• terephthalic
  • Polymerization product of diallyl ester of a symmetrical aromatic dicarboxylic acid, for instance, that of diallyl terephthalic acid, is excellent in electric properties, dimensional stability, heat resistance, weather-proofness, resistance tochemicals and mechanical properties as compared to the polymerization product of diallyl ester of non-symmetrical aromatic dicarboxylic acid and accordingly, the former has been broadly utilized as electrical material, mechanical material andconstruction material. (patentgenius.com)
  • methyl esters
  • The formation of basic oleochemical substances like fatty acids, fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), fatty alcohols, fatty amines and glycerols are by various chemical and enzymatic reactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most typically, the reaction entails the use of methanol (MeOH) to give fatty acid methyl esters: RCO2CH2-CHO2CR-CH2O2CR + 3 MeOH → 3 RCO2Me + HOCH2-CHOH-CH2OH FAMEs are less viscous than the precursor fats and can be purified to give the individual fatty acid esters, e.g. methyl oleate vs methyl palmitate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to the use of methyl esters in biodiesel production, they represent the fastest growing sub-sector of oleochemical production in recent years. (wikipedia.org)
  • atoms
  • Briefly, it was known that as the number of carbon atoms of the straight chain alkyl group of the alcohol increases, the homopolymers progress from tough, rubbery and moderately hard polymers, to soft, less tough and more rubbery polymers, to soft, tacky polymers, to hard, brittle and waxlike polymers. (google.com)
  • The homopolymer of the n-butyl acrylate monomer is soft and tacky and the trend to softer, tacky polymers continues until the n-alkyl group of the ester contains about 8 carbon atoms. (google.com)
  • A total of 26 minor acids (from 2 in pecan to 8% in peanut) were determined: 8 species derived from succinic acid, likely in relation with photosynthesis, and 18 species with a chain from 5 to 22 carbon atoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • comprises
  • 6) said binder comprises at least one polymer selected from the group consisting of a polymer or copolymer of at least one monomer selected from the group consisting of a styrenic monomer and an acrylic or methacrylic monomer, a polyester, an epoxy resin, a polyolefin and a polyurethane. (google.com)
  • The crosslinking agent comprises a compound with at least two carbonyl groups. (google.es)
  • The second layer comprises a non-water-soluble thermoplastic polymer comprising at least one member selected from the group consisting of polyolefin, polyamide, polyester, polyvinylidene chloride, polyvinyl chloride, and polystyrene. (google.es)
  • carbon
  • This higher yielding route could offer environmental benefits via elimination of cyanide and chloroacetic acid use in addition to carbon sequestration. (wikipedia.org)
  • alcohols
  • Acrylate homopolymers, as was known, exhibit properties of varying degrees of softness or hardness and tackiness, depending largely upon the type of alcohol or mixtures of alcohols from which the esters are prepared. (google.com)
  • Fumaric acid is used in the manufacture of polyester resins and polyhydric alcohols and as a mordant for dyes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The acids or esters can also be reduced to the fatty alcohols. (wikipedia.org)
  • The largest application for oleochemicals, about 30% of market share for fatty acids and 55% for fatty alcohols, is for making soaps and detergents. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carboxylate ions are resonance-stabilized, and this increased stability makes carboxylic acids more acidic than alcohols. (wikipedia.org)
  • These longer chain acids tend to be rather soluble in less-polar solvents such as ethers and alcohols. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phthalate esters of straight-chain and branched-chain alkyl alcohols meet these specifications and are common plasticizers. (wikipedia.org)
  • polyamides
  • Novel prepolymers especially useful for providing release films and other radiation curable coatings are described, including the reaction product of polyamides, containing primary and secondary amine groups with unsaturated polybasic carboxylic acids and particular reaction products of polyether triols with toluene diisocyanate, modified with unsaturated monomers. (google.com)
  • Dicarboxylic acids are also used in the preparation of copolymers such as polyamides and polyesters. (wikipedia.org)
  • Suberic acid is used in the manufacture of alkyd resins and in the synthesis of polyamides (nylon variants). (wikipedia.org)
  • Esters of fatty acids are the main components of lipids and polyamides of aminocarboxylic acids are the main components of proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • fumaric
  • Fumaric acid or trans-butenedioic acid is the chemical compound with the formula HO2CCH=CHCO2H. (wikipedia.org)
  • The chemical properties of fumaric acid can be anticipated from its component functional groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fumaric acid is found in fumitory (Fumaria officinalis), bolete mushrooms (specifically Boletus fomentarius var. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human skin naturally produces fumaric acid when exposed to sunlight. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fumaric acid has been used as a food acidulant since 1946. (wikipedia.org)
