• savannah baboons
  • In wild savannah baboons, social affiliations are shown to augment fitness by increasing tolerance from more dominant group members and increasing the chance of obtaining aid from conspecifics during instances of within-group contest interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • primates
  • The relationships among the different groups of primates were not clearly understood until relatively recently, so the commonly used terms are somewhat confused. (wikipedia.org)
  • Commonly used names for groups of primates such as " prosimians ", " monkeys ", " lesser apes ", and " great apes " reflect this methodology. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to our current understanding of the evolutionary history of the primates, several of these groups are paraphyletic: a paraphyletic group is one which does not include all the descendants of the group's common ancestor. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cladogram below shows one possible classification sequence of the living primates, with groups that use common (traditional) names are shown on the right. (wikipedia.org)
  • Had Darwin known that other primates distinguish kin from non-kin, form enduring relationships with their offspring, selectively groom, support and reconcile conflicts with their relatives and are aware of the kinship relationships between other group members, he would have been even more certain of the deep evolutionary links between humans and other animals. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Within Order Primates, it is the most common social group type, with group sizes ranging from 10 to 100 individuals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Large groups of primates are called "troops. (wikipedia.org)
  • Large groups of primates are called "troops", which are characterized by complex intratroop politics and competition. (wikipedia.org)
  • Africa
  • Simians are divided into two groups: catarrhine (narrow-nosed) monkeys and apes of Africa and Southeast Asia and platyrrhine ("flat-nosed") or New World monkeys of South and Middle America. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is the northernmost of all the baboons, being native to the Horn of Africa and the southwestern tip of the Arabian Peninsula. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Hamadryas Baboon is found in the rocky deserts in the hills that line the coast of the Red Sea both in north-east Africa and in parts of the western Arabian peninsula. (a-z-animals.com)
  • bonds
  • 2014. Social bonds in female baboons: the interaction between personality, kinship, and rank . (upenn.edu)
  • Baboons are incredibly sociable and intelligent animals that are known to form close bonds with other members of the troop that often last for life. (a-z-animals.com)
  • adult
  • One of the costs of living in one-male groups is the killing of unweaned young by conspecific adult males. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is known as infanticide, and mostly occurs when adult males or coalitions of males takeover the group and kill the resident male. (wikipedia.org)
  • Groups typically contain several philopatric adult sons (and daughters) that are believed not to breed in their natal group and all group members participate in territorial defence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multi-male groups, also known as multi-male/multi-female, are a type of social organization where the group contains more than one adult male, more than one adult female, and offspring. (wikipedia.org)
  • Evidence has also been provided for the effect of sociality on adult survival in wild baboons. (wikipedia.org)
  • aggression
  • When aggression in wild group-living male breeders was tested in a neutral test arena, they were nearly five times more aggressive towards their neighbours than towards strangers, leading to the prediction that neighbours are the most important competitors for paternity. (wikipedia.org)
  • gibbons
  • Groups of gibbons with more stable social networks formed grooming networks that were significantly more complex, while groups with low stability networks formed far fewer grooming pairs. (wikipedia.org)
  • consist
  • Fission-fusion dynamics , as the term is currently used, consist of the temporal variation in the spatial cohesion between group members, who form subgroups that can also vary in size and composition over time, due to splitting and coming together with other subgroups. (springer.com)
  • affiliations
  • Recent field studies of baboons suggest that male-infant relationships are mediated through affiliations between the males and the infants' mothers, but the degree to which these male-female affiliations are based on prior mating experience (hence, paternity) has not been established. (wikipedia.org)
  • male
  • 2015. The costs of parental and mating effort for male baboons . (upenn.edu)
  • Of at least 20 infants born in the group before the experimental period, all but 3 died, due to severe abuse by the leader male - the biological father of the victims. (brillonline.com)
  • Detailed analysis showed that mothers and infants re-introduced into the group attaracted disproportional attention from other group members, temporarily upsetting the structure: The leader male's status is seriously undermined in this stituation. (brillonline.com)
  • There are costs and benefits for individuals living in one-male groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • As well, individuals within one-male groups can interact with each other just like individuals can interact with those from different one-male groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, when a new male successfully enters a one-male group, the social hierarchy will be changed depending on the previously determined rankings of the newly entered male. (wikipedia.org)
  • The previous resident male of the one-male group may be out-ranked and therefore placed lower on the hierarchy of males. (wikipedia.org)
  • Infanticide in one-male groups has been studied in the Virungas population of mountain gorillas. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another cost of living in one-male social groups is that there is a high occurrence of inbreeding. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the findings of feeding advantages were only evident when these one-male groups formed clans. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been shown that males from single one-male groups did not approach males that were part of clans to compete for food sources. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, it was found that males from smaller clans did not approach males from bigger clans (i.e. with more one-male groups) to compete for food. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ultimately, these feeding advantages of decreased competition were seen between one-male groups, not for males within the same groups or clans. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] A traditional view of multi-male primate groups is held that males provide relatively little direct care to infants, possibly as a result of the low confidence of paternity that is associated with this relatively promiscuous breeding system. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] In some multi-male groups, the costs for infanticidal males seem likely to be high, since other resident males might defend the victim, and the benefits seem likely to be low because of the generally lower paternal probability in multi-male groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] A benefit of living in multi-male groups is the collective protection that the group as a whole receives from outsiders as well as sufficient protection of infants against infanticide from other outside roaming males. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also, participants in multi-male groups have better access to resources such as food and living quarters. (wikipedia.org)
  • Direct correlations between measures of social connectedness (which focuses on social grooming) and median survival time for both female and male baboons were modeled. (wikipedia.org)
  • wild
  • Baboons have wild-looking fur with a longer mane that extends over the shoulders and hairless patches on their faces and rumps which are padded with hard skin. (a-z-animals.com)
  • Differences in daily life between semi provisioned and wild-feeding baboons. (springer.com)
  • female
  • Female attackers are often in advanced stages of pregnancy, and have the most to lose if the number of infants in the group reaches an unsustainable level. (wikipedia.org)
  • rocky
  • The hamadryas baboon lives in semi-desert areas, savannas and rocky areas, requiring cliffs for sleeping and finding water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Baboons are found in a variety of habitats including savanna, scrub, rocky deserts and rainforests providing there is an ample supply of water. (a-z-animals.com)
  • found
  • Baboons would have once been found throughout the African continent and today, although they are still widespread, their natural range continues to decrease. (a-z-animals.com)
  • However
  • However, this method is costly and suffers from short-term interruptions, wherein the unexpected absence of monitors may lead to unprepared residents using lethal force to deter raiding baboons. (springer.com)
  • among
  • Cooperative hunting has social implications since it helps to maintain and reinforce social relationships among the individuals of a group. (mdpi.com)