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  • people
  • 2 HEALTHY PEOPLE The Surgeon General s Report On Health Promotion And Disease Prevention 1979 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH, EDUCATION, AND WELFARE Public Health Service Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health and Surgeon General DHEW (PHS) Publication No For sale by the Superintendent of Documents. (docplayer.net)
  • 8 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY The health of the American people has never been better. (docplayer.net)
  • Environmental hazards and behavioral factors also exact an unnecessarily high toll on the health of our people. (docplayer.net)
  • It is the thesis of this report that further improvements in the health of the American people can and will be achieved--not alone through increased medical care and greater health expenditures--but through a renewed national commitment to efforts designed to prevent disease and to promote health. (docplayer.net)
  • disease
  • Indigenous Australians have poorer self-reported health and suffer a greater burden of disease than non-Indigenous Australians [ 3 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Indigenous adults accessing public dental services in Australia have higher levels of periodontal disease and fewer filled teeth, but greater numbers of missing teeth than non-Indigenous patients [ 4 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Indigenous children in Australia experience significantly higher levels of dental caries than their non-Indigenous counterparts [ 5 , 6 ] with greater levels of untreated disease and less preventive therapies [ 7 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • D c. -1 SURGEON GENERAL OF THE PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE The Honorable Joseph A. Califano, Jr. Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare Dear Mr. Secretary: I am pleased to transmit herewith the manuscript of the Surgeon General's Report on Health Promotion and Disease Prevention. (docplayer.net)
  • I would particularly like to express appreciation to Dr. J. Michael McGinnis, Acting Deputy Assistant Secretary for Health (Disease Prevention and Health Promotion) and his staff, and to Dr. David Hamburg, President of the Institute of Medicine, of the National Academy of Sciences, for his leadership in mobilizing the resources of the Institute to provide the accompanying papers which present documentation for the report. (docplayer.net)
  • minorities
  • According to a 2009 study by the Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies, eliminating health disparities for minorities would have reduced direct medical care expenditures by $229.4 billion and reduced indirect costs associated with illness and premature death by approximately $1 trillion during 2003-2006 ( 7 ). (cdc.gov)
  • A 2009 study by the Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies (based on the years 2003-2006), as reported by the CDC report, found that health disparities for minorities increase direct medical care expenses by $229.4 billion and increase indirect costs by $1 trillion (2003-2006). (aapd.org)
  • According to Loppie and Wien, these health afflictions of poverty most burden outlying groups such as women, children, ethnic minorities, and the disabled. (wikipedia.org)
  • care
  • Poor health status, disease risk factors, and limited access to health care are often interrelated and have been reported among persons with social, economic, and environmental disadvantages. (cdc.gov)
  • Disparities in health care access and quality can result in unnecessary direct and indirect costs. (cdc.gov)
  • Recommendations to improve preconception health and health care---United States: a report of the CDC/ATSDR Preconception Care Work Group and the Select Panel on Preconception Care. (cdc.gov)
  • Data are reported on indicators regarding 18 behaviors and conditions that are relevant to preconception (i.e., prepregnancy) health and health care and 10 that are relevant to interconception (i.e., postpartum) health and health care. (cdc.gov)
  • Based on this information, the report concludes that: ' Preventive dental care programs should be an integral part of preventive health services for all ages and should include strategies to make dental care programs accessible to all racial/ethnic groups to promote health and preserve health-related quality of life in older adults. (aapd.org)
  • In the United States, disparities in access to and quality of health care are behind the deaths of an estimated 83,570 African-Americans each year. (thedoctorwillseeyounow.com)
  • Doctors and other health care providers, no matter what their race and ethnicity, also use race either explicitly and/or implicitly to determine who has access to health care services. (thedoctorwillseeyounow.com)
  • Many studies have shown that health care providers' conscious and/or unconscious racial bias against African-Americans affects their treatment of African-Americans. (thedoctorwillseeyounow.com)
  • The result of this bias is that African-Americans have unequal - less - access to health care and poorer health. (thedoctorwillseeyounow.com)
  • There have been many studies regarding racial disparities in access to health care, below are a few that illustrate the barriers African-Americans face in accessing quality health care. (thedoctorwillseeyounow.com)
  • Barriers related to poverty include lack of a primary care physician, inadequate health insurance, and poor access to health care. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Barriers related to culture include perceived invulnerability, folk beliefs, and a general mistrust of the health care system. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Moreover, previous reviews have lacked an overarching theoretical framework for organizing the literature and placing it into the larger context of racial and ethnic disparities in health care ( 20 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Primary barriers to health and health care for the general population are beginning to be well documented, and heightened national awareness of these obstacles has spurred numerous proposals for health care reform. (ncd.gov)
