• irrigation
  • Those closer to the surface are not only more likely to be used for water supply and irrigation, but are also more likely to be topped up by the local rainfall. (wikipedia.org)
  • SahysMod is a computer program for the prediction of the salinity of soil moisture, groundwater and drainage water, the depth of the watertable, and the drain discharge in irrigated agricultural lands, using different hydrogeologic and aquifer conditions, varying water management options, including the use of ground water for irrigation, and several crop rotation schedules, whereby the spatial variations are accounted for through a network of polygons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Further, SahysMod gives the option of the re-use of drainage and well water (e.g. for irrigation) and it can account for farmers' responses to waterlogging, soil salinity, water scarcity and over-pumping from the aquifer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydraulics and hydrology engineers work to prevent floods, to supply water for cities, industry and irrigation, to treat wastewater, to protect beaches, or to manage and redirect rivers. (purdue.edu)
  • We would also like to thank Department of Water Resources of the Ministry of Agriculture, Irrigation and Water Development in Malawi for providing existing data and equipment support during field surveys. (springer.com)
  • It replenishes our streams and rivers and provides fresh water for irrigation, industry, and communities. (idaho.gov)
  • The water is used for irrigation of such crops as potatoes, sugarbeets, and barley. (idaho.gov)
  • citation needed] The only known alternatives to injection wells are direct discharge of treated waste water to receiving waters or utilization of the treated water for irrigation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Measuring about 400 miles (640 km) from east to west, it is an important water source for agricultural irrigation in the Plain. (wikipedia.org)
  • shallow
  • Delaware residents live in a region with low elevation which is very close to the coast with low elevation and the shallow groundwater makes us concern about contaminated well water even more intense. (scirp.org)
  • Part of the Atlas Mountains in North Africa, the Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon ranges between Syria and Lebanon, the Jebel Akhdar in Oman, parts of the Sierra Nevada and neighboring ranges in the United States' Southwest, have shallow aquifers that are exploited for their water. (wikipedia.org)
  • An injection well is a device that places fluid deep underground into porous rock formations, such as sandstone or limestone, or into or below the shallow soil layer. (wikipedia.org)
  • geologic
  • Artimo A, Mäkinen J, Abert CC, Berg RC, Salonen V-P (2003) Three-dimensional geologic modeling and visualization of the Virttaankangas aquifer. (springer.com)
  • Annual storage between 1955 and 2012 estimated from data provided by a continuing program between the U.S. Geologic Survey and the Edwards Aquifer Authority ranged from -633,000 to +1,653,000 acre-feet per year. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scientists with the United States Geologic Survey have developed numerical groundwater flow models for the San Antonio and Barton Springs aquifer segments to determine the amount of water in the aquifer, the direction it is flowing, and its velocity. (wikipedia.org)
  • In general, the more productive aquifers occur in sedimentary geologic formations. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Columbia floodplain, formed by geologic processes including lava flows, volcanic eruptions, and the Missoula Floods, is part of the Portland Basin, which extends across the Columbia River from Multnomah County, Oregon, into Clark County, Washington. (wikipedia.org)
  • soils
  • This program offers research and education on a wide range of issues, including remediation of contaminated soils and sediments, industrial and solid waste treatment, water and wastewater treatment, air pollution measurement and control, urban and agricultural air and water quality management, understanding the environmental fate of pollutants, and sustainable engineering. (purdue.edu)
  • At increasing depths, water fills in more of the pore spaces in the soils, until a zone of saturation is reached. (wikipedia.org)
  • In less permeable soils, such as tight bedrock formations and historic lakebed deposits, the water table may be more difficult to define. (wikipedia.org)
  • isotopic data
  • In this study, we corroboratively used pumping test and stable isotopic data to understand groundwater recharge and flow processes in fractured hornblende-biotite-gneiss. (springer.com)
