametes. (wikipedia.org)
  • University
  • Concepts in our minds from Luke Skywalker to our grandmother - are represented by their own distinct group of neurons, according to new research involving a University of Leicester neuroscientist. (regenerativemedicine.net)
  • The research, by neuroscientist Professor Rodrigo Quian Quiroga from the University of Leicester Centre for Systems Neuroscience together with Professor Itzhak Fried, of the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) David Geffen School of Medicine, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center and Tel Aviv University, and Professor Christof Koch, of the California Institute of Technology and Allen Institute for Brain Science, Seattle, is featured in a recent article. (regenerativemedicine.net)
  • In 1983 Campbell was awarded the Marie Curie Research Scholarship, which led to postgraduate studies and later his PhD from the University of Sussex (Brighton, England, UK). (wikipedia.org)
  • energy
  • If a hypothetical nucleus is too small, the energy that would be released by forming its volume is not enough to create its surface, and nucleation does not proceed. (wikipedia.org)
  • shown
  • Vestibular nuclei have been shown to span all the rhombomeres, some correlating with the boundaries of the rhombomeres. (wikipedia.org)
  • technique
  • Injection chimeras are produced by a technique in which a blastocyst of the host mouse strain of mouse embryos is removed from its zona pellucida and held on a suction pipette. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • study
  • With so many avenues opened by cell culture to explore, Margaret Lewis and her husband diverged in their area of study, with Margaret Lewis choosing to focus on microbiological problems, which involved close observations of chick embryo intestines reacting to typhoid bacilli in the medium in which it was grown. (wikipedia.org)
  • cancer
  • In 1950, Richard Doll published research in the British Medical Journal showing a close link between smoking and lung cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • it is also essential for research in bio-medical fields such as cancer, and other diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • factors
  • In the first one, first messenger cross through the cell membrane, binding and activating intracellular receptors localized at nucleus or cytosol, which then act as transcriptional factors regulating directly gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • single
  • After a short period of laboratory culture, during which the aggregate develops into a single large blastocyst, the embryo is returned to a hormone-primed foster mother. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • similar
  • The soft-plates had been made up of five areas, each comprising two columns of collagen-coated Pennsylvania gel of a particular flexible modulus (Fig. 1), 150 Pennsylvania and 1200 Pennsylvania (similar to lung and breasts), 2400 Pennsylvania and 4800 Pennsylvania (similar to a mammary growth), and 9600 Pennsylvania (approximating striated muscle mass). (techtasys.com)
  • Mendel's work went largely unnoticed after its first publication in 1866, but was rediscovered in the late 19th century by Hugo de Vries, Carl Correns, and Erich von Tschermak, who (claimed to have) reached similar conclusions in their own research. (wikipedia.org)
  • brain
  • The research establishes then foundational, approximate to avoid and no much includes Taylor blood-brain in the Float course. (ecombinatii.ro)
  • medium
  • The Lewises developed a growth medium called the Locke-Lewis solution and jointly received the Gerhard Gold Medal from the Pathological Society of Philadelphia. (wikipedia.org)
  • media
  • Since the Lewises main interest was microscopic cell structures, their objective was to create optically clear media, which led to the creation of the Locke-Lewis solution. (wikipedia.org)