• mRNA
  • In many animals such as Drosophila and Xenopus, the mid blastula transition (MBT) is a crucial step in development during which the maternal mRNA is degraded and control over development is passed to the embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • In many organisms the development of the embryo up to this point and for the early part of the blastula stage is controlled by maternal mRNA, so called because it was produced in the egg prior to fertilization and is therefore exclusively from the mother. (wikipedia.org)
  • These two processes shift the control of the embryo from the maternal mRNA to the nuclei. (wikipedia.org)
  • vertebrate
  • In the vertebrate embryo, a rhombomere is a transiently divided segment of the developing neural tube, within the hindbrain region (a neuromere) in the area that will eventually become the rhombencephalon. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene expression
  • Cell type may be determined according to several criteria: location in the developing embryo, gene expression as indicated by protein and nucleic acid markers and surface antigens, and also position on the embryogenic tree. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the blastula stage of development, a significant amount of activity occurs within the early embryo to establish cell polarity, cell specification, axis formation, and regulate gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the first one, first messenger cross through the cell membrane, binding and activating intracellular receptors localized at nucleus or cytosol, which then act as transcriptional factors regulating directly gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each pathway leads to the activation of transcription factors which enter the nucleus to alter gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • cues
  • In the forelimb initiation and limb growth in mice, axial (lengthwise) cues from the intermediate mesoderm produces Tbx5, which subsequently signals to the same mesoderm to produce Fgf10. (wikipedia.org)
  • When there is a predator, vibration cues cause the embryos to hatch prematurely, in order to escape attack. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • They extracted nuclei from the fibroblasts of an aborted fetal monkey (a crab-eating macaque or Macaca fascicularis) and inserted them into egg cells (ova) that had had their own nuclei removed. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this video article, we describe our technique for targeted laser ablation of kidney nephron cells in the zebrafish embryo kidney, or pronephros. (jove.com)
  • Once an embryo has more than 12 cells it is not possible to determine whether any individual cell has divided within a 24-hour period. (nhmrc.gov.au)
  • They are derived from the primordial germ cells, which occur in a specific part of the embryo/fetus called the gonadal ridge. (orthodoxwiki.org)
  • Scheme of the formation of embryo cells of cereals with the base chromosome numbers multiple of "7" at the initial stage of development, with the critical number of 588 cells. (intechopen.com)
  • The arrows in a circle indicate the direction of flows, the shaded rectangles - the location of the cells, and the shape of the envelope lines around the perimeter of the shaded rectangles - the shape of the embryo. (intechopen.com)
  • Such divisions either create more genetically identical cells during growth (mitosis), or further divide a parental cell's chromosomes in rounds (meiosis) that yield sex cells, which can then combine with other sex cells to create new organisms. (newkerala.com)
  • This single cell divides prolifically to give rise to the embryo, where progressively cells exit cell cycle, specialize for a particular function and differentiate. (blogspot.in)
  • Embryonic stem (ES) cells are created by growing young embryos in artificial culture conditions. (blogspot.in)
  • In this technique, nuclei from cells of an early embryo are extracted using a very fine glass pipette and placed in egg cells that have been shed by a female amphibian such as a frog (after removing the unfertilized egg cell nucleus). (encyclopedia.com)
  • Embryomics is the identification, characterization and study of the diverse cell types which arise during embryogenesis, especially as this relates to the location and developmental history of cells in the embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cell markers consist of select RNAs and proteins present inside, and surface antigens present on the surface of, the cells making up the embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • As an embryo develops from a fertilized egg, the single egg cell splits into many cells, which grow in number and migrate to the appropriate locations inside the embryo at appropriate times during development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each of the cells in an embryo contains the same genome, characteristic of the species, but the level of activity of each of the many thousands of genes that make up the complete genome varies with, and determines, a particular cell's type (e.g. neuron, bone cell, skin cell, muscle cell, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • The entire process of embryogenesis can be described with the aid of two maps: an embryo map, a temporal sequence of 3-dimensional images of the developing embryo, showing the location of cells of the many cell types present in the embryo at a given time, and an embryogenic tree, a diagram showing how the cell types are derived from each other during embryogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Embryo development begins with a sperm fertilizing an egg to become a zygote which undergoes many cleavages to develop into a ball of cells called a morula. (wikipedia.org)
  • The addition of the two growth phases into the cell cycle allows for the cells to increase in size, as up to this point the blastomeres undergo reductive divisions in which the overall size of the embryo does not increase, but more cells are created. (wikipedia.org)
  • Paracrine signaling of growth factors between nearby cells has been shown to exacerbate carcinogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • These embryos had been created by in vitro fertilization (IVF) for fertility treatments. (blogspot.in)