  • A combination of stable isotopic data and derivative plots of drawdown data helped identification of apparent recharge zones, no-flow boundaries and dominant flow types in the pumped wells with bilinear flow being the dominant type of flow in BP1 and BP2, while linear flow was dominant in BP3 and BP4. (springer.com)
  • 1998). Preliminary chemical and isotopic data for waters from springs and wells on and near Medicine Lake Volcano, Cascade Range, northern California. (wikipedia.org)
  • soil moisture
  • For example, a prolonged dry period during the summer may substantially lower the yield of crops due to a shortage of soil moisture in the plant root zone but have little effect on groundwater storage replenished the previous spring. (usgs.gov)
  • springs
  • These systems include well, cisterns, and springs . (scirp.org)
  • Springs are ground water that flows out of the earth. (idaho.gov)
  • Ground water can flow naturally from springs or canyon walls, supply water to rivers, or be pulled into wells. (idaho.gov)
  • Saint Agnes Well Tallheo Hot Springs, South Bentinck Arm Toad River Hot Springs, Alaska Highway T'sek Hot Spring formerly Skookumchuck Hot Springs aka Saint Agnes Well, between Pemberton and Port Douglas near the town of Skatin formerly Skookumchuck T'sik Hot Spring alt. (wikipedia.org)
  • into a stream channel, or springs and seepage water. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, the Edwards Aquifer feeds the Comal and San Marcos springs, provides springflow for recreational and downstream uses in the Nueces, San Antonio, Guadalupe, and San Marcos river basins, and is home to several unique and endangered species. (wikipedia.org)
  • During dry years, more water is discharged from wells while during wet years, more water is discharged from springs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Annual total groundwater discharge from pumping and springs ranged from 388,800 acre-feet to 1,130,000 acre-feet, and the average total groundwater discharge for 1955 to 2012 period was approximately 764,431 acre-feet. (wikipedia.org)
  • For about 100 miles downstream from Milner Dam in the vicinity of Twin Falls an estimated total volume of approximately 200 billion cubic feet of water (1.4 cubic miles) enter the Snake River from gigantic springs on the north side of the canyon. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is the well-known Thousand Springs area. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consequently, the gravity and weight of the water in the basalt layers north of the river drives the huge springs. (wikipedia.org)
  • It preserves a wilderness of freshwater springs and geologically recent lava flows. (wikipedia.org)
  • Water in the springs originate as snowmelt from the Medicine Lake Volcano highlands. (wikipedia.org)
  • sediments
  • The Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer system in Middlesex and Monmouth Counties in the northern Coastal Plain of New Jersey consists primarily of unconsolidated Cretaceous sediments, which are divided into the upper and middle aquifers and confining units. (usgs.gov)
  • The upper aquifer is confined throughout most of the northern New Jersey Coastal Plain by clays and silts of the Cretaceous Woodbury Clay and Merchantville Formation and younger sediments of the Magothy Formation. (usgs.gov)
  • Interbedded alluvial sediments are also found between many of the flows. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unconsolidated to poorly cemented alluvial materials that have accumulated as valley-filling sediments in major river valleys and geologically subsiding structural basins are included among the most productive sources of groundwater. (wikipedia.org)
  • saturation
  • This is termed tension saturation and is not the same as saturation on a water-content basis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The water table is the upper surface of the zone of saturation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The zone of saturation is where the pores and fractures of the ground are saturated with water. (wikipedia.org)
  • This disparity between the level of the winter and summer water table is known as the "zone of intermittent saturation", wherein the water table will fluctuate in response to climatic conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Characteristics
  • Chandler, K., and Reiten, J.C., 2014, The Characteristics and Conditions of the Fox Hills/Hell Creek Aquifer: Presented to the Montana Association of Conservation Districts (MACD) Regional Meeting, Miles City, September 25, 2014. (mtech.edu)
  • Ako A, Shimada J, Hosono T, Ichiyanagi K, Elambo Nkeng G, Eneke TEG, Njila RN (2012) Hydrogeochemical and isotopic characteristics of groundwater in Mbanga, Njombe and Penja (Banana Plain)-Cameroon. (springer.com)
  • How does the generation of hydroelectricity change the characteristics of flowing rivers? (csudh.edu)
  • The characteristics of aquifers vary with the geology and structure of the substrate and topography in which they occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • discharge
