• Genus
  • An updated classification of Progynopserms based on the work by Novíkov & Barabaš-Krasni 2015 with plant taxon authors from Anderson, Anderson & Cleal 2007 Genus †Pertica Kasper & Andrews 1972 Order †Cecropsidales Stubblefield 1969 Family †Cecropsidaceae Stubblefield 1969 Order †Protopityales Nemejc 1963 Family †Protopityaceae Solms-Laubach 1893 Class †Noeggerathiopsida Krysht. (wikipedia.org)
  • Junggaria was a genus of rhyniophyte-like land plants known from fossils found in China in Upper Silurian strata (Přídolí, around 430 to 420 million years ago). (wikipedia.org)
  • David P. Penhallow's generic description of the type genus Zosterophyllum refers to "Aquatic plants with creeping stems, from which arise narrow dichotomous branches and narrow linear leaves of the aspect of Zostera. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ventarura is a genus of extinct vascular plants of the Early Devonian (around 420 to 390 million years ago). (wikipedia.org)
  • Some features, such as bivalved sporangia borne laterally and the anatomy of the xylem, relate this genus to the zosterophylls. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • A species of plants native to the state that are in imminent danger of extinction within the state, the survival of which is unlikely if the causes of a decline in the number of plants continue, and includes all species determined to be endangered or threatened pursuant to the Federal Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended. (usf.edu)
  • Defined as species of plants native to the state that are in rapid decline in the number of plants within the state, but which have not so decreased in such number as to cause them to be endangered. (usf.edu)
  • U.S.) Source - List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants under the provisions of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended. (usf.edu)
  • Plant species designated as FAC or Upland by DEP, but commonly seen in the transition zone in limited numbers. (usf.edu)
  • Plant species commonly found in the deep zone, and designated either FAC or OBL by DEP. (usf.edu)
  • The quantity of insect species surpasses the quantity of vascular plant species. (urbanagsummit.org)
  • Except for rigorously zoophagous species, which happen on greater than 1 just about every plant, plant species may be anticipated to harbor several insect colonies, as is regarded as true in character. (urbanagsummit.org)
  • Invasive species make up the majority of the State's current plant population. (wikipedia.org)
  • The flowering plants, also known as angiosperms, Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta, are the most diverse group of land plants, with 416 families, approximately 13,164 known genera and c. 295,383 known species. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Hemiptera /hɛˈmɪptərə/ or true bugs are an order of insects comprising some 50,000 to 80,000 species of groups such as the cicadas, aphids, planthoppers, leafhoppers, and shield bugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acts on endodermis to prevent growth of roots when exposed to salty conditions Delays cell division Like plants, some fungal species (for example Cercospora rosicola, Botrytis cinerea and Magnaporthe oryzae) have an endogenous biosynthesis pathway for ABA. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are no known species that exist as single cells or as colonies of cells, and the brown algae are the only major group of seaweeds that does not include such forms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Perennial herb species belonging to the dicotyledon group (also known as perennial forbs) are characterized by secondary growth, which shows as a new growth ring added each year to persistent roots. (wikipedia.org)
  • stems
  • The fossils were better-preserved than Dawson's, and showed clearly that these early land plants did indeed consist of generally naked vertical stems arising from similar horizontal structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, current opinion is that the Zosterophylls were terrestrial plants, and Penhallow's "linear leaves" are interpreted as the aerial stems of the plant that had become flattened during fossilization. (wikipedia.org)
  • produces
  • This means that each plant produces either "male flowers" (meaning that they have functional stamens) or "female flowers" (flowers with functional carpels), but not both. (wikipedia.org)
  • At any one time, a dioecious plant produces only functionally staminate or functionally carpellate flowers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Physiology
  • The concentration of hormones required for plant responses are very low (10−6 to 10−5 mol/L). Because of these low concentrations, it has been very difficult to study plant hormones, and only since the late 1970s have scientists been able to start piecing together their effects and relationships to plant physiology. (wikipedia.org)
  • fluids
  • They possessed an inflated frons and a long rostrum (piercing and sucking mouthpart), indicating that they fed on xylem fluids like some other modern hemipterans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plants lack glands to produce and store hormones, because, unlike animals - which have two circulatory systems (lymphatic and cardiovascular) powered by a heart that moves fluids around the body - plants use more passive means to move chemicals around their bodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • fungi
