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  • donor
  • Private cord blood banks store cord blood solely for potential use by the donor or donor's family. (wikipedia.org)
  • On the possibility that cord blood stem cells could be used for other purposes, the World Marrow Donor Association and European Group on Ethics in Science and New Technologies states "The possibility of using one's own cord blood stem cells for regenerative medicine is currently purely hypothetical. (wikipedia.org)
  • To avoid transfusion reactions, the donor and recipient blood are tested, typically ordered as a "type and screen" for the recipient. (wikipedia.org)
  • The typing and screening are also performed on donor blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • For RBCs, type O negative blood is considered a "universal donor" as recipients with types A, B, or AB can almost always receive O negative blood safely. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blood transfusion It would be very rare for ABO sensitization to be caused by therapeutic blood transfusion as a great deal of effort and checking is done to ensure that blood is ABO compatible between the recipient and the donor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Newborn Screening Tests - Transfusion with donor blood during pregnancy or shortly after birth can affect the results of the Newborn Screening Tests. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ideal universal whole blood donor is a non-thoroughbred gelding that is Aa, Ca, and Qa negative. (wikipedia.org)
  • The A allele produces α-1,3-N-acetylgalactosamine transferase (A-transferase), which catalyzes the transfer of GalNAc residues from the UDP-GalNAc donor nucleotide to the Gal residues of the acceptor H antigen, converting the H antigen into A antigen in A and AB individuals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glycosylation (see also chemical glycosylation) is the reaction in which a carbohydrate, i.e. a glycosyl donor, is attached to a hydroxyl or other functional group of another molecule (a glycosyl acceptor). (wikipedia.org)
  • A transferase is any one of a class of enzymes that enact the transfer of specific functional groups (e.g. a methyl or glycosyl group) from one molecule (called the donor) to another (called the acceptor). (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, methylamine:L-glutamate N-methyltransferase would be the standard naming convention for the transferase methylamine-glutamate N-methyltransferase, where methylamine is the donor, L-glutamate is the acceptor, and methyltransferase is the EC category grouping. (wikipedia.org)
  • alleles
  • Nearly every living human's phenotype for the ABO gene is some combination of just these six alleles: A A101 (A1) A201 (A2) B B101 (B1) O O01 (O1) O02 (O1v) O03 (O2) Many rare variants of these alleles have been found in human populations around the world. (wikipedia.org)
  • In human cells, the ABO alleles and their encoded glycosyltransferases have been described in several oncologic conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ABO blood type is controlled by a single gene (the ABO gene) with three types of alleles inferred from classical genetics: i, IA, and IB. (wikipedia.org)
  • It carries the antigenic determinants of the Duffy blood group system which consist of four codominant alleles-FY*A and FY*B-coding for the Fy-a and Fy-b antigens respectively, FY*X and FY*Fy, five phenotypes (Fy-a, Fy-b, Fy-o, Fy-x and Fy-y) and five antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • neonate's blood
  • After delivery bilirubin is no longer cleared (via the placenta) from the neonate's blood and the symptoms of jaundice (yellowish skin and yellow discoloration of the whites of the eyes) increase within 24 hours after birth. (wikipedia.org)

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  • acceptor
  • For example, a DNA methyltransferase is a transferase that catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group to a DNA acceptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • With state-of-the art molecular biology and protein biochemistry labs, we work with our clients to rapidly evaluate in parallel to identify the optimal expression system for candidate proteins. (abgent.com)
  • cell
  • In addition to their use in blood grouping, these monoclonal antibodies can be of use in defining the hereditary background (heterogenicity) and structure of the red cell antigen . (britannica.com)
  • The white blood cells I want to talk to you about are called B-cells , and they are a type of white blood cell known as a lymphocyte. (study.com)
  • Blood Groups and Red Cell Antigens National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). (wikipedia.org)
  • The policy of the American Academy of Pediatrics states that "private storage of cord blood as 'biological insurance' is unwise" unless there is a family member with a current or potential need to undergo a stem cell transplantation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cord blood contains hematopoietic stem cells (which can differentiate only into blood cells), and should not be confused with embryonic stem cells or pluripotent stem cells, which can differentiate into any cell in the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cord blood stem cells are blood cell progenitors which can form red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. (wikipedia.org)
  • After the health care provider draws the cord blood from the placental end of the umbilical cord, the placenta is couriered to the stem cell laboratory, where it is processed for additional stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Packed red blood cells, also known as red cell concentrate and packed cells, are red blood cells that have been separated for blood transfusion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Side effects include allergic reactions such as anaphylaxis, red blood cell breakdown, infection, volume overload, and lung injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, ABO HDN is generally mild and short-lived and only occasionally severe because: IgG anti-A (or IgG anti-B) antibodies that enter the fetal circulation from the mother find A (or B) antigens on many different fetal cell types, leaving fewer antibodies available for binding onto fetal red blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Animal erythrocytes have cell surface antigens that undergo polymorphism and give rise to blood types. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Duffy antigen gene was the fourth gene associated with the resistance after the genes responsible for sickle cell anaemia, thalassemia and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The function of the H antigen, apart from being an intermediate substrate in the synthesis of ABO blood group antigens, is not known, although it may be involved in cell adhesion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several of these red blood cell surface antigens can stem from one allele (or an alternative version of a gene) and collectively form a blood group system. (wikipedia.org)
