• proteins
  • With state-of-the art molecular biology and protein biochemistry labs, we work with our clients to rapidly evaluate in parallel to identify the optimal expression system for candidate proteins. (abgent.com)
  • The main glycoproteins carrying the ABH antigens were identified to be the Band 3 and Band 4.5 proteins and glycophorin. (wikipedia.org)
  • The resulting antigens are oligosaccharide chains, which are attached to lipids and proteins that are anchored in the red blood cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glycosylation also plays a role in cell-to-cell adhesion (a mechanism employed by cells of the immune system) via sugar-binding proteins called lectins, which recognize specific carbohydrate moieties. (wikipedia.org)
  • neonate's blood
  • After delivery bilirubin is no longer cleared (via the placenta) from the neonate's blood and the symptoms of jaundice (yellowish skin and yellow discoloration of the whites of the eyes) increase within 24 hours after birth. (wikipedia.org)

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  • acceptor
  • Glycosylation (see also chemical glycosylation) is the reaction in which a carbohydrate, i.e. a glycosyl donor, is attached to a hydroxyl or other functional group of another molecule (a glycosyl acceptor). (wikipedia.org)
  • A transferase is any one of a class of enzymes that enact the transfer of specific functional groups (e.g. a methyl or glycosyl group) from one molecule (called the donor) to another (called the acceptor). (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, methylamine:L-glutamate N-methyltransferase would be the standard naming convention for the transferase methylamine-glutamate N-methyltransferase, where methylamine is the donor, L-glutamate is the acceptor, and methyltransferase is the EC category grouping. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, a DNA methyltransferase is a transferase that catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group to a DNA acceptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • phenotype
  • A couple with type A and type B can also have a type O child if they are both heterozygous (IBi,IAi) The cis-AB phenotype has a single enzyme that creates both A and B antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • This blood phenotype was first discovered in Bombay, now known as Mumbai, in India, by Dr. Y. M. Bhende in 1952. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first person found to have the Bombay phenotype had an interesting blood type that reacted to other blood types in a way never seen before. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, by 2017 only one Colombian person was known to have this phenotype and it was needed to import blood from Brazil in order to receive a transfusion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Duffy
  • Duffy antigen/chemokine receptor (DARC), also known as Fy glycoprotein (FY) or CD234 (Cluster of Differentiation 234), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DARC gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Duffy antigen is located on the surface of red blood cells, and is named after the patient in which it was discovered. (wikipedia.org)
  • Polymorphisms in this gene are the basis of the Duffy blood group system. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Duffy antigen gene was the fourth gene associated with the resistance after the genes responsible for sickle cell anaemia, thalassemia and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Duffy antigen, presumably as a result of natural selection, is less common in ethnic groups from areas with a high incidence of malaria. (wikipedia.org)
  • fetus
  • If a mother is exposed to a foreign antigen and produces IgG (as opposed to IgM which does not cross the placenta), the IgG will target the antigen, if present in the fetus, and may affect it in utero and persist after delivery. (wikipedia.org)
  • hemolytic
  • Dogs that are DEA 1.1 positive (33 to 45% of the population) are universal recipients - that is, they can receive blood of any type without expectation of a life-threatening hemolytic transfusion reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • The white blood cells I want to talk to you about are called B-cells , and they are a type of white blood cell known as a lymphocyte. (study.com)
  • Blood Groups and Red Cell Antigens National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). (wikipedia.org)
  • The policy of the American Academy of Pediatrics states that "private storage of cord blood as 'biological insurance' is unwise" unless there is a family member with a current or potential need to undergo a stem cell transplantation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cord blood contains hematopoietic stem cells (which can differentiate only into blood cells), and should not be confused with embryonic stem cells or pluripotent stem cells, which can differentiate into any cell in the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cord blood stem cells are blood cell progenitors which can form red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. (wikipedia.org)
