• wherein
  • 5. The toner according to claim 1, wherein the acid group-containing polymer is a polymer (A) having an alkyl group containing 6-50 carbon atoms and a carboxyl group. (google.com)
  • 2 . A process according to claim 1 wherein said sulfopolyester comprises dicarboxylic acid monomer residues, sulfomonomer residues, diol monomer residues, and repeating units. (google.com.au)
  • 5 . A process according to claim 2 wherein said sulfomonomer is a metal sulfonate salt of a sulfophthalic acid, sulfoterephthalic acid, sulfoisophthalic acid, or combinations thereof. (google.com.au)
  • The dispersant of claim 1 wherein the primary amino group and 1 10 secondary or tertiary amino groups are separated by a hydrocarbylene group. (sumobrain.com)
  • The dispersant of claim 11 wherein at least about 50 mole% of the functional groups COYR 3 are attached to a tertiary carbon atom of the polymer backbone. (sumobrain.com)
  • 5 . The composition of claim 1 , wherein the wax modifier comprises at least one functionalized polyethylene chosen from an ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer, ethylene acrylate acid copolymer, and ethylene-maleic anhydride copolymer. (google.ca)
  • 7 . The composition of claim 1 , wherein the wax modifier comprises a functionalized polyethylene comprising at least one functional group comprising an ethylenically unsaturated monomer. (google.ca)
  • 12. A tear resistant film according to claim 1 wherein the stiff polyester or copolyester comprises the reaction production of (a) a dicarboxylic acid component selected from the group consisting of terephthalic acid, naphthalene dicarboxylic acid and ester derivatives thereof, and (b) a diol component selected from the group consisting of ethylene glycol and 1,4-butanediol. (google.com)
  • 14. A tear resistant film according to claim 1 wherein the ductile polymeric material is selected from the group consisting of ethylene copolymers, polyesters, copolyesters, polyolefins, polyamides, and polyurethanes. (google.com)
  • 15. A tear resistant film according to claim 14 wherein the ductile polymeric material is a copolyester comprising the reaction product of cyclohexane dicarboxylic acid (or ester derivatives thereof), cyclohexane dimethanol and polytetramethylene glycol. (google.com)
  • 2. The improvement in an implantable dispenser for delivering a beneficial agent according to claim 1, wherein the polymer that imparts gelation comprises a member selected from the group consisting of olefin, condensation and addition polymers. (google.es)
  • 6. The implantable dispenser for delivering the beneficial agent to an animal according to claim 1, wherein the beneficial agent is a member selected from the group consisting of monoclonal antibody, vaccine, somatotropin, cosyntropin, gonadotropin, thyrotropin releasing hormone, thyroid stimulating hormone, and pancreozymin. (google.es)
  • A)(i) one or more thermoplastic elastomeric polymers chacterized as having ether, ester and imide linkages and wherein the ether linkages are present as a high molecular weight, i.e. (google.es)
  • 2. The composition of claim 1 wherein the thermoplastic elastomeric polymer A(i) is a polyetherimide ester derived from (i) one or more diols (ii) one or more dicarboxylic acids or the ester derivative thereof and (iii) one or more poly(oxyalkylene) diimide diacids or the reactants therefor. (google.es)
  • 7. The composition of claim 2 wherein the dicarboxylic acid is dimethyl terephthalate. (google.es)
  • 10. The composition of claim 8 wherein the long chain ether diamine is selected from the group consisting of poly(ethylene ether)diamine, poly(propylene ether)diamine, poly(tetramethylene ether) diamine and copoly(ethylene ether-propylene ether)diamine. (google.es)
  • 13. The composition of claim 8 wherein the polyetherimide ester is derived from a preformed poly(oxyalkylene) diimide diacid which is the reaction product of trimellitic anhydride and poly(propylene ether) diamine having a molecular weight of from about 900 to about 4000. (google.es)
  • Amido derivatives of said acids (or anhydrides, in the case of the dicarboxylic acids) are those wherein a nitrogen atom is attached to the carbon atom of a carboxylic acid group (-COOH) in place of the -OH group thereon according to the following structural unit and includes amides, amic acids, diamides, imides and ester-amides of said acids. (google.com)
  • methyl esters
  • The formation of basic oleochemical substances like fatty acids, fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), fatty alcohols, fatty amines and glycerols are by various chemical and enzymatic reactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most typically, the reaction entails the use of methanol (MeOH) to give fatty acid methyl esters: RCO2CH2-CHO2CR-CH2O2CR + 3 MeOH → 3 RCO2Me + HOCH2-CHOH-CH2OH FAMEs are less viscous than the precursor fats and can be purified to give the individual fatty acid esters, e.g. methyl oleate vs methyl palmitate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to the use of methyl esters in biodiesel production, they represent the fastest growing sub-sector of oleochemical production in recent years. (wikipedia.org)
  • atoms
  • A charge controller for an electrophotographic toner is disclosed which comprises a graft or block copolymer comprising: (a) a polymer moiety having an alkyl group containing 6-50 carbon atoms and a carboxyl group, said moiety being selected from the group consisting of: a moiety of a polymer or a copolymer. (google.com)