  • Information remains limited, but recent studies indicate that people with disabilities experience both health disparities and specific problems in gaining access to appropriate health care, including health promotion and disease prevention programs and services. (ncd.gov)
  • They also frequently lack either health insurance or coverage for necessary services such as specialty care, long-term care, care coordination, prescription medications, durable medical equipment, and assistive technologies. (ncd.gov)
  • Given these changes, it is especially important to understand the complex and interrelated factors that contribute to health and health care inequities for people with disabilities, and to identify practical solutions. (ncd.gov)
  • People with disabilities comprise the largest and most important health care consumer group in the United States, yet the Institute of Medicine and others have warned that Federal agencies, policymakers, and health care systems have not yet responded to the broad-ranging implications, for individuals and for society, of the demographic increase in disability as the population ages. (ncd.gov)
  • People with disabilities tend to be in poorer health and to use health care at a significantly higher rate than people who do not have disabilities. (ncd.gov)
  • These barriers include health care provider stereotypes about disability, lack of appropriate training, and a lack of accessible medical facilities and examination equipment, sign language interpreters, and individualized accommodations. (ncd.gov)
  • People with certain disabilities experience specific health disparities and additional unique problems in accessing health care and services. (ncd.gov)
  • If these problems can be resolved, crosscutting solutions hold the potential to improve health care for the broader disability community. (ncd.gov)
  • Consequently, people who are deaf have significant difficulty communicating effectively with their health care providers and receiving health care information and instructions. (ncd.gov)
  • Child marriage increases the chances of a maternal death due to an increase in the likelihood of pregnancy complications combined with lack of knowledge about maternal health, lack of control over medical decisions and lack of access to timely and adequate health care. (dur.ac.uk)
  • To evaluate the quality of clinical registries, Makary and colleagues say they created "a registry of registries" to study the way the health care industry measures its performance. (eurekalert.org)
  • Sign up for Insight Alerts highlighting editor-chosen studies with the greatest impact on clinical care. (aappublications.org)
  • It encompasses the health care dimensions of family planning, preconception, prenatal, and postnatal care in order to ensure a positive and fulfilling experience in most cases and reduce maternal morbidity and mortality in other cases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Women are also restricted from receiving many opportunities, such as education and paid labor, that can help improve their accessibility to better health care resources. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research has shown that if men and women received similar nutrition, medical attention, and general health care, women would live longer than men. (wikipedia.org)
  • The general risk factors associated with these three diseases include obesity and poor diet, tobacco and alcohol use, physical inactivity, and access to medical care and health information. (wikipedia.org)
  • An agriculturally based diet rich in fat and cholesterol, combined with an isolated environment in which there is limited access to health care and ways to distribute information probably creates a pattern in which people living in rural environments have higher levels of heart disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Access barriers to health care, predominantly in the form of geography, can necessitate significant travel time as well as increased costs to obtain basic, primary care. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to the lack of specialists in rural areas, primary care physicians are expected to perform a greater number of procedures on a larger mix of patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • The labor shortage in terms of health care is expected to increase due to the overall aging of the population. (wikipedia.org)
  • The inequalities in the apparent circumstances of individual's lives, like individuals' access to health care, schools, their conditions of work and leisure, households, communities, towns, or cities, affect people's ability to lead a flourishing life and maintain health, according to the WHO. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies have indicated that boys are more likely to receive treatment from health care facilities compared to girls, when controlled for SES status. (wikipedia.org)
  • The role that gender plays in health care access can be determined by examining resource allocation within the household and public sphere. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, women are often perceived as being incapable of taking care of parents in old age, which creates even greater preference for sons over daughters. (wikipedia.org)
  • This finding has led researchers to believe that the sex of a child leads to different levels of health care being administered in rural areas. (wikipedia.org)