  • Based on constituent concentrations in water samples from the six daily discharge stations, concentrations generally are lower in the upper three subbasins, West Fork Horse Creek, Upper Horse Creek, and Brushy Creek than in the lower three subbasins. (usgs.gov)
  • Storage is the difference between recharge (inputs) and discharge (outputs) from the Edwards Aquifer. (wikipedia.org)
  • A long-term negative imbalance between recharge and discharge in an aquifer may lead to the depletion of the available water in the aquifer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Water from the Edwards Aquifer is discharged in two ways: it is either pumped from wells (well discharge) or it leaves as stream outflow (spring discharge). (wikipedia.org)
  • Annual well discharge - the sum of all well discharges in a year - ranged from 219,300 acre-feet to 542,500 acre-feet between 1955 and 2012. (wikipedia.org)
  • The average well discharge for this period was approximately 371,667 acre-feet, equivalent to 183 thousand Olympic-sized swimming pools. (wikipedia.org)
  • hydrologic
  • When dealing with problems involving the flow and storage of water, hydraulic and hydrologic engineering are essential disciplines required in a wide range of civil engineering projects. (purdue.edu)
  • Ultimately, the surface water and groundwater form one interconnected hydrologic system. (usgs.gov)
  • Ground water is part of the water, or hydrologic, cycle, which is the cyclic movement of water from the air to the earth, into the earth, back to the surface, and eventually back to the air. (idaho.gov)
  • elevation
  • The land-surface elevation drop has resulted in serious operational and structural issues for surface water delivery networks, such as the Delta-Mendota Canal (DMC). (usgs.gov)
  • If a deeper aquifer has a lower permeable unit that confines the upward flow, then the water level in this aquifer may rise to a level that is greater or less than the elevation of the actual water table. (wikipedia.org)
  • The elevation of the water in this deeper well is dependent upon the pressure in the deeper aquifer and is referred to as the potentiometric surface, not the water table. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the aquifer is hydraulically connected to body of water on the surface there are increases in the water table elevation as the result of managed recharge. (wikipedia.org)
  • Injection wells are usually constructed of solid walled pipe to a deep elevation in order to prevent injectate from mixing with the surrounding environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Water returns to the land surface at a lower elevation than where infiltration occurred, under the force of gravity or gravity induced pressures. (wikipedia.org)
  • streamflow
  • Water that leaves the area on its way to the ocean as streamflow is called surface runoff. (usgs.gov)
  • Annual runoff, which is calculated from this streamflow data, supplies many of our needs for water. (usgs.gov)
  • Although the contribution of groundwater to total streamflow varies widely among streams, hydrologists estimate the average contribution is often over 50 percent. (usgs.gov)
  • lava flows
  • About two thirds of the park's 5,930 acres (2,400 ha) is covered by jagged black basalt deposited in lava flows within the last two to five thousand years. (wikipedia.org)
  • depths
  • Aquifers may occur at various depths. (wikipedia.org)
  • Isn't it strange that water falls from the heaven (read sky) and part of it percolates down to the depths of the earth? (boloji.com)
  • Water while traveling from the atmosphere to the land surface and from there to the depths of the earth gathers even the anthropogenic contaminants. (boloji.com)
  • Most crops need a water table at a minimum depth because at shallower depths the crop suffers a yield decline. (wikipedia.org)
  • pores
  • Unsaturated conditions occur above the water table where the pressure head is negative (absolute pressure can never be negative, but gauge pressure can) and the water that incompletely fills the pores of the aquifer material is under suction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eventually, the water may reach an area where the pores between the rock and sediment are filled with water (the saturated zone ). (idaho.gov)
  • wastewater
  • Silt and clay effectively filter out pathogens but allow very limited wastewater flow rates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Just as the septic tank is sized to support a community of anaerobic organisms capable of liquifying anticipated amounts of putresible materials in wastewater, the drain field should be sized to support a community of aerobic soil microorganisms capable of decomposing the anaerobic septic tank's effluent into aerobic water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Centralized treatment of wastewater is emerging as a viable solution for long-term efficiency in managing water sourcing and wastewater treatment in hydraulic fracturing. (environmental-expert.com)
