• Irrigation
  • Hydraulics and hydrology engineers work to prevent floods, to supply water for cities, industry and irrigation, to treat wastewater, to protect beaches, or to manage and redirect rivers. (purdue.edu)
  • We would also like to thank Department of Water Resources of the Ministry of Agriculture, Irrigation and Water Development in Malawi for providing existing data and equipment support during field surveys. (springer.com)
  • Those closer to the surface are not only more likely to be used for water supply and irrigation, but are also more likely to be topped up by the local rainfall. (wikipedia.org)
  • SahysMod is a computer program for the prediction of the salinity of soil moisture, groundwater and drainage water, the depth of the watertable, and the drain discharge in irrigated agricultural lands, using different hydrogeologic and aquifer conditions, varying water management options, including the use of ground water for irrigation, and several crop rotation schedules, whereby the spatial variations are accounted for through a network of polygons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Further, SahysMod gives the option of the re-use of drainage and well water (e.g. for irrigation) and it can account for farmers' responses to waterlogging, soil salinity, water scarcity and over-pumping from the aquifer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another option floated - building a city water treatment plant which would operate using Turlock Irrigation District water sent down Laterals 3 and 4 - also seemed an unlikely solution. (turlockjournal.com)
  • citation needed] The only known alternatives to injection wells are direct discharge of treated waste water to receiving waters or utilization of the treated water for irrigation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Measuring about 400 miles (640 km) from east to west, it is an important water source for agricultural irrigation in the Plain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The water of the Tirza Stream, the largest stream in the central Jordan Valley, fed by rainwater, is diverted by Israel to the Tirza Reservoir and used by settlements in the area for irrigation of crops and for raising fish. (wikipedia.org)
  • shallow
  • Delaware residents live in a region with low elevation which is very close to the coast with low elevation and the shallow groundwater makes us concern about contaminated well water even more intense. (scirp.org)
  • Part of the Atlas Mountains in North Africa, the Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon ranges between Syria and Lebanon, the Jebel Akhdar in Oman, parts of the Sierra Nevada and neighboring ranges in the United States' Southwest, have shallow aquifers that are exploited for their water. (wikipedia.org)
  • An injection well is a device that places fluid deep underground into porous rock formations, such as sandstone or limestone, or into or below the shallow soil layer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Deep wells that are designed to inject hazardous wastes or carbon dioxide deep below the Earth's surface have multiple layers of protective casing and cement, whereas shallow wells injecting non-hazardous fluids into or above drinking water sources are more simply constructed. (wikipedia.org)
  • geologic
  • Artimo A, Mäkinen J, Abert CC, Berg RC, Salonen V-P (2003) Three-dimensional geologic modeling and visualization of the Virttaankangas aquifer. (springer.com)
  • Three test wells were drilled near the banks of the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, in aquifers formed by sand beds in two geologic units, the nonmarine Cretaceous sediments and the Magothy formation, which crop out along the sides and across the bottom of the canal. (udel.edu)
  • In general, the more productive aquifers occur in sedimentary geologic formations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Annual storage between 1955 and 2012 estimated from data provided by a continuing program between the U.S. Geologic Survey and the Edwards Aquifer Authority ranged from -633,000 to +1,653,000 acre-feet per year. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scientists with the United States Geologic Survey have developed numerical groundwater flow models for the San Antonio and Barton Springs aquifer segments to determine the amount of water in the aquifer, the direction it is flowing, and its velocity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Columbia floodplain, formed by geologic processes including lava flows, volcanic eruptions, and the Missoula Floods, is part of the Portland Basin, which extends across the Columbia River from Multnomah County, Oregon, into Clark County, Washington. (wikipedia.org)
  • soils
  • This program offers research and education on a wide range of issues, including remediation of contaminated soils and sediments, industrial and solid waste treatment, water and wastewater treatment, air pollution measurement and control, urban and agricultural air and water quality management, understanding the environmental fate of pollutants, and sustainable engineering. (purdue.edu)
  • At increasing depths, water fills in more of the pore spaces in the soils, until a zone of saturation is reached. (wikipedia.org)
  • soil moisture
  • For example, a prolonged dry period during the summer may substantially lower the yield of crops due to a shortage of soil moisture in the plant root zone but have little effect on groundwater storage replenished the previous spring. (usgs.gov)
  • sediments
