• species
  • In the garfish (Belone belone) and related species, the bones are bright green because of biliverdin. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is uncertain whether this presence of biliverdin is an ecological or physiological adaptation of any kind, but green blood that gives terrestrial animals a green color seems to occur nearly exclusively in species that inhabit green vegetation, which is highly suggestive at the least. (wikipedia.org)
  • calcium
  • Alternatively, variants of GFP are fused with the calcium binding protein troponin C (TnC), applying the mechanism of FRET (Förster Resonance Energy Transfer) for signal modulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein is a member of the superfamily of the calcium-binding proteins of which there are some 66 subfamilies. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, in the presence of calcium ions, the protein undergoes a conformational change and through oxidation converts its prosthetic group, coelenterazine, into excited coelenteramide and CO2. (wikipedia.org)
  • This discovery allowed researches to study the localisation and levels of proteins in living single cells, for example the activity of kinases, and calcium levels, through the use of FRET reporters, as well as numerous other phenotypes. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • The genes for both proteins have been human codon-optimized to enhance their translation in mammalian cells (2), and the proteins have been optimized for bright emission and fast chromophore maturation. (clontech.com)
  • The multicolored fluorescent proteins developed in Tsien's lab are used by scientists to track where and when certain genes are expressed in cells or in whole organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • If the topology of a cell membrane has yet to be determined, epitope insertion into proteins can be used in conjunction with immunofluorescence to determine structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Following his PhD, Rothman did postdoctoral research with Harvey Lodish at Massachusetts Institute of Technology working on glycosylation of membrane proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • exogenous
  • In contrast to fluorescent proteins which form their chromophore through posttranslational modifications of the polypeptide chain, phytochromes bind an external ligand (in this case, biliverdin), and successful imaging of the first bacteriophytochrome-based probe required addition of the exogenous biliverdin. (wikipedia.org)
  • residues
  • This has also explained the need for a thiol reagent like beta mercaptoethanol in the regeneration of the protein since such reagents weaken the sulfhydryl bonds between cysteine residues, expediting the regeneration of the aequorin. (wikipedia.org)
  • organic
  • The sequences in the library are exposed to the target ligand - which may be a protein or a small organic compound - and those that do not bind the target are removed, usually by affinity chromatography. (wikipedia.org)
  • amino
  • Fluorophores can be attached to proteins via specific functional groups, such as amino groups (e.g. via succinimide, Isothiocyanate or hydrazine) carboxyl groups (e.g. via carbodiimide) thiol (e.g. via maleimide or acetyl bromide) azide (e.g. via click chemistry) or non-specificately (glutaraldehyde) or non-covalently (e.g. via hydrophobicity, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells
  • In this work we have used for the first time green fluorescent protein (GFP) tagged cells of the human parasite Leishmania donovani to observe its development in the gut of phlebotomine sand flies. (mendeley.com)
  • ZsGreen was used to label human estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer cells, and fluorescent whole body imaging on living, non-anesthetized, immunocompromised nude mice identified lymph node metastases that arose from estrogen-dependent tumors grown orthotopically in mammary glands. (clontech.com)
  • Fluorescent whole body image of a mouse with bilateral solid tumors derived from estrogen receptor-positive MCF7 human breast cancer cells. (clontech.com)
  • http://www.umassmed.edu/rti/biology/role-of-rna-in-cells/ http://www.umassmed.edu/rti/biology/role-of-rna-protein-in-synthesis/ Huang, H. (wikipedia.org)
  • To identify expressing cells, they replaced the cytoplasmic tail of the algal protein with the fluorescent protein YFP, generating the first generally applicable optogenetic tool. (wikipedia.org)
  • targets
  • The DD rapidly targets the reporter protein for proteasomal degradation, guaranteeing a low reporter background signal at the start of your experiment. (clontech.com)
  • chromophore
  • smURFP autocatalytically self-incorporates the chromophore biliverdin without the need of an external protein, known as a lyase. (wikipedia.org)
  • blue
  • Biliverdin is an important pigment component in avian egg shells, especially blue and green shells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Along with its presence in avian egg shells, other studies have also shown that biliverdin is present in the blue-green blood of many marine fish, the blood of tobacco hornworm, the wings of moth and butterfly, the serum and eggs of frogs, and the placenta of dogs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Before coelenteramide is exchanged out, the entire protein is still fluorescent blue. (wikipedia.org)
  • light
  • Panels A and D. Maize callus under white light and fluorescent light. (clontech.com)
  • Panels B and E. Transformed maize leaf and root under white light and fluorescent light. (clontech.com)
  • Panels C and F. Kernels from a segregating transformed line under white light and fluorescent light. (clontech.com)
  • Peter Hegemann, studying the light response of green algae at the University of Regensbug, had discovered photocurrents that were too fast to be explained by the classic g-protein-coupled animal rhodopsins. (wikipedia.org)