  • The fluid may be water, wastewater, brine (salt water), or water mixed with chemicals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike outfalls or other direct disposal techniques, injection wells utilize the earth as a filter to further clean the treated wastewater before it reaches the receiving water. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Since the early 1990s, Maui County, Hawaii has been engaged in a struggle over the 3-5 million gallons per day of wastewater that it injects below the Lahaina sewage treatment plant, over the claim that the water was emerging in seeps that were causing algae blooms and other environmental damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nanoremediation has been most widely used for groundwater treatment, with additional extensive research in wastewater treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • contaminant
  • 2002) with new information including treatment-system totalizer data, recent water-level and chemistry data, and data collected from new wells to discern trends in contaminant migration and groundwater flow that may be useful for ongoing remediation efforts. (unt.edu)
  • Rapid, portable, and cost-effective measurement systems for trace contaminants in groundwater and other environmental media would thus enhance contaminant detection and cleanup. (wikipedia.org)
  • Impacts
  • This method hasn't been well tested yet, so there could be some negative impacts on the environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • This method of waste water disposal also serves to spread the injectate over a wide area, further decreasing environmental impacts. (wikipedia.org)
  • fills
  • It is the water that fills the natural open spaces in soil and rocks underground in much the same way as water fills a sponge. (idaho.gov)
  • rainfall
  • The depth of the water table, the rainfall and salt concentrations of the deeper layers are assumed to be the same over the whole polygon. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike the effects of a drought on streamflows, groundwater levels in wells may not reflect a shortage of rainfall for a year or more after a drought begins. (usgs.gov)
  • It is non-renewable by present-day rainfall due to its depth below the surface, and any extraction causes a permanent change in the water table in such regions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Groundwater can be created by using dewatered aquifer space to store water during the years when there is abundant rainfall. (wikipedia.org)
  • system
  • The high percentage of carbonate plus bicarbonate analyzed at the Carlton surficial aquifer well could indicate an upward ground-water flow from the underlying intermediate aquifer system. (usgs.gov)
  • The above diagram indicates typical flow directions in a cross-sectional view of a simple confined or unconfined aquifer system. (wikipedia.org)
  • The surveillance system includes data on WBDOs associated with drinking water, water not intended for drinking (excluding recreational water), and water of unknown intent. (cdc.gov)
  • Geochemical data also show that the groundwater system has not undergone pronounced geochemical evolution as evidenced by low total dissolved solids in both seasons. (springer.com)
  • This has happened to a significant extent in California's San Joaquin Valley aquifer system . (usgs.gov)
  • A finite-difference, quasi-three-dimensional groundwater flow model was developed to simulate groundwater flow in the aquifer system. (usgs.gov)
  • Water levels have been recorded in the J-17 well since the 1910s, and is used to generalize the entire aquifer system. (wikipedia.org)
  • remediation
  • The purpose of this document is to describe recent field demonstrations, commercial applications, and research on technologies that either treat soil and ground water in place or increase the solubility and mobility of contaminants to improve their removal by pump-and-treat remediation. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Currently, groundwater remediation is the most common commercial application of nanoremediation technologies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using nanomaterials, especially zero-valent metals (ZVMs), for groundwater remediation is an emerging approach that is promising due to the availability and effectiveness of many nanomaterials for degrading or sequestering contaminants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Direct push wells cost less than drilled wells and are the most often used delivery tool for remediation with nanoiron. (wikipedia.org)