  • After the health care provider draws the cord blood from the placental end of the umbilical cord, the placenta is couriered to the stem cell laboratory, where it is processed for additional stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Packed red blood cells, also known as red cell concentrate and packed cells, are red blood cells that have been separated for blood transfusion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Side effects include allergic reactions such as anaphylaxis, red blood cell breakdown, infection, volume overload, and lung injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • The function of the H antigen, apart from being an intermediate substrate in the synthesis of ABO blood group antigens, is not known, although it may be involved in cell adhesion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several of these red blood cell surface antigens can stem from one allele (or an alternative version of a gene) and collectively form a blood group system. (wikipedia.org)
  • placenta
  • Fetal-maternal hemorrhage, which is the movement of fetal blood cells across the placenta, can occur during abortion, ectopic pregnancy, childbirth, ruptures in the placenta during pregnancy (often caused by trauma), or medical procedures carried out during pregnancy that breach the uterine wall. (wikipedia.org)
  • transplantation
  • Compatibility of ABH antigens has important impacts on the prognoses of transplants of kidneys, livers and hearts, but less so on marrow, bone or cornea transplantation prognoses. (wikipedia.org)
  • The American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation and the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists also encourage public cord banking and discourage private cord blood banking. (wikipedia.org)
  • An adequate cord blood collection requires at least 75mL in order to ensure that there will be enough cells to be used for a transplantation. (wikipedia.org)
  • These antigens play an important role in the match of blood transfusion and organ transplantation. (wikipedia.org)
  • glycosyl
  • Later, Yamamoto's group showed the precise glycosyl transferase set that confers the A, B and O epitopes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biosynthesis of the H, A and B antigens involves a series of enzymes (glycosyl transferases) that transfer monosaccharides. (wikipedia.org)
  • pregnancies
  • This is a major cause of HDN, because 75% of pregnancies result in some contact between fetal and maternal blood, and 15-50% of pregnancies have hemorrhages with the potential for immune sensitization. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast to Rh disease, about half of the cases of ABO HDN occur in a firstborn baby and ABO HDN does not become more severe after further pregnancies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tissues
  • In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration regulates cord blood under the category of "Human Cells, Tissues, and Cellular and Tissue Based-Products. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, the expression of ABO blood group antigens in normal human tissues is dependent the type of differentiation of the epithelium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some of these antigens are also present on the surface of other types of cells of various tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • type
  • Before the cord blood is stored for later use, it undergoes viral testing, including tests for HIV and Hepatitis B and C, and tissue typing to determine Human Leukocyte Antigen type. (wikipedia.org)
  • To avoid transfusion reactions, the donor and recipient blood are tested, typically ordered as a "type and screen" for the recipient. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are two important antigens in the system: A and B. Red cells without A or B are called type O, and red cells with both are called AB. (wikipedia.org)
  • For RBCs, type O negative blood is considered a "universal donor" as recipients with types A, B, or AB can almost always receive O negative blood safely. (wikipedia.org)
  • Type AB positive is considered a "universal recipient" because they can receive the other ABO/Rh types safely. (wikipedia.org)
  • In type O blood, a carbohydrate sequence called the H antigen is present. (anthropogeny.org)
  • Two categories of blood groups, human-type and simian-type, have been found in apes and monkeys, and can be tested by methods established for grouping human blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other than DEA blood types, Dal is another blood type commonly known in dogs. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a study conducted in England, 87.1% of non-pedigree cats were type A, while only 54.6% of pedigree cats were type A. Type A and B cats have naturally occurring alloantibodies to the opposite blood type, although the reaction of Type B cats to Type A blood is more severe than vice versa. (wikipedia.org)
  • Based on this, all cats should have a simple blood typing test done to determine their blood type prior to a transfusion or breeding to avoid the haemolytic disease (or neonatal isoerythrolysis). (wikipedia.org)
  • this only occurs if they are somehow exposed to a different blood type, such as through blood transfusion of transplacental hemorrhage during parturition. (wikipedia.org)
  • Breeding a mare to a stallion with a different blood type, usually Aa or Qa blood, risks neonatal isoerythrolysis if the foal inherits the blood type of the stallion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Landsteiner originally described the O blood type as type "C", and in parts of Europe it is rendered as "0" (zero), signifying the lack of A or B antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Watkins and Morgan, in England, discovered that the ABO epitopes were conferred by sugars, to be specific, N-acetylgalactosamine for the A-type and galactose for the B-type. (wikipedia.org)