  • The community health center (CHC) in the United States is the dominant model for providing integrated primary care and public health services for the low-income and uninsured, and represents one use of federal grant funding as part of the country's health care safety net. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many more Americans lack adequate coverage or access to health care. (wikipedia.org)
  • CHCs represent one method of accessing receiving health and medical care for both underinsured and uninsured communities. (wikipedia.org)
  • longevity
  • Among patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), refinements in the treatment of CF have resulted in dramatic improvements in nutritional status, lung function, and longevity in the overall population. (aappublications.org)
  • However, although longevity in the U.S. population has increased substantially, race disparities in longevity have been persistent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Measurements of health take several forms including subjective health reports completed by individuals and surveys that measure physical impairment, vitality and well being, diagnosis of serious chronic disease, and expected life longevity. (wikipedia.org)
  • risks
  • African-Americans, Hispanic Americans, American Indians, Alaska Natives, some Asian-Americans, Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders, and rural populations experience much higher risks of and poorer health status than the general population. (nih.gov)
  • Estimated effect of SES on FEV 1 decreased minimally after ETS adjustment, suggesting health disparity risks independent of ETS exposure. (aappublications.org)
  • healthier
  • and researchers to address disparities and help all persons in the United States live longer, healthier, and more productive lives. (cdc.gov)
  • substantial
  • The results of these studies generally find substantial variations in health-related patterns between both population groups. (springer.com)
  • among
  • Self-reported survey data are linked to selected birth certificate data and weighted for sample design, nonresponse, and noncoverage to create annual PRAMS analysis data sets that can be used to produce statewide estimates of perinatal health behaviors and experiences among women delivering live infants. (cdc.gov)
  • Health inequalities in society and lack of education can also contribute to the higher diagnosis of diabetes among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders. (wikipedia.org)
  • Higher rates of cribia orbitalia among females may indicate lesser health status, or greater survival of young females with cribia orbitalia into adulthood. (wikipedia.org)
  • and, among elderly persons, poorer overall health status and higher mortality rates. (nih.gov)
  • The vast majority of studies focus on the black-white contrast, but a rapidly growing literature describes variations in health status among America's increasingly diverse racial populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • poverty
  • Specific to dental, the report finds significant disparities in periodontitis by race/ethnicity, education and poverty level. (aapd.org)
  • That being said, poverty is detrimental to the health of both mother and child. (wikipedia.org)
  • A study conducted in Kenya observed that common maternal health problems in poverty-stricken areas include hemorrhaging, anemia, hypertension, malaria, placenta retention, premature labor, prolonged/complicated labor, and pre-eclampsia. (wikipedia.org)
  • The lack of insurance for those in poverty is another cause of health disparities relating to heart disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • People living in poverty stricken neighborhoods are at a greater risk for heart disease, possibly because the supermarkets in their area do not sell healthy foods and there is increased availability of stores selling alcohol and tobacco than in more affluent parts of town. (wikipedia.org)
  • Poverty and poor health are inseparably linked. (wikipedia.org)
  • As women mature into adulthood, many of the barriers preventing them from achieving equitable levels of health stem from the low status of women and girls in Indian society, particularly in the rural and poverty-affected areas. (wikipedia.org)
  • disability
  • The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) seeks research to improve understanding of the causes of disparities in health and disability in the United States and to develop and test more effective interventions for reducing/eliminating health disparities directly related to the scientific areas within the mission of the NIDDK http://www2.niddk.nih.gov/Research/ScientificAreas/default.htm . (nih.gov)
  • In addition to state wage laws, they sought to expand maternity leave, health coverage during childbirth, and disability and unemployment coverage for mothers. (wikipedia.org)
  • maternal health
  • After decades of neglect, the Indian government began to prioritize maternal health in 2005 and embarked on an effort to reduce its maternal mortality rate through its National Rural Health Mission. (dur.ac.uk)
  • While India has made progress with maternal health targets that are more easily achievable, like in encouraging more women to give birth in medical facilities, its biggest challenge now is to address the difficult cases. (dur.ac.uk)
  • Maternal health is the health of women during pregnancy, childbirth, and the postpartum period. (wikipedia.org)
  • disproportionately
  • There are many diseases and disorders that disproportionately affect the health of underserved populations in the United States. (nih.gov)
  • Beyond the fact that breast cancer tends to be a more biologically aggressive disease in African American than in White women, this disparity in breast cancer mortality also reflects social barriers that disproportionately affect African American women. (aacrjournals.org)
  • social
