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  • shallow
  • Delaware residents live in a region with low elevation which is very close to the coast with low elevation and the shallow groundwater makes us concern about contaminated well water even more intense. (scirp.org)
  • Part of the Atlas Mountains in North Africa, the Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon ranges between Syria and Lebanon, the Jebel Akhdar in Oman, parts of the Sierra Nevada and neighboring ranges in the United States' Southwest, have shallow aquifers that are exploited for their water. (wikipedia.org)
  • An injection well is a device that places fluid deep underground into porous rock formations, such as sandstone or limestone, or into or below the shallow soil layer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Deep wells that are designed to inject hazardous wastes or carbon dioxide deep below the Earth's surface have multiple layers of protective casing and cement, whereas shallow wells injecting non-hazardous fluids into or above drinking water sources are more simply constructed. (wikipedia.org)
  • geologic
  • Artimo A, Mäkinen J, Abert CC, Berg RC, Salonen V-P (2003) Three-dimensional geologic modeling and visualization of the Virttaankangas aquifer. (springer.com)
  • Three test wells were drilled near the banks of the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, in aquifers formed by sand beds in two geologic units, the nonmarine Cretaceous sediments and the Magothy formation, which crop out along the sides and across the bottom of the canal. (udel.edu)
  • In general, the more productive aquifers occur in sedimentary geologic formations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Annual storage between 1955 and 2012 estimated from data provided by a continuing program between the U.S. Geologic Survey and the Edwards Aquifer Authority ranged from -633,000 to +1,653,000 acre-feet per year. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scientists with the United States Geologic Survey have developed numerical groundwater flow models for the San Antonio and Barton Springs aquifer segments to determine the amount of water in the aquifer, the direction it is flowing, and its velocity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Columbia floodplain, formed by geologic processes including lava flows, volcanic eruptions, and the Missoula Floods, is part of the Portland Basin, which extends across the Columbia River from Multnomah County, Oregon, into Clark County, Washington. (wikipedia.org)
  • soils
  • This program offers research and education on a wide range of issues, including remediation of contaminated soils and sediments, industrial and solid waste treatment, water and wastewater treatment, air pollution measurement and control, urban and agricultural air and water quality management, understanding the environmental fate of pollutants, and sustainable engineering. (purdue.edu)
  • At increasing depths, water fills in more of the pore spaces in the soils, until a zone of saturation is reached. (wikipedia.org)
  • In fine grained soils, capillary action can cause the pores of the soil to be fully saturated above the water table at a pressure less than atmospheric. (wikipedia.org)
  • contaminants
  • The purpose of this document is to describe recent field demonstrations, commercial applications, and research on technologies that either treat soil and ground water in place or increase the solubility and mobility of contaminants to improve their removal by pump-and-treat remediation. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Water while traveling from the atmosphere to the land surface and from there to the depths of the earth gathers even the anthropogenic contaminants. (boloji.com)
  • Using nanomaterials, especially zero-valent metals (ZVMs), for groundwater remediation is an emerging approach that is promising due to the availability and effectiveness of many nanomaterials for degrading or sequestering contaminants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nanotechnology offers the potential to effectively treat contaminants in situ, avoiding excavation or the need to pump contaminated water out of the ground. (wikipedia.org)
  • Target contaminants in surface waters include heavy metals, organic contaminants, and pathogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rapid, portable, and cost-effective measurement systems for trace contaminants in groundwater and other environmental media would thus enhance contaminant detection and cleanup. (wikipedia.org)
  • Flow rates and chemical reactions in the vadose zone also control whether, where, and how fast contaminants enter groundwater supplies. (wikipedia.org)
  • isotopic data
  • In this study, we corroboratively used pumping test and stable isotopic data to understand groundwater recharge and flow processes in fractured hornblende-biotite-gneiss. (springer.com)
  • A combination of stable isotopic data and derivative plots of drawdown data helped identification of apparent recharge zones, no-flow boundaries and dominant flow types in the pumped wells with bilinear flow being the dominant type of flow in BP1 and BP2, while linear flow was dominant in BP3 and BP4. (springer.com)
  • 1998). Preliminary chemical and isotopic data for waters from springs and wells on and near Medicine Lake Volcano, Cascade Range, northern California. (wikipedia.org)
  • arid
  • Fractured rock aquifers continue to support millions of people in arid and semiarid regions. (springer.com)
  • Groundwater banking has been implemented into semi-arid and arid southwestern United States because this is where there is the most need for extra water. (wikipedia.org)
  • saturation
  • This is termed tension saturation and is not the same as saturation on a water-content basis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The water table is the upper surface of the zone of saturation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The zone of saturation is where the pores and fractures of the ground are saturated with water. (wikipedia.org)
  • This disparity between the level of the winter and summer water table is known as the "zone of intermittent saturation", wherein the water table will fluctuate in response to climatic conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • occur