  • a) a polymer moiety having an alkyl group containing 6-50 carbon atoms and a carboxyl group, said moiety being selected from the group consisting of: a moiety of a polymer or a copolymer containing at least 5 mol. (google.com)
  • Briefly, it was known that as the number of carbon atoms of the straight chain alkyl group of the alcohol increases, the homopolymers progress from tough, rubbery and moderately hard polymers, to soft, less tough and more rubbery polymers, to soft, tacky polymers, to hard, brittle and waxlike polymers. (google.com)
  • The homopolymer of the n-butyl acrylate monomer is soft and tacky and the trend to softer, tacky polymers continues until the n-alkyl group of the ester contains about 8 carbon atoms. (google.com)
  • A total of 26 minor acids (from 2 in pecan to 8% in peanut) were determined: 8 species derived from succinic acid, likely in relation with photosynthesis, and 18 species with a chain from 5 to 22 carbon atoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • The bonds between the hydroxyl group, the hydrogen atom and their respective atoms break forming water from the hydroxyl and hydrogen, and the polymer.Actually in this process two water molecules are released.As given below (n+n=2n) Polyester is created through ester linkages between monomers, which involve the functional groups carboxyl and hydroxyl (an organic acid and an alcohol monomer). (wikipedia.org)
  • COMPOUNDS
  • citation needed] Malonic acid is used as a building block chemical to produce numerous valuable compounds, including the flavor and fragrance compounds gamma-nonalactone, cinnamic acid, and the pharmaceutical compound valproate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lauric acid, used to produce sodium lauryl sulfate and related compounds, which are used to make soaps and other personal care products. (wikipedia.org)
  • reaction
  • Novel prepolymers especially useful for providing release films and other radiation curable coatings are described, including the reaction product of polyamides, containing primary and secondary amine groups with unsaturated polybasic carboxylic acids and particular reaction products of polyether triols with toluene diisocyanate, modified with unsaturated monomers. (google.com)
  • The present invention is directed to dispersant prepared from polymers functionalized by a Koch reaction and polyamines containing one primary nitrogen group and at least one secondary or tertiary nitrogen. (sumobrain.com)
  • Our group recently showed the possibility to crosslink this elastomer by reaction with a dicarboxylic acid (DA). (rsc.org)
  • In a well-known reaction, malonic acid condenses with urea to form barbituric acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • The splitting (or hydrolysis) of the triglycerides produces fatty acids and glycerol: RCO2CH2-CHO2CR-CH2O2CR + 3 H2O → 3 RCOOH + HOCH2-CHOH-CH2OH The addition of base helps the reaction proceed more quickly, the process being saponification. (wikipedia.org)
  • These modifications are based on reaction of vegetable oil with excess glycerol to obtain monoglyceride, which is then converted into polymeric resins i.e. alkyd by reacting with dicarboxylic acids or anhydrides. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another approach used is the reaction of di-functional monomers, with one amine and one carboxylic acid group on the same molecule: The carboxylic acids and amines link to form peptide bonds, also known as amide groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • comprises
  • 6) said binder comprises at least one polymer selected from the group consisting of a polymer or copolymer of at least one monomer selected from the group consisting of a styrenic monomer and an acrylic or methacrylic monomer, a polyester, an epoxy resin, a polyolefin and a polyurethane. (google.com)
  • The crosslinking agent comprises a compound with at least two carbonyl groups. (google.es)
  • The second layer comprises a non-water-soluble thermoplastic polymer comprising at least one member selected from the group consisting of polyolefin, polyamide, polyester, polyvinylidene chloride, polyvinyl chloride, and polystyrene. (google.es)
  • carbon
  • This higher yielding route could offer environmental benefits via elimination of cyanide and chloroacetic acid use in addition to carbon sequestration. (wikipedia.org)
  • malic acid
  • It is generally used as a substitute for tartaric acid and occasionally in place of citric acid, at a rate of 1 g of fumaric acid to every ~1.5 g of citric acid, in order to add sourness, similarly to the way malic acid is used. (wikipedia.org)
  • Malonic acid was first prepared in 1858 by the French chemist Victor Dessaignes (1800-1885) via the oxidation of malic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Malic acid is an organic compound with the molecular formula C4H6O5. (wikipedia.org)
  • Malic acid has two stereoisomeric forms (L- and D-enantiomers), though only the L-isomer exists naturally. (wikipedia.org)
  • L-Malic acid is the naturally occurring form, whereas a mixture of L- and D-malic acid is produced synthetically. (wikipedia.org)
  • L-Malic acid D-Malic acid Malate plays an important role in biochemistry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Malic acid was first isolated from apple juice by Carl Wilhelm Scheele in 1785. (wikipedia.org)
  • The taste of malic acid is very clear and pure in rhubarb, a plant for which it is the primary flavor. (wikipedia.org)
  • The process of malolactic fermentation converts malic acid to much milder lactic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Malic acid occurs naturally in all fruits and many vegetables, and is generated in fruit metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Malic acid, when added to food products, is denoted by E number E296. (wikipedia.org)