  • According to a UNFPA report, "A woman's chance of dying or becoming disabled during pregnancy and childbirth is closely connected to her social and economic status, the norms and values of her culture, and the geographic remoteness of her home. (wikipedia.org)
  • WHO has defined health as "a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. (wikipedia.org)
  • This article discusses social inequality in the United States and its effects on individual health, and more specifically likelihood of developing diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is important because health quality, health distribution, and social protection of health in a population affect the development status of a nation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Different exposures and vulnerabilities to disease and injury determined by social, occupational, and physical environments and conditions, result in more or less vulnerability to poor health. (wikipedia.org)
  • The aim of these clinics was to provide access points to health and social services to medically under-served and disenfranchised populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • interventions
  • The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) seeks research to improve understanding of the causes of high priority diseases in the United States and to develop and test more effective interventions for reducing/eliminating health disparities. (nih.gov)
  • mortality rate
  • 2 , 3 , 8 , 9 Low SES is associated with a twofold to threefold higher mortality rate and significantly worse lung function and nutritional status. (aappublications.org)
  • However, African American men have a two- to three-fold greater incidence of newly diagnosed metastatic prostate cancer compared to white men, which contributes to a similarly increased mortality rate. (redorbit.com)
  • higher
  • African Americans are more likely to smoke mentholated cigarettes with higher carbon monoxide concentrations, which put them at greater risk for developing lung cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hospitals located in areas with a higher ratio of people living in a Health Professional Service Area to the total population will be given greater priority for an increase in residency positions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Educated women had access to relatively high-status positions in the government and private service sectors, and they had a much higher status than uneducated women. (wikipedia.org)
  • Within the family, an educated woman did not necessarily hold a higher status than her uneducated counterpart. (wikipedia.org)
  • survival
  • A new study published in The Journal of Urology┬« reports that in the "PSA era," survival has improved for patients with newly diagnosed prostate cancer that has spread to the bones or other parts of the body and the disparity between African American and Caucasian men has been resolved. (redorbit.com)
  • Of note is the resolution of disparity in survival between the races found in earlier studies," says lead investigator Ian M. Thompson, Jr., MD, Director of the Cancer Therapy and Research Center, a National Cancer Institute-Designated Cancer Center, and Professor in the Department of Urology at the UT Health Science Center at San Antonio, TX. (redorbit.com)
  • Research
  • Research with these databases and other sources has produced a small number of composite indices, and a number of methods for the amalgamation of indicators and the demonstration of disparities. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) also provides thorough information to ensure a safe working environment by conducting research and making recommendations for the prevention of work-related disease and injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • risk
  • The Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) provides data concerning maternal behaviors, health conditions, and experiences for women in the United States who have delivered a live birth. (cdc.gov)
  • Variables that contribute to health disparities include: non-completion of high school (also related to increase of risk taking behaviors), limited access to healthy food, unemployment (on an individual and community basis), being employed in a high-risk occupation (work-related illnesses and accidents), and proximity to major highways. (aapd.org)
  • Generally speaking, the poorer and more marginalized a woman is, the greater her risk of death. (wikipedia.org)
  • An Ozone Action Day, which can be declared by a local municipality, country or state, is observed at certain times during the summer months, when weather conditions (such as heat, humidity, and air stagnation) run the risk of causing health problems. (wikipedia.org)
  • population
  • These and related challenges will affect the quality of life, productivity, and well-being of greater numbers of Americans as the population ages, which is projected to lead to an increase in the number of people with disabilities. (ncd.gov)
  • Though numbers alone may be insufficient to capture the nuances of population health, they provide a common language of appraisal and furnish clear evidence of disparities and inequalities. (biomedcentral.com)
  • nutritional status
  • medical citation needed] Any study done to determine nutritional status must take into account the state of the body before and after experiments, as well as the chemical composition of the whole diet and of all the materials excreted and eliminated from the body (including urine and feces). (wikipedia.org)
  • Nutritional anthropology is the interplay between human biology, economic systems, nutritional status and food security, and how changes in the former affect the latter. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nutritional status affects overall health status, work performance potential, and the overall potential for economic development (either in terms of human development or traditional western models) for any given group of people. (wikipedia.org)