  • phenotype
  • The "type" in this case is the ABO and Rh type, specifically the phenotype, and the "screen" refers to testing for atypical antibodies that might cause transfusion problems. (wikipedia.org)
  • A couple with type A and type B can also have a type O child if they are both heterozygous (IBi,IAi) The cis-AB phenotype has a single enzyme that creates both A and B antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • This blood phenotype was first discovered in Bombay, now known as Mumbai, in India, by Dr. Y. M. Bhende in 1952. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first person found to have the Bombay phenotype had an interesting blood type that reacted to other blood types in a way never seen before. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, by 2017 only one Colombian person was known to have this phenotype and it was needed to import blood from Brazil in order to receive a transfusion. (wikipedia.org)
  • type
  • Persons may thus have type A , type B , type O , or type AB blood. (britannica.com)
  • Landsteiner found that there are substances in the blood, antigens and antibodies, that induce clumping of red cells when red cells of one type are added to those of a second type. (britannica.com)
  • If, in transfusion , type B blood is injected into persons with type A blood, the red cells in the injected blood will be destroyed by the antibodies in the recipient's blood. (britannica.com)
  • In the same way, type A red cells will be destroyed by anti-A antibodies in type B blood. (britannica.com)
  • Persons with type AB blood can receive type A, B, or O blood, as shown in the table. (britannica.com)
  • Blood group O is the most common blood type throughout the world, particularly among peoples of South and Central America. (britannica.com)
  • Before the cord blood is stored for later use, it undergoes viral testing, including tests for HIV and Hepatitis B and C, and tissue typing to determine Human Leukocyte Antigen type. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are two important antigens in the system: A and B. Red cells without A or B are called type O, and red cells with both are called AB. (wikipedia.org)
  • Type AB positive is considered a "universal recipient" because they can receive the other ABO/Rh types safely. (wikipedia.org)
  • They differ, however, at the terminal sugar, and it's this minor difference that establishes your blood type. (getbodysmart.com)
  • The third sensitization model can occur in women of blood type O. The immune response to A and B antigens, that are widespread in the environment, usually leads to the production of IgM or IgG anti-A and anti-B antibodies early in life. (wikipedia.org)
  • Women of blood type O are more prone than women of types A and B to making IgG anti-A and anti-B antibodies, and these IgG antibodies are able to cross the placenta. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two categories of blood groups, human-type and simian-type, have been found in apes and monkeys, and can be tested by methods established for grouping human blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other than DEA blood types, Dal is another blood type commonly known in dogs. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a study conducted in England, 87.1% of non-pedigree cats were type A, while only 54.6% of pedigree cats were type A. Type A and B cats have naturally occurring alloantibodies to the opposite blood type, although the reaction of Type B cats to Type A blood is more severe than vice versa. (wikipedia.org)
  • Based on this, all cats should have a simple blood typing test done to determine their blood type prior to a transfusion or breeding to avoid the haemolytic disease (or neonatal isoerythrolysis). (wikipedia.org)
  • this only occurs if they are somehow exposed to a different blood type, such as through blood transfusion of transplacental hemorrhage during parturition. (wikipedia.org)
  • Breeding a mare to a stallion with a different blood type, usually Aa or Qa blood, risks neonatal isoerythrolysis if the foal inherits the blood type of the stallion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, the expression of ABO blood group antigens in normal human tissues is dependent the type of differentiation of the epithelium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Landsteiner originally described the O blood type as type "C", and in parts of Europe it is rendered as "0" (zero), signifying the lack of A or B antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Watkins and Morgan, in England, discovered that the ABO epitopes were conferred by sugars, to be specific, N-acetylgalactosamine for the A-type and galactose for the B-type. (wikipedia.org)
  • In April 2007, an international team of researchers announced in the journal Nature Biotechnology an inexpensive and efficient way to convert types A, B, and AB blood into type O. This is done by using glycosidase enzymes from specific bacteria to strip the blood group antigens from red blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The IA allele gives type A, IB gives type B, and i gives type O. As both IA and IB are dominant over i, only ii people have type O blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blood types in humans is determined by a gene that creates an A, B, AB or O blood type and is located in the long arm of chromosome nine. (wikipedia.org)
  • The h/h blood group, also known as Oh or the Bombay blood group, is a rare blood type. (wikipedia.org)
  • Depending upon a person's ABO blood type, the H antigen is converted into either the A antigen, B antigen, or both. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, the H antigen is present more in blood type O and less in blood type AB. (wikipedia.org)