  • Margaret Adaline Reed Lewis (1881-1970) was an American cell biologist and embryologist who made contributions to cancer research and cell culture techniques, and was likely the first person to successfully grow mammalian tissue in vitro. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1908, Margaret Reed researched in Berlin in Max Hartmann's lab where she performed probably the first in vitro mammalian cell culture with guinea pig bone marrow by explanting the bone marrow and placing it into a nutrient-rich agar produced by fellow lab researcher Rhoda Erdmann and incubating the sample. (wikipedia.org)
  • sperm
  • When the sperm fertilizes the egg, the sperm nucleus and centrosomes are deposited within the egg, which causes a cytoplasmic flux resulting in the movement of the sperm pronucleus and centrosomes towards one pole. (wikipedia.org)
  • The centrosomes deposited by the sperm seem to be responsible for the establishment of the posterior pole within the one cell embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • fetal
  • The issue arises in a number of fields including science, religion, philosophy, and law, and is most acute in debates relating to abortion, stem cell research, reproductive rights, and fetal rights. (wikipedia.org)
  • Developmental Biology
  • Flat Mount Preparation for Observation and Analysis of Zebrafish Embryo Specimens Stained by Whole Mount In situ Hybridization Christina N. Cheng 1 , Yue Li 1 , Amanda N. Marra 1 , Valerie Verdun 1 , Rebecca A. Wingert 1 1 Department of Biological Sciences, University of Notre Dame The zebrafish embryo is an excellent model for developmental biology research. (jove.com)
  • tissue
  • I started work with the tissue called endoderm in the embryo. (biologists.org)
  • As a result, this couple's greatest impact on embryology and cell biology in the twentieth century was teaching later generations of biologists the basic factors involved in tissue culture based on what they had learned from their research. (wikipedia.org)
  • In her work with chick embryos, Margaret Lewis studied connective tissue formation within the tissues as well as outside of an environment where factors involved in coagulation are present. (wikipedia.org)
  • donor
  • When they were no longer needed for that purpose, they were donated for research with the informed consent of the donor. (orthodoxwiki.org)
  • Sign up as a monthly donor to the SENS Research Foundation before December 31st, and Josh Triplett, Christophe and Dominique Cornuejols, and Fight Aging! (fightaging.org)
  • artificial
  • She is the first "cloned" primate by artificial twinning, which is a much less complex procedure than the DNA transfer used for the creation of Zhong Zhong and Hua Hua. (wikipedia.org)
  • observations
  • With so many avenues opened by cell culture to explore, Margaret Lewis and her husband diverged in their area of study, with Margaret Lewis choosing to focus on microbiological problems, which involved close observations of chick embryo intestines reacting to typhoid bacilli in the medium in which it was grown. (wikipedia.org)
  • early
  • This protocol describes a methodology to create haploid zebrafish embryos that can be utilized for forward screen strategies to identify recessive mutations in genes essential for early embryogenesis. (jove.com)
  • Only when the blastocoele is formed does the early embryo become a blastula. (wikipedia.org)
  • The blastula stage of early embryo development begins with the appearance of the blastocoele. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • Led by NYU School of Medicine, a research team fused together chromosomes in stages until the 6,000 genes in a species of one-celled fungus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, were contained in two massive chromosomes instead of the naturally occurring 16 in each cell nucleus. (newkerala.com)
  • However, instead of each branch on this tree representing a species, as in the tree of life, each branch represents a particular cell type present in the embryo at a particular time. (wikipedia.org)
  • zygote
  • These proteins are initially distributed uniformly throughout the zygote and then become polarized with the creation of the posterior pole. (wikipedia.org)
  • rapidly
  • In 1993, the United States President Bill Clinton had lifted an existing moratorium on government funding for embryonic research, only to rapidly reverse the order under public pressure. (blogspot.in)
  • The embryo map is a sequence of 3-D images, or slices of 3-D images, of the developing embryo which, if viewed rapidly in temporal order, forms a time-lapse view of the growing embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • development
  • Read more about his research into this phenomenon, also known as "handedness," which plays an important role in embryonic development as well as in genetic diseases and birth defects. (pewtrusts.org)
  • This can be either for growth and development, or for replenishment and repair. (nhmrc.gov.au)
  • Campbell believed all potential stem cell populations should be used for both basic and applied research which may provide basic scientific knowledge and lead to the development of cell therapies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dolly
  • While this was tried many times, it was never successfully accomplished until 1996, in the creation of the sheep Dolly by Ian Wilmut and colleagues in Scotland . (encyclopedia.com)
  • create
  • Since the Lewises main interest was microscopic cell structures, their objective was to create optically clear media, which led to the creation of the Locke-Lewis solution. (wikipedia.org)
  • If a hypothetical nucleus is too small, the energy that would be released by forming its volume is not enough to create its surface, and nucleation does not proceed. (wikipedia.org)
  • shown
  • Vestibular nuclei have been shown to span all the rhombomeres, some correlating with the boundaries of the rhombomeres. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptors
  • The highly conserved receptors and pathways can be organized into four major families based on similar structures: Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family, Hedgehog family, Wnt family, and TGF-β superfamily. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phenotype and survival of mice after knockout of some FGFR genes: Paracrine signaling through fibroblast growth factors and its respective receptors utilizes the receptor tyrosine pathway. (wikipedia.org)