  • Malic acid is the source of extreme tartness in United States-produced confectionery, the so-called extreme candy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Malic acid provides 10 kJ (2.39 calories) of energy per gram during digestion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Self-condensation of malic acid with fuming sulfuric acid gives the pyrone coumalic acid: Malic acid was important in the discovery of the Walden inversion and the Walden cycle, in which (−)-malic acid first is converted into (+)-chlorosuccinic acid by action of phosphorus pentachloride. (wikipedia.org)
  • Wet silver oxide then converts the chlorine compound to (+)-malic acid, which then reacts with PCl5 to the (−)-chlorosuccinic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cycle is completed when silver oxide takes this compound back to (−)-malic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • acetic acid
  • A classical preparation of malonic acid starts from chloroacetic acid: Sodium carbonate generates the sodium salt, which is then reacted with sodium cyanide to provide the cyano acetic acid salt via a nucleophilic substitution. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, the conjugate base of acetic acid is acetate. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, at room temperature, in a 1-molar solution of acetic acid, only 0.4% of the acid molecules are dissociated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most common are acetic acid (vinegar) and butyric acid (human vomit). (wikipedia.org)
  • alcohols
  • Acrylate homopolymers, as was known, exhibit properties of varying degrees of softness or hardness and tackiness, depending largely upon the type of alcohol or mixtures of alcohols from which the esters are prepared. (google.com)
  • Fumaric acid is used in the manufacture of polyester resins and polyhydric alcohols and as a mordant for dyes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The acids or esters can also be reduced to the fatty alcohols. (wikipedia.org)
  • The largest application for oleochemicals, about 30% of market share for fatty acids and 55% for fatty alcohols, is for making soaps and detergents. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carboxylate ions are resonance-stabilized, and this increased stability makes carboxylic acids more acidic than alcohols. (wikipedia.org)
  • These longer chain acids tend to be rather soluble in less-polar solvents such as ethers and alcohols. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phthalate esters of straight-chain and branched-chain alkyl alcohols meet these specifications and are common plasticizers. (wikipedia.org)
  • malonic acid
  • Malonic Acid - Malonic acid is an organic dicarboxylic acid with a methylene group separating the two carbonyl moieties. (fsu.edu)
  • Malonic acid (IUPAC systematic name: propanedioic acid) is a dicarboxylic acid with structure CH2(COOH)2. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ionized form of malonic acid, as well as its esters and salts, are known as malonates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Malonic acid is often mistakenly believed to occur in beetroot at high concentration. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, a study on the composition of sugar beet liquors revealed no malonic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Malonic acid is the classic example of a competitive inhibitor: It acts against succinate dehydrogenase (complex II) in the respiratory electron transport chain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nitrile group can be hydrolyzed with sodium hydroxide to sodium malonate, and acidification affords malonic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • More recently, malonic acid has been produced through fermentation of glucose. (wikipedia.org)
  • Malonic acid is also frequently used as an enolate in Knoevenagel condensations or condensed with acetone to form Meldrum's acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • The esters of malonic acid are also used as a −CH2COOH synthon in the malonic ester synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Malonic acid is also known to be a competitive inhibitor of succinic dehydrogenase, the enzyme responsible for the dehydrogenation of succinate within Krebs cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Constant pressure heat capacity of solid: Malonic acid is a precursor to specialty polyesters. (wikipedia.org)
  • One application of malonic acid is in the coatings industry as a crosslinker for low-temperature cure powder coatings, which are becoming increasingly valuable for heat sensitive substrates and a desire to speed up the coatings process. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2004, annual global production of malonic acid and related diesters was over 20,000 metric tons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Malonic acid was listed as one of the top 30 chemicals to be produced from biomass by the US Department of Energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • In food and drug applications, malonic acid can be used to control acidity, either as an excipient in pharmaceutical formulation or natural preservative additive for foods. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eastman Kodak company and others use malonic acid and derivatives as a surgical adhesive. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Origin of the Names Malic, Maleic, and Malonic Acid Jensen, William B. J. Chem. (wikipedia.org)