  • A complete blood type would describe a full set of 30 substances on the surface of RBCs, and an individual's blood type is one of many possible combinations of blood-group antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another more common cause in blood type change is a bone marrow transplant. (wikipedia.org)
  • If a person receives bone marrow from someone who is a different ABO type (e.g., a type A patient receives a type O bone marrow), the patient's blood type will eventually convert to the donor's type. (wikipedia.org)
  • therapeutic
  • It is therefore highly hypothetical that cord blood cells kept for autologous use will be of any value in the future" and "the legitimacy of commercial cord blood banks for autologous use should be questioned as they sell a service which has presently no real use regarding therapeutic options. (wikipedia.org)
  • The woman may have received a therapeutic blood transfusion. (wikipedia.org)
  • anti-B antibodies
  • Although very uncommon, cases of ABO HDN have been reported in infants born to mothers with blood groups A and B. Environmental exposure Anti-A and anti-B antibodies are usually IgM and do not pass through the placenta, but some mothers "naturally" have IgG anti-A or IgG anti-B antibodies, which can pass through the placenta. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] If IgG anti-A or IgG anti-B antibodies are found in the pregnant woman's blood, they are not reported with the test results, because they do not correlate well with ABO HDN. (wikipedia.org)
  • placenta
  • If a mother is exposed to a foreign antigen and produces IgG (as opposed to IgM which does not cross the placenta), the IgG will target the antigen, if present in the fetus, and may affect it in utero and persist after delivery. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fetal-maternal hemorrhage, which is the movement of fetal blood cells across the placenta, can occur during abortion, ectopic pregnancy, childbirth, ruptures in the placenta during pregnancy (often caused by trauma), or medical procedures carried out during pregnancy that breach the uterine wall. (wikipedia.org)
  • glycosyl
  • Later, Yamamoto's group showed the precise glycosyl transferase set that confers the A, B and O epitopes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biosynthesis of the H, A and B antigens involves a series of enzymes (glycosyl transferases) that transfer monosaccharides. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • As explained above, the most important blood group systems for transfusion of red cells are ABO and Rh . (britannica.com)
  • If that word threw you off, then you're in for one heck of a surprise towards the end of this lesson as we explore a specific subset of white blood cells. (study.com)
  • An adequate cord blood collection requires at least 75mL in order to ensure that there will be enough cells to be used for a transplantation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Packed red blood cells are gotten from whole blood or by apheresis. (wikipedia.org)
  • A number of other versions also exist including whole blood, leukocyte reduced red blood cells, and washed red blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Red Blood cells make ( synthesize ) several types of surface marker molecules. (getbodysmart.com)
  • Among these antibodies are some which attack antigens on the red blood cells in the fetal circulation, breaking down and destroying the cells (hemolysis). (wikipedia.org)
  • When the disease is moderate or severe, many erythroblasts (immature red blood cells) are present in the fetal blood, and so these forms of the disease can be called erythroblastosis fetalis (or erythroblastosis foetalis). (wikipedia.org)
  • Like other severe neonatal jaundice, there is the possibility of acute or chronic kernicterus, however the risk of kernicterus is higher because of the rapid destruction of blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Testing Coombs - after birth baby will have a direct coombs test run to confirm antibodies attached to the infant's red blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] The antibodies in ABO HDN cause anemia due to destruction of fetal red blood cells and jaundice due to the rise in blood levels of bilirubin a by-product of hemoglobin break down. (wikipedia.org)
  • Of these DEA types, DEA 4 and DEA 6 appear on the red blood cells of ~98% of dogs. (wikipedia.org)
  • If it is the dog's first transfusion the red cells transfused will have a shortened life due to the formation of alloantibodies to the cells themselves and the animal will forever be sensitized to DEA 1.1 positive blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • The antibodies lead to destruction of the red blood cells with resulting anemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • The red blood cells appeared to lack all of the ABO blood group antigens and to have an additional antigen that was previously unknown. (wikipedia.org)
  • hemorrhage
  • Not if the patient is a female less than 45 years old (childbearing possible), unless life-threatening hemorrhage is present and transfusion of Rh-positive blood is lifesaving. (britannica.com)
  • molecule
  • This antigen is produced by a specific fucosyl transferase that catalyzes the final step in the synthesis of the molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • donors
  • Normal donors are used as the source of supply of naturally occurring antibodies, such as those of the ABO, P, and Lewis systems. (britannica.com)
  • Compatible donors on the basis of their possessing A, B, or O blood are shown in the table. (britannica.com)
  • Potential donors are also tested for some of the antigens of the Rh system , since it is essential to know whether they are Rh-positive or Rh-negative. (britannica.com)
  • Dogs with only DEA 4 or DEA 6 can thus serve as blood donors for the majority of the canine population. (wikipedia.org)
  • fetal
  • Cord blood collection happens after the umbilical cord has been cut and is extracted from the fetal end of the cord, diverting up to 75 +/- 23 mL from the neonate. (wikipedia.org)
  • populations
  • This is particularly true for the "K" antigen which shows a relatively high antigenicity and moderately low frequency (~9%) in Caucasian populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • transplantation
  • The American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation and the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists also encourage public cord banking and discourage private cord blood banking. (wikipedia.org)