  • Poor
  • Wartime and political pressures ended this development in New York City, but privately funded clinics through the New York Association for Improving the Condition of the Poor were started in 1916 (Bowling Green Neighborhood Association), 1917 (Columbus Hill Health Center), 1918 (Mulberry Street Health Center) and 1921 (Judson Health Center). (wikipedia.org)
  • woman's
  • Also within the family, a woman's status, especially a daughter-in-law's status, was more closely tied to her husband's authority and to her parental family's wealth and status than anything else. (wikipedia.org)
  • decades
  • During the last two decades, there has been a growing Black-White disparity in breast cancer mortality ( 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Against a backdrop of chaos and development, improvement in data systems and technology made health data more available in the ensuing decades, but the problems of summarization and interpretation persist. (biomedcentral.com)
  • people
  • 2 HEALTHY PEOPLE The Surgeon General s Report On Health Promotion And Disease Prevention 1979 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH, EDUCATION, AND WELFARE Public Health Service Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health and Surgeon General DHEW (PHS) Publication No For sale by the Superintendent of Documents. (docplayer.net)
  • 8 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY The health of the American people has never been better. (docplayer.net)
  • Environmental hazards and behavioral factors also exact an unnecessarily high toll on the health of our people. (docplayer.net)
  • It is the thesis of this report that further improvements in the health of the American people can and will be achieved--not alone through increased medical care and greater health expenditures--but through a renewed national commitment to efforts designed to prevent disease and to promote health. (docplayer.net)
  • disease
  • Indigenous Australians have poorer self-reported health and suffer a greater burden of disease than non-Indigenous Australians [ 3 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Indigenous adults accessing public dental services in Australia have higher levels of periodontal disease and fewer filled teeth, but greater numbers of missing teeth than non-Indigenous patients [ 4 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Indigenous children in Australia experience significantly higher levels of dental caries than their non-Indigenous counterparts [ 5 , 6 ] with greater levels of untreated disease and less preventive therapies [ 7 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • D c. -1 SURGEON GENERAL OF THE PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE The Honorable Joseph A. Califano, Jr. Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare Dear Mr. Secretary: I am pleased to transmit herewith the manuscript of the Surgeon General's Report on Health Promotion and Disease Prevention. (docplayer.net)
  • I would particularly like to express appreciation to Dr. J. Michael McGinnis, Acting Deputy Assistant Secretary for Health (Disease Prevention and Health Promotion) and his staff, and to Dr. David Hamburg, President of the Institute of Medicine, of the National Academy of Sciences, for his leadership in mobilizing the resources of the Institute to provide the accompanying papers which present documentation for the report. (docplayer.net)
  • assessment
  • The DQIP measures were specified for use in the Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set (HEDIS) measure established by NCQA and subsequently widely adopted for performance assessment in commercial, Medicare, and Medicaid health plans. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Methods Data come from the Geographic Research on Well-being (GROW) Study, a subsample of mothers who completed the population-based California Maternal and Infant Health Assessment in 2003-2007 and were reinterviewed in 2012-2013. (bmj.com)
  • Battelle, a beautiful great assessment and billboard text. (paradiseut.com)
  • outcomes
  • The Diabetes Quality Improvement Program (DQIP) groups specified a set of eight process and outcomes measures that were measured at the individual patient level and aggregated across the patient samples of health plans, physicians, or other units. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The population in Northern Ontario experiences worse outcomes on a number of important health indicators, including higher rates of chronic disease compared to the population in the rest of Ontario (Romanow, 2002). (wikipedia.org)
  • Outcomes depend on a person's age and other health problems as well as how aggressive and extensive the cancer is. (wikipedia.org)
  • occurs
  • More than 30% of high school students quit before graduation, and in most states the greatest share of that loss occurs in ninth grade, according to a 2006 study by the nonprofit Editorial Projects in Education Research Center in Bethesda, Md. (blogspot.com)
  • income
  • However, major problems remain, mainly having to do with alleviating the wide income and growth disparities between the country's different regions and socioeconomic classes, reducing corruption, and investing in the infrastructure necessary to ensure future growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • mental health
  • Reaching such a determination usually requires that the veteran receive a Compensation and Pension examination (C&P exam), which is a forensic mental health evaluation conducted by a psychologist or psychiatrist at a local VA medical facility or by a psychologist or psychiatrist in independent practice who conducts evaluations for a VA-contracted private vendor. (wikipedia.org)
  • system