  • fumaric
  • Fumaric acid or trans-butenedioic acid is the chemical compound with the formula HO2CCH=CHCO2H. (wikipedia.org)
  • The chemical properties of fumaric acid can be anticipated from its component functional groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fumaric acid is found in fumitory (Fumaria officinalis), bolete mushrooms (specifically Boletus fomentarius var. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human skin naturally produces fumaric acid when exposed to sunlight. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fumaric acid has been used as a food acidulant since 1946. (wikipedia.org)
  • Various Fumaric acid esters (FAES) have specific immunomodulating (respectively moderate immunosuppression) properties which are responsible for certain effects in the treatment of psoriasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the Netherlands, Germany, Austria and the Benelux countries substances derived from fumaric acid have been used for half a century for this purpose. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although it seems that a certain effectiveness exists (and many studies have confirmed the effect), more statistically powerful studies are necessary to provide better evidence of the effectiveness of fumaric acid esters in treatment of psoriasis (e.g. more accurate in terms of the dermatological nosology of this autoimmune disease). (wikipedia.org)
  • Such studies should in the future help specify which psoriasis variants (in terms of the course, the immunological profile of the patient etc.) are suited to be treated with fumaric acid esters. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fumaric acid is naturally present in the herb called Fumaria officinalis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both enantiomers may be separated by chiral resolution of the racemic mixture, and the (S)- enantiomer may be specifically obtained by fermentation of fumaric acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • derivative
  • Ellagic acid is a bicyclic coumarin derivative that is a naturally occurring phytochemical proven effective in arresting mitosis in some carcinomas. (fsu.edu)
  • Additionally, the coenzyme A derivative of malonate, malonyl-CoA, is an important precursor in fatty acid biosynthesis along with acetyl CoA. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this example the derivative is a di-carboxylic acid, but di-acyl chlorides are also used. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecule
  • Azelaic acid was identified as a molecule that accumulated at elevated levels in some parts of plants and was shown to be able to enhance the resistance of plants to infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • fatty acids
  • For example, hydrogenation converts unsaturated fatty acids into saturated fatty acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • For some applications, fatty acids are converted to fatty nitriles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the Europe outbreak of 'mad cow disease' or (bovine spongiform encephalopathy) in 2000, tallow is replaced for many uses by vegetable oleic fatty acids, such as palm kernel and coconut oils. (wikipedia.org)
  • adipic
  • The most widely used dicarboxylic acid in the industry is adipic acid, which is a precursor used in the production of nylon. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adipic acid, despite its name (in Latin adipis, is fat), is not a normal constituent of natural lipids but is a product of oxidative rancidity. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • Dehydration synthesis often involves joining monomers with an -OH (hydroxyl) group and a freely ionized -H on either end (such as a hydrogen from the -NH2 in nylon or proteins). (wikipedia.org)
  • tricarboxylic acid
  • Succinate is generated in mitochondria via the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA), an energy-yielding process shared by all organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Succinate is a key intermediate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, a primary metabolic pathway used to produce chemical energy in the presence of O2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Malonate Inhibition of Oxidations in the Krebs Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • resins
  • Azelaic acid is used, as simple esters or branched-chain esters) in the manufacture of plasticizers (for vinyl chloride resins, rubber), lubricants and greases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oleochemicals are important raw material for polymeric resins specially alkyd based because of possible functional group modifications. (wikipedia.org)
  • monomers
  • The type of end product resulting from a condensation polymerization is dependent on Monomers with only one reactive group do not padlock a growing chain, and thus give end products with a lower molecular weight. (wikipedia.org)
  • The peptide or ester bonds between monomers can be hydrolysed by acid catalysts or bacterial enzymes breaking the polymer chain into smaller pieces. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • The DA molecules react with the epoxy groups, producing β hydroxy-esters along the chain. (rsc.org)
  • citation needed] For nomenclature of complex molecules containining a carboxylic acid, the carboxyl can be considered position one of the parent chain even if there are other substituents, for example, 3-chloropropanoic acid. (wikipedia.org)