  • Various Fumaric acid esters (FAES) have specific immunomodulating (respectively moderate immunosuppression) properties which are responsible for certain effects in the treatment of psoriasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the Netherlands, Germany, Austria and the Benelux countries substances derived from fumaric acid have been used for half a century for this purpose. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although it seems that a certain effectiveness exists (and many studies have confirmed the effect), more statistically powerful studies are necessary to provide better evidence of the effectiveness of fumaric acid esters in treatment of psoriasis (e.g. more accurate in terms of the dermatological nosology of this autoimmune disease). (wikipedia.org)
  • Such studies should in the future help specify which psoriasis variants (in terms of the course, the immunological profile of the patient etc.) are suited to be treated with fumaric acid esters. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fumaric acid is naturally present in the herb called Fumaria officinalis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both enantiomers may be separated by chiral resolution of the racemic mixture, and the (S)- enantiomer may be specifically obtained by fermentation of fumaric acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • fatty acids
  • The splitting (or hydrolysis) of the triglycerides produces fatty acids and glycerol: RCO2CH2-CHO2CR-CH2O2CR + 3 H2O → 3 RCOOH + HOCH2-CHOH-CH2OH The addition of base helps the reaction proceed more quickly, the process being saponification. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, hydrogenation converts unsaturated fatty acids into saturated fatty acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • For some applications, fatty acids are converted to fatty nitriles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the Europe outbreak of 'mad cow disease' or (bovine spongiform encephalopathy) in 2000, tallow is replaced for many uses by vegetable oleic fatty acids, such as palm kernel and coconut oils. (wikipedia.org)
  • polymers
  • The present invention is directed to dispersant prepared from polymers functionalized by a Koch reaction and polyamines containing one primary nitrogen group and at least one secondary or tertiary nitrogen. (sumobrain.com)
  • Carboxylic acids are used in the production of polymers, pharmaceuticals, solvents, and food additives. (wikipedia.org)
  • Linear polymers are created using monomers with two reactive end groups and monomers with more than two end groups give three-dimensional polymers which are cross linked. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins are condensation polymers made from amino acid monomers. (wikipedia.org)
  • tricarboxylic acid
  • Succinate is generated in mitochondria via the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA), an energy-yielding process shared by all organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Succinate is a key intermediate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, a primary metabolic pathway used to produce chemical energy in the presence of O2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Malonate Inhibition of Oxidations in the Krebs Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • resins
  • Azelaic acid is used, as simple esters or branched-chain esters) in the manufacture of plasticizers (for vinyl chloride resins, rubber), lubricants and greases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oleochemicals are important raw material for polymeric resins specially alkyd based because of possible functional group modifications. (wikipedia.org)
  • derivative
  • Additionally, the coenzyme A derivative of malonate, malonyl-CoA, is an important precursor in fatty acid biosynthesis along with acetyl CoA. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this example the derivative is a di-carboxylic acid, but di-acyl chlorides are also used. (wikipedia.org)
  • compound
  • citation needed] Malonic acid is used as a building block chemical to produce numerous valuable compounds, including the flavor and fragrance compounds gamma-nonalactone, cinnamic acid, and the pharmaceutical compound valproate. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • each R' is independently hydrogen or a C 1 to C 6 monovalent organic radical, and G is the radical remaining after removal of the terminal amino groups of a long chain ether diamine having a molecular weight of from about 400 to about 12,000. (google.es)
  • The type of end product resulting from a condensation polymerization is dependent on Monomers with only one reactive group do not padlock a growing chain, and thus give end products with a lower molecular weight. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ortho-phthalate esters have traditionally been the most dominant plasticizers, but regulatory concerns have led to the move away from classified substances to non-classified which includes high molecular weight ortho-phthalates and other plasticisers, especially in Europe. (wikipedia.org)
  • monomers
  • Dehydration synthesis often involves joining monomers with an -OH (hydroxyl) group and a freely ionized -H on either end (such as a hydrogen from the -NH2 in nylon or proteins). (wikipedia.org)
  • The peptide or ester bonds between monomers can be hydrolysed by acid catalysts or bacterial enzymes breaking the polymer chain into smaller pieces. (wikipedia.org)
  • plasticizers
  • Plasticizers for plastics are additives, most commonly phthalate esters in PVC applications. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ester plasticizers are selected based upon cost-performance evaluation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The rubber compounder must evaluate ester plasticizers for compatibility, processibility, permanence and other performance properties. (wikipedia.org)