  • Aquifers may occur at various depths. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unsaturated conditions occur above the water table where the pressure head is negative (absolute pressure can never be negative, but gauge pressure can) and the water that incompletely fills the pores of the aquifer material is under suction. (wikipedia.org)
  • capillary action
  • The water content in the unsaturated zone is held in place by surface adhesive forces and it rises above the water table (the zero-gauge-pressure isobar) by capillary action to saturate a small zone above the phreatic surface (the capillary fringe) at less than atmospheric pressure. (wikipedia.org)
  • streamflow
  • Water that leaves the area on its way to the ocean as streamflow is called surface runoff. (usgs.gov)
  • Annual runoff, which is calculated from this streamflow data, supplies many of our needs for water. (usgs.gov)
  • Although the contribution of groundwater to total streamflow varies widely among streams, hydrologists estimate the average contribution is often over 50 percent. (usgs.gov)
  • lava flows
  • About two thirds of the park's 5,930 acres (2,400 ha) is covered by jagged black basalt deposited in lava flows within the last two to five thousand years. (wikipedia.org)
  • depths
  • Isn't it strange that water falls from the heaven (read sky) and part of it percolates down to the depths of the earth? (boloji.com)
  • Most crops need a water table at a minimum depth because at shallower depths the crop suffers a yield decline. (wikipedia.org)
  • wastewater
  • Centralized treatment of wastewater is emerging as a viable solution for long-term efficiency in managing water sourcing and wastewater treatment in hydraulic fracturing. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Silt and clay effectively filter out pathogens but allow very limited wastewater flow rates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Just as the septic tank is sized to support a community of anaerobic organisms capable of liquifying anticipated amounts of putresible materials in wastewater, the drain field should be sized to support a community of aerobic soil microorganisms capable of decomposing the anaerobic septic tank's effluent into aerobic water. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fluid may be water, wastewater, brine (salt water), or water mixed with chemicals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike outfalls or other direct disposal techniques, injection wells utilize the earth as a filter to further clean the treated wastewater before it reaches the receiving water. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Since the early 1990s, Maui County, Hawaii has been engaged in a struggle over the 3-5 million gallons per day of wastewater that it injects below the Lahaina sewage treatment plant, over the claim that the water was emerging in seeps that were causing algae blooms and other environmental damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nanoremediation has been most widely used for groundwater treatment, with additional extensive research in wastewater treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Impacts
  • This method hasn't been well tested yet, so there could be some negative impacts on the environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • This method of waste water disposal also serves to spread the injectate over a wide area, further decreasing environmental impacts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Characteristics
  • Chandler, K., and Reiten, J.C., 2014, The Characteristics and Conditions of the Fox Hills/Hell Creek Aquifer: Presented to the Montana Association of Conservation Districts (MACD) Regional Meeting, Miles City, September 25, 2014. (mtech.edu)
  • Ako A, Shimada J, Hosono T, Ichiyanagi K, Elambo Nkeng G, Eneke TEG, Njila RN (2012) Hydrogeochemical and isotopic characteristics of groundwater in Mbanga, Njombe and Penja (Banana Plain)-Cameroon. (springer.com)
  • rainfall
  • Unlike the effects of a drought on streamflows, groundwater levels in wells may not reflect a shortage of rainfall for a year or more after a drought begins. (usgs.gov)
  • The depth of the water table, the rainfall and salt concentrations of the deeper layers are assumed to be the same over the whole polygon. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is non-renewable by present-day rainfall due to its depth below the surface, and any extraction causes a permanent change in the water table in such regions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Groundwater can be created by using dewatered aquifer space to store water during the years when there is abundant rainfall. (wikipedia.org)
  • gravel
  • Ground conditions from rock and gravel through to silts and clays will determine the equipments and approach used in the ground investigations as will made up, contaminated ground and under water ground. (wikipedia.org)
  • Geothermal
  • A review of coupled groundwater and heat transfer theory is followed by an introduction to geothermal measurement techniques. (springerprofessional.de)
  • The general flow of fluids (water, hydrocarbons, geothermal fluids, etc.) in deeper formations is also a concern of geologists, geophysicists and petroleum geologists. (wikipedia.org)
  • system
  • The surveillance system includes data on WBDOs associated with drinking water, water not intended for drinking (excluding recreational water), and water of unknown intent. (cdc.gov)
  • Geochemical data also show that the groundwater system has not undergone pronounced geochemical evolution as evidenced by low total dissolved solids in both seasons. (springer.com)
  • This has happened to a significant extent in California's San Joaquin Valley aquifer system . (usgs.gov)
  • Water levels have been recorded in the J-17 well since the 1910s, and is used to generalize the entire aquifer system. (wikipedia.org)
  • One of the main tasks a hydrogeologist typically performs is the prediction of future behavior of an aquifer system, based on analysis of past and present observations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Will the plume of effluent leaving my neighbor's septic system flow to my drinking water well? (wikipedia.org)