  • The IA allele gives type A, IB gives type B, and i gives type O. As both IA and IB are dominant over i, only ii people have type O blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blood types in humans is determined by a gene that creates an A, B, AB or O blood type and is located in the long arm of chromosome nine. (wikipedia.org)
  • The h/h blood group, also known as Oh or the Bombay blood group, is a rare blood type. (wikipedia.org)
  • Depending upon a person's ABO blood type, the H antigen is converted into either the A antigen, B antigen, or both. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, the H antigen is present more in blood type O and less in blood type AB. (wikipedia.org)
  • A complete blood type would describe a full set of 30 substances on the surface of RBCs, and an individual's blood type is one of many possible combinations of blood-group antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Across the 35 blood groups, over 600 different blood-group antigens have been found.Almost always, an individual has the same blood group for life, but very rarely an individual's blood type changes through addition or suppression of an antigen in infection, malignancy, or autoimmune disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another more common cause in blood type change is a bone marrow transplant. (wikipedia.org)
  • If a person receives bone marrow from someone who is a different ABO type (e.g., a type A patient receives a type O bone marrow), the patient's blood type will eventually convert to the donor's type. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecule
  • This antigen is produced by a specific fucosyl transferase that catalyzes the final step in the synthesis of the molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • fetal
  • Cord blood collection happens after the umbilical cord has been cut and is extracted from the fetal end of the cord, diverting up to 75 +/- 23 mL from the neonate. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the disease is moderate or severe, many erythroblasts (immature red blood cells) are present in the fetal blood, and so these forms of the disease can be called erythroblastosis fetalis (or erythroblastosis foetalis). (wikipedia.org)
  • Fetal RBC surface A and B antigens are not fully developed during gestation and so there are a smaller number of antigenic sites on fetal RBCs. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • Antigens from the human ABO blood group system are also found in apes and Old World monkeys, and the system traces back to the origin of hominoids. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was subsequently found that the Czech serologist Jan Janský had independently pioneered the classification of human blood into four groups in 1907, but Landsteiner's independent discovery had been accepted by the scientific world while Janský remained then in relative obscurity. (wikipedia.org)
  • therefore
  • It is therefore highly hypothetical that cord blood cells kept for autologous use will be of any value in the future" and "the legitimacy of commercial cord blood banks for autologous use should be questioned as they sell a service which has presently no real use regarding therapeutic options. (wikipedia.org)
  • The classification of most animal blood groups therefore uses different blood typing systems to those used for classification of human blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • If that word threw you off, then you're in for one heck of a surprise towards the end of this lesson as we explore a specific subset of white blood cells. (study.com)
  • On the possibility that cord blood stem cells could be used for other purposes, the World Marrow Donor Association and European Group on Ethics in Science and New Technologies states "The possibility of using one's own cord blood stem cells for regenerative medicine is currently purely hypothetical. (wikipedia.org)
  • Packed red blood cells are gotten from whole blood or by apheresis. (wikipedia.org)
  • A number of other versions also exist including whole blood, leukocyte reduced red blood cells, and washed red blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like other severe neonatal jaundice, there is the possibility of acute or chronic kernicterus, however the risk of kernicterus is higher because of the rapid destruction of blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ABO blood group system is the best known surface antigen system, expressed on a wide variety of human cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Of these DEA types, DEA 4 and DEA 6 appear on the red blood cells of ~98% of dogs. (wikipedia.org)
  • If it is the dog's first transfusion the red cells transfused will have a shortened life due to the formation of alloantibodies to the cells themselves and the animal will forever be sensitized to DEA 1.1 positive blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • The resulting red blood cells do not usually express A or B antigen at the same level that would be expected on common group A1 or B red blood cells, which can help solve the problem of an apparently genetically impossible blood group. (wikipedia.org)
  • The red blood cells appeared to lack all of the ABO blood group antigens and to have an additional antigen that was previously unknown. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzymes
  • Prior to the realization that individual enzymes were capable of such a task, it was believed that two or more enzymes enacted functional group transfers. (wikipedia.org)