  • The Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer system in Middlesex and Monmouth Counties in the northern Coastal Plain of New Jersey consists primarily of unconsolidated Cretaceous sediments, which are divided into the upper and middle aquifers and confining units. (usgs.gov)
  • The upper aquifer is confined throughout most of the northern New Jersey Coastal Plain by clays and silts of the Cretaceous Woodbury Clay and Merchantville Formation and younger sediments of the Magothy Formation. (usgs.gov)
  • Unconsolidated to poorly cemented alluvial materials that have accumulated as valley-filling sediments in major river valleys and geologically subsiding structural basins are included among the most productive sources of groundwater. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interbedded alluvial sediments are also found between many of the flows. (wikipedia.org)
  • saturation
  • This is termed tension saturation and is not the same as saturation on a water-content basis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The water table is the upper surface of the zone of saturation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The zone of saturation is where the pores and fractures of the ground are saturated with water. (wikipedia.org)
  • This disparity between the level of the winter and summer water table is known as the "zone of intermittent saturation", wherein the water table will fluctuate in response to climatic conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • reservoir
  • Where water demand is great-in the urban areas of New York, Connecticut, Massachusetts, and Rhode Island-sophisticated reservoir, pipeline, and purification systems are economically feasible and are needed to meet demands. (usgs.gov)
  • Steam, carbon dioxide, water, and other substances can be injected into an oil-producing unit in order to maintain reservoir pressure, heat the oil or lower its viscosity, allowing it to flow to a producing well nearby. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Snake River Aquifer is a large reservoir of groundwater underlying the Snake River Plain in the southern part of the U.S. state of Idaho. (wikipedia.org)
  • Palestinians claim they have a legal right to ownership, or claim to use of three water sources in the area:(a)the groundwater reservoir of the Mountain Aquifer, the Gaza Strip Coastal Aquifer and the Jordan River to the amount of 700 MCM/Y, over 50% of natural water resources between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River. (wikipedia.org)
  • springs
  • These systems include well, cisterns, and springs . (scirp.org)
  • Saint Agnes Well Tallheo Hot Springs, South Bentinck Arm Toad River Hot Springs, Alaska Highway T'sek Hot Spring formerly Skookumchuck Hot Springs aka Saint Agnes Well, between Pemberton and Port Douglas near the town of Skatin formerly Skookumchuck T'sik Hot Spring alt. (wikipedia.org)
  • into a stream channel, or springs and seepage water. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, the Edwards Aquifer feeds the Comal and San Marcos springs, provides springflow for recreational and downstream uses in the Nueces, San Antonio, Guadalupe, and San Marcos river basins, and is home to several unique and endangered species. (wikipedia.org)
  • During dry years, more water is discharged from wells while during wet years, more water is discharged from springs. (wikipedia.org)
  • For about 100 miles downstream from Milner Dam in the vicinity of Twin Falls an estimated total volume of approximately 200 billion cubic feet of water (1.4 cubic miles) enter the Snake River from gigantic springs on the north side of the canyon. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is the well-known Thousand Springs area. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consequently, the gravity and weight of the water in the basalt layers north of the river drives the huge springs. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the PWA was able to drill new wells for only 30 mcm at the expense of the existing springs and wells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Israeli wells in the West Bank have dried up local Palestinian wells and springs. (wikipedia.org)
  • freshwater
  • Only 2.5% of this water is freshwater, and 98.8% of that water is in ice (excepting ice in clouds) and groundwater. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2013 large freshwater aquifers were discovered under continental shelves off Australia, China, North America and South Africa. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such an island's freshwater lens, and thus the water table, rises and falls with the tides. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Upper Jordan River flows south into Sea of Galilee, which provides the largest freshwater storage capacity along the Jordan River. (wikipedia.org)
  • streamflow
  • Water that leaves the area on its way to the ocean as streamflow is called surface runoff. (usgs.gov)
  • Annual runoff, which is calculated from this streamflow data, supplies many of our needs for water. (usgs.gov)
  • Although the contribution of groundwater to total streamflow varies widely among streams, hydrologists estimate the average contribution is often over 50 percent. (usgs.gov)
  • consists
  • The upper aquifer consists primarily of the Old Bridge Sand Member of the Magothy Formation, which is composed of coarse-grained sands, localized thin clay beds, and younger surficial sands and gravels in and near the outcrop. (usgs.gov)
  • The middle aquifer consists primarily of the Farrington Sand Member of the Cretaceous Raritan Formation and surficial Holocene and Miocene sands and gravels in its outcrop area. (usgs.gov)