  • The U.S. health care system is nearing a tipping point in the use of more sophisticated EHR-based information systems, and widespread use of these systems will usher in a new era for diabetes quality measurement. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Evidence showed that complications of diabetes can be reduced by controlling hemoglobin A 1c (A1C), blood pressure, and LDL cholesterol, but health system performance was suboptimal and highly variable ( 2 - 4 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • We are now well into the next phase of system redesign and performance improvement using leadership systems and tools like 'systems engineering' and 'lean management' to accelerate the transformation of our health system. (blogspot.com)
  • The Canadian Institute for Advanced Research estimates that 75% of the health of the population is determined by factors outside of the health care system (Mackie, 2012). (wikipedia.org)
  • conditions
  • According to the Human Mortality Database, death rates in life-expectancy leaders such as Japan, Spain, and Sweden imply that even if health conditions do not improve, three-quarters of babies will survive to celebrate their 75th birthdays. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The determinants of health (listed in Appendix A) are defined as the diverse set of factors that affect health and pertain to the conditions in which people are born, grow, live, work, and age (WHO, 2012b). (wikipedia.org)
  • lower
  • Results Adjusting for individual socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, women living in neighbourhoods where poverty decreased over the 40-year period had lower odds of depressive symptoms and a greater sense of control than women living in long-term, low-poverty neighbourhoods. (bmj.com)
  • year
  • Leyte was said to produce two rice crops a year, and Pedro Chirino commented on the great rice and cotton harvests that were sufficient to feed and clothe the people. (wikipedia.org)
  • Between 1996 and 2006, Congress eliminated the tax credits, contributing to the loss of 80,000 jobs on the island and causing its population to shrink and its economy to contract in all but one year since the Great Recession. (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • citation needed] This process was condemned as intrusive and invasive by a number of advocacy groups, on the grounds that any time the passport was later used for travel elsewhere or for identification purposes, the holder's HIV status would become known. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was not until Puerto Rico enlarged its outstanding debt to $71 billion-an amount approximately equal to 68% of Puerto Rico's gross domestic product (GDP)-that Puerto Rican bonds were downgraded to non-investment grade (better known as "junk status" or speculative grade) by three bond credit rating agencies between February 4 and 11, 2014. (wikipedia.org)
  • people
  • The people also were great agriculturists and the islands especifically Luzon has great abundance of rice, fowls, wine as well as great numbers of carabaos, deer, wild boar and goats. (wikipedia.org)
  • although
  • It has the potential to make our libraries stronger by encouraging every employee and volunteer to be an active and engaged participant in shaping that library, which means they are more likely to enjoy working there and will want to do a great job (although for the vast majority of library employees I know this is already the case). (hacklibraryschool.com)
  • However
  • However, the constraints of pre-electronic health records (EHRs) data systems have consistently limited the clinical scope and sophistication of current diabetes quality measures. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • However, paleobotanical and molecular research indicates that the diversity was greater in the history of the phylum. (wikipedia.org)
  • These are indeed potent causes of chronic disease, however considering the causes of chronic disease entails a richer understanding of the determinants of health. (wikipedia.org)
  • women
  • Marital Status Frequency Percentage single, never married 7 5.2% single, divorced / separated % single, widowed % married / cohabiting % Total % Most women were married. (docplayer.net)
  • Women who have sex with men who have many other sexual partners or women who have many sexual partners have a greater risk. (wikipedia.org)
  • level
  • Other health plans and some government agencies, such as the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) and CMS, also adopted the core measure set for use at physician or group practice level. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • research
  • 6 Executive Summary Significant progress has been made in research on Down syndrome since the first National Institutes of Health (NIH) Research Plan on Down Syndrome was published in October This 2014 revision takes into account extensive input from the Down syndrome community, including researchers, constituency organizations, and individuals with Down syndrome and their families. (docplayer.net)
  • population
  • Chronic disease in Northern Ontario is a population health problem. (wikipedia.org)
  • Over 50% of the North's population live in the five biggest cities of Thunder Bay, Sault Ste. Marie, Timmins, Greater Sudbury, and North Bay. (wikipedia.org)
  • The estimated area of Local Health Integration Network (LHIN) 13 is 400,000 square kilometres or approximately 40% of Ontario, with a population of 551,691. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proportion of health care spending has dramatically increased as Japan's older population spends time in hospitals and visits physicians. (wikipedia.org)
  • The largest metropolitan area is Greater Boston, which also includes Worcester, Massachusetts (the second-largest city in New England), Manchester (the largest city in New Hampshire), and Providence (the capital and largest city of Rhode Island), with nearly a third of the entire region's population. (wikipedia.org)