  • Fusarium fungi clog the tree xylem, causing significant wilt and mortality among these beautiful and iconic Hawaiian trees. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phytohormones are found not only in higher plants but in algae, showing similar functions, and in microorganisms, such as unicellular fungi and bacteria, but in these cases they play no hormonal or other immediate physiological role in the producing organism and can, thus, be regarded as secondary metabolites. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are naturally produced within plants, though very similar chemicals are produced by fungi and bacteria that can also affect plant growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • ABA is also produced by some plant pathogenic fungi via a biosynthetic route different from ABA biosynthesis in plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • roots
  • Mycelium enters the roots and travels into the vascular xylem where it starts to produce microconidia, eventually clogging the xylem. (wikipedia.org)
  • Water is constantly transpired from the plant through its stomata to the atmosphere and replaced by soil water taken up by the roots. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Abscisic acid is also produced in the roots in response to decreased soil water potential (which is associated with dry soil) and other situations in which the plant may be under stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • typically
  • More typically, the flower-bearing portion of the plant is sharply distinguished from the foliage-bearing or vegetative portion, and forms a more or less elaborate branch-system called an inflorescence. (wikipedia.org)
  • The diet is typically plant sap, but some hemipterans such as assassin bugs are blood-suckers, and a few are predators. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1985
  • xylem for the following reasons: between 15% and 36% of the dry weight of wood consists of lignin ( Higuchi, 1985 ), so the lignification process is extensive. (plantphysiol.org)
  • extant
  • This hypothesized relationship of the extant seed plants places Amborella as the sister taxon to all other angiosperms, and shows the gymnosperms as a monophyletic group sister to the angiosperms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Botany
  • Ecological application of 'Herbchronology': Comparative stand age structure analyses of the invasive plant Bunias orientalis L". Annals of Botany. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • As the first stage in identifying lignin-specific peroxidase isoenzymes, the classical anionic peroxidases found in the xylem of poplar ( Populus trichocarpa Trichobel) were purified and characterized. (plantphysiol.org)
  • In the event you create a few sequential cross segments throughout the axial organs of varied agents of silt, horsetails or even ferns, in addition to through youthful stalks (or branches) of walnut or walnut, then it is readily found the procedure for unmanned cells in these various plants constructed in numerous architectural basic principle. (urbanagsummit.org)
  • was created by Senkevich in 1978 for plants found in Kazakhstan. (wikipedia.org)
  • From 1917 onwards, Robert Kidston and William H. Lang published a series of papers describing fossil plants from the Rhynie chert - a fine-grained sedimentary rock found near the village of Rhynie, Aberdeenshire, Scotland, now dated to the Pragian of the Lower Devonian (around 411 to 408 million years ago). (wikipedia.org)
  • moves
  • Trifloxystrobin sold under the brand 'Scorpio' has a slightly different mode of uptake to azoxystrobin in that it moves quickly into the wax layer of the leaf cuticle where it is protected from any subsequent rainfall and then moves into the plant cells without getting into the transport systems. (pitchcare.com)
  • cells
  • Hormones regulate cellular processes in targeted cells locally and, moved to other locations, in other functional parts of the plant. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hormones are vital to plant growth, and, lacking them, plants would be mostly a mass of undifferentiated cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plant cells produce hormones that affect even different regions of the cell producing the hormone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Not all plant cells respond to hormones, but those cells that do are programmed to respond at specific points in their growth cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The smallest members of the group grow as tiny, feathery tufts of threadlike cells no more than a few centimeters long. (wikipedia.org)
  • monophyletic
  • The zosterophylls did contain a monophyletic clade, but some genera previously included in the group fell outside this clade (e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • algae
  • The Phaeophyceae or brown algae (singular: alga), are a large group of mostly marine multicellular algae, including many seaweeds located in colder Northern Hemisphere waters. (wikipedia.org)
  • Brown algae belong to the group Heterokontophyta, a large group of eukaryotic organisms distinguished most prominently by having chloroplasts surrounded by four membranes, suggesting an origin from a symbiotic relationship between a basal eukaryote and another eukaryotic organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other groups of brown algae grow to much larger sizes. (wikipedia.org)
  • subdivision
  • In 1975, Banks expanded on his earlier 1968 proposal that split it three groups, which he put at the rank of subdivision. (wikipedia.org)