  • In the West Bank, the main groundwater resource is the Mountain Aquifer, which consists of three aquifers: The Western Aquifer, in Israel called the "Yarkon-Taninim Aquifer", is the largest one, with an annual safe yield of 362 million cubic metres (mcm), based on average annual estimate, (of which 40 mcm are brackish). (wikipedia.org)
  • drawdown
  • A combination of stable isotopic data and derivative plots of drawdown data helped identification of apparent recharge zones, no-flow boundaries and dominant flow types in the pumped wells with bilinear flow being the dominant type of flow in BP1 and BP2, while linear flow was dominant in BP3 and BP4. (springer.com)
  • Aquifer drawdown or overdrafting and the pumping of fossil water may be a contributing factor to sea-level rise. (wikipedia.org)
  • depths
  • Aquifers may occur at various depths. (wikipedia.org)
  • Isn't it strange that water falls from the heaven (read sky) and part of it percolates down to the depths of the earth? (boloji.com)
  • Water while traveling from the atmosphere to the land surface and from there to the depths of the earth gathers even the anthropogenic contaminants. (boloji.com)
  • Most crops need a water table at a minimum depth because at shallower depths the crop suffers a yield decline. (wikipedia.org)
  • withdrawals
  • Estimated withdrawals from the upper aquifer in the northern Coastal Plain were approximately 42 Mgal/d (million gallons per day) in 1986. (usgs.gov)
  • Estimated withdrawals from the middle aquifer in the northern Coastal Plain were about 22 Mgal/d in 1986. (usgs.gov)
  • hydrologic
  • When dealing with problems involving the flow and storage of water, hydraulic and hydrologic engineering are essential disciplines required in a wide range of civil engineering projects. (purdue.edu)
  • Impacts
  • This method hasn't been well tested yet, so there could be some negative impacts on the environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • This method of waste water disposal also serves to spread the injectate over a wide area, further decreasing environmental impacts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Characteristics
  • Chandler, K., and Reiten, J.C., 2014, The Characteristics and Conditions of the Fox Hills/Hell Creek Aquifer: Presented to the Montana Association of Conservation Districts (MACD) Regional Meeting, Miles City, September 25, 2014. (mtech.edu)
  • Ako A, Shimada J, Hosono T, Ichiyanagi K, Elambo Nkeng G, Eneke TEG, Njila RN (2012) Hydrogeochemical and isotopic characteristics of groundwater in Mbanga, Njombe and Penja (Banana Plain)-Cameroon. (springer.com)
  • contaminants
  • The purpose of this document is to describe recent field demonstrations, commercial applications, and research on technologies that either treat soil and ground water in place or increase the solubility and mobility of contaminants to improve their removal by pump-and-treat remediation. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Using nanomaterials, especially zero-valent metals (ZVMs), for groundwater remediation is an emerging approach that is promising due to the availability and effectiveness of many nanomaterials for degrading or sequestering contaminants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nanotechnology offers the potential to effectively treat contaminants in situ, avoiding excavation or the need to pump contaminated water out of the ground. (wikipedia.org)
  • Target contaminants in surface waters include heavy metals, organic contaminants, and pathogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rapid, portable, and cost-effective measurement systems for trace contaminants in groundwater and other environmental media would thus enhance contaminant detection and cleanup. (wikipedia.org)
  • rainfall
  • Unlike the effects of a drought on streamflows, groundwater levels in wells may not reflect a shortage of rainfall for a year or more after a drought begins. (usgs.gov)
  • Groundwater can be created by using dewatered aquifer space to store water during the years when there is abundant rainfall. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is non-renewable by present-day rainfall due to its depth below the surface, and any extraction causes a permanent change in the water table in such regions. (wikipedia.org)
  • seeps
  • citation needed] Since the early 1990s, Maui County, Hawaii has been engaged in a struggle over the 3-5 million gallons per day of wastewater that it injects below the Lahaina sewage treatment plant, over the claim that the water was emerging in seeps that were causing algae blooms and other environmental damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • area
  • Several factors may reduce observed percolation rates when the drain field receives anoxic septic tank effluent: Microbial colonies catabolizing soluble organic compounds from the septic tank effluent will adhere to soil particles and reduce the interstitial area available for water flow between soil particles. (wikipedia.org)
  • The main recharge areas are the topographically high areas in southwestern Middlesex County for both aquifers, in the eastern Sayreville area for the upper aquifer, and north of the Raritan River for the middle aquifer. (usgs.gov)
  • Reactive nanoparticles can be injected into a well where they will then be transported down gradient to the contaminated area. (wikipedia.org)
  • The water and land resources in the West Bank in particular are considered to constitute the major obstacle to the resolution of conflict in the area. (wikipedia.org)
  • gravel
  • Ground conditions from rock and gravel through to silts and clays will determine the equipments and approach used in the ground investigations as will made up, contaminated ground and under water ground. (wikipedia.org)