  • At first most of the fossilized early land plants other than bryophytes were placed in the class Psilophyta, established in 1917 by Kidston and Lang. As additional fossils were discovered and described, it became apparent that the Psilophyta were not a homogeneous group of plants, and in 1975 Banks developed his earlier proposal to split it into three groups, which he put at the rank of subdivision. (wikipedia.org)
  • earliest
  • Zosterophylls are thought to be the earliest diverging group of lycophytes, a group which includes modern clubmosses and relatives. (wikipedia.org)
  • leaf
  • citation needed] This slows plant growth and directs leaf primordia to develop scales to protect the dormant buds during the cold season. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many plant diseases are due to symptomatic infections of X. fastidiosa, including bacterial leaf scorch, oleander leaf scorch, coffee leaf scorch (CLS), alfalfa dwarf, phony peach disease, and the economically important Pierce's disease of grapes (PD) and citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC). (wikipedia.org)
  • On a macroscopic scale, plants infected with a X. fastidiosa-related disease exhibit symptoms of water deficiencies, manifesting as leaf scorching, stunting in leaves, fruit, and overall plant height. (wikipedia.org)
  • fungus
  • Microconidia are the spore types most often produced by this fungus under all conditions, as well as the spores produced in the xylem. (wikipedia.org)
  • It's the first disease known that Raffaela fungus cause plant disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Arabidopsis
  • citation needed] Several ABA-mutant Arabidopsis thaliana plants have been identified and are available from the Nottingham Arabidopsis Stock Centre - both those deficient in ABA production and those with altered sensitivity to its action. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a study designed to clarify relationships between well-studied model plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana, and the basal angiosperms Amborella, Nuphar (Nymphaeaceae), Illicium, the monocots, and more derived angiosperms (eudicots), chloroplast genomes using cDNA and expressed sequence tags for floral genes, the cladogram shown below was generated. (wikipedia.org)
  • water
  • Water plant really are in cutting pollutants useful. (urbanagsummit.org)
  • Water plant can be, used to decrease co emissions and therefore are traditionally, used cutting back the demand for compounds. (urbanagsummit.org)
  • The most abundant compound in all plants, as in all cellular organisms, is water which serves an important structural role and a vital role in plant metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Their absence on the lower portions of the axes suggests that this part of the plants may have been submerged, and that the plants dwelt in boggy ground or even shallow water. (wikipedia.org)
  • large
  • Although cohesion-tension has received criticism, for example due to the apparent existence of large negative pressures in some living plants, experimental and observational data favor this mechanism. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Late Devonian times, another group of progymnosperms gave rise to the first really large trees known as Archaeopteris. (wikipedia.org)
  • Megafossils are preserved parts of plants large enough to show structure, such as stem cross-sections or branching patterns. (wikipedia.org)
  • clade
  • The clade includes all land plants (embryophytes) except for the bryophytes (liverworts, mosses and hornworts) whose sporophytes are always unbranched. (wikipedia.org)
  • Currently plant systematists accept Amborella trichopoda as the most basal lineage in the clade of angiosperms. (wikipedia.org)
  • angiosperms
  • The extinction of palaeontinids during Early Cretaceous has been linked to the decline of ginkgophytes at the end of the Mesophytic era (Late Permian to Middle Cretaceous) and the rise of angiosperms (flowering plants). (wikipedia.org)
  • Like gymnosperms, angiosperms are seed-producing plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Angiosperms differ from other seed plants in several ways, described in the table below. (wikipedia.org)
  • These distinguishing characteristics taken together have made the angiosperms the most diverse and numerous land plants and the most commercially important group to humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • hosts
  • When planting in areas where there are no local hosts, it is suggested that one plant seeds from several different sources in the hope of finding a resistant tree. (wikipedia.org)
  • processes
  • ABA functions in many plant developmental processes, including bud dormancy, and can be involved in stress responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • leaves
  • Many of the newer fungicides are taken up through the leaves, a process that requires less energy from the plant and, because uptake is possible during periods of slow growth, they can be used much later in the season. (pitchcare.com)
  • Abscisic acid owes its names to its role in the abscission of plant leaves. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plants that are hypersensitive or insensitive to ABA show phenotypes in seed dormancy, germination, stomatal regulation, and some mutants show stunted growth and brown/yellow leaves. (wikipedia.org)
  • Structure
  • While the majority of flowers are perfect or hermaphrodite (having both pollen and ovule producing parts in the same flower structure), flowering plants have developed numerous morphological and physiological mechanisms to reduce or prevent self-fertilization. (wikipedia.org)