• 2016
  • According to the United States Geological Survey (USGS), world production of natural graphite in 2016 was 1,200,000 tonnes, of which the following major exporters are: China (780 kt), India (170 kt), Brazil (80 kt), Turkey (32 kt) and North Korea (30 kt). (wikipedia.org)
  • Until February 2016, the firm managed a listed investment trust, Graphite Enterprise Trust, a diversified private equity fund of funds platform. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2001
  • Graphite was originally part of F&C Asset Management and was known as Foreign & Colonial Ventures Ltd. The firm remained a subsidiary of F&C Asset Management until 2001, when the Graphite team completed a management buyout. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Telegraph, Apr 22, 2001 F&C Ventures becomes Graphite Capital. (wikipedia.org)
  • planar
  • Graphite has a layered, planar structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Graphite oxide is hydrophilic and easily hydrated when exposed to water vapor or immersed in liquid water, resulting in a distinct increase of the inter-planar distance (up to 1.2 nm in saturated state). (wikipedia.org)
  • APG's conductivity generally increases as the temperature decreases, peaking at 2,800 W/m-K at approximately 150 K. Unlike pyrolytic graphite, the x-y planar conductivity is consistent across each basal plane, thus the conductivity in the center planes is consistent with the outer planes. (wikipedia.org)
  • webapp
  • The tool has three main components: carbon - a Twisted daemon that listens for time-series data whisper - a simple database library for storing time-series data (similar in design to RRD) graphite webapp - A Django webapp that renders graphs on-demand using Cairo Graphite is used in production by companies such as Booking.com, GitHub, Etsy and Electronic Arts. (wikipedia.org)
  • nuclear
  • By November 1942 National Carbon had shipped 250 tons of AGOT graphite to the University of Chicago where it became the primary source of graphite to be used in the construction of Fermi's Chicago Pile-1, the first nuclear reactor to generate a sustained chain reaction (December 2, 1942). (wikipedia.org)
  • The AGOT process and its later refinements became standard techniques in the manufacture of nuclear graphite. (wikipedia.org)
  • In December 1942 Eugene Wigner suggested that neutron bombardment might introduce dislocations and other damage in the molecular structure of materials such as the graphite moderator in a nuclear reactor (the Wigner effect). (wikipedia.org)
  • A graphite reactor is a nuclear reactor that uses carbon as a neutron moderator, which allows un-enriched uranium to be used as nuclear fuel. (wikipedia.org)
  • The very first artificial nuclear reactor, the Chicago Pile-1, used graphite as a moderator. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chicago Pile-1, described more below Chicago Pile-2 Transient Reactor Test Facility (TREAT) Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) The first artificial nuclear reactor, Chicago Pile-1, a graphite-moderated device that produced between 0.5 watts and 200 watts , was constructed by a team led by Enrico Fermi in 1942. (wikipedia.org)
  • This work led to the construction of the X-10 Graphite Reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, which was the first nuclear reactor designed and built for continuous operation, and began operation in 1943. (wikipedia.org)
  • After the SCRAM (AZ5) button was pressed to shut down the reactor, the control rods jammed in the middle of the core causing a positive loop since the nuclear fuel reacted to graphite. (wikipedia.org)
  • tonnes
  • When in production, the open cut mine was capable of producing up to 14,000 tonnes of graphite concentrate annually. (wikipedia.org)
  • This includes a 14,000 tonnes per annum graphite processing facility, site access and haul roads linking a sealed road to Port Lincoln and associated port infrastructure, plus power and water infrastructure requirements of the project. (wikipedia.org)
  • neutron
  • During this period, Fermi and Szilard purchased graphite from several manufacturers with various degrees of neutron absorption cross section: AGX graphite from National Carbon Company with 6.68 mb (millibarns) cross section, US graphite from United States Graphite Company with 6.38 mb cross section, Speer graphite from the Speer Carbon Company with 5.51 mb cross section, and when it became available, AGOT graphite from National Carbon, with 4.97 mb cross section. (wikipedia.org)
  • The neutron cross section of graphite was also investigated during the second world war in Germany by Walter Bothe, P. Jensen, and Werner Heisenberg. (wikipedia.org)
  • The purest graphite available to them was a product from the Siemens Plania company, which exhibited a neutron absorption cross section of about 6.4 mb to 7.5 mb (Haag 2005). (wikipedia.org)
  • Heisenberg therefore decided that graphite would be unsuitable as a moderator in a reactor design using natural uranium, due to this apparently high rate of neutron absorption. (wikipedia.org)
  • https
  • Dawson, Dr. Steve (2008), "Compacted Graphite Iron - A Material Solution for Modern Diesel Engine Cylinder Blocks and Heads", (PDF), World Foundry Congress, Chennai, India, pp. 93-99 https://www.webcitation.org/5msdmJBp6?url=http://www.foundryinfo-india.org/tech_section/pdf/19_OP.pdf, archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-01-18. (wikipedia.org)
  • FOSS
  • Graphite, a free open-source software (FOSS) tool that monitors and graphs numeric time-series data such as the performance of computer systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • exfoliation
  • For example, temperature point of explosive exfoliation is generally higher for graphite oxide prepared by Brodie method compared to Hummers graphite oxide, the difference is up to 100 degrees with the same heating rates. (wikipedia.org)
  • North Korea
  • South Korea has announced plans to build graphite bombs for use against North Korea to paralyse its electric grid in the event of a new war breaking out on the Korean Peninsula, subject to funding from the country's finance ministry. (wikipedia.org)
  • bomb
  • A graphite bomb (also known as the "Blackout Bomb" or the "Soft Bomb") is a non-lethal weapon used to disable electrical power systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • A graphite bomb consists of a metal canister that is filled with spools of graphite filament and an explosive device. (wikipedia.org)
  • The graphite bomb was first used against Iraq in the Gulf War (1990-1991), knocking out 85% of the electrical supply. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similarly, the BLU-114/B "Soft-Bomb" graphite bomb was used by NATO against Serbia in May 1999, disabling 70% of that country's power grid. (wikipedia.org)
  • compounds
  • Graphite is formed by the metamorphosis of sediments containing carbonaceous material, by the reaction of carbon compounds with hydrothermal solutions or magmatic fluids, or possibly by the crystallization of magmatic carbon. (britannica.com)
  • Since 1918 petroleum coke , small and imperfect graphite crystals surrounded by organic compounds, has been the major raw material in the production of 99 to 99.5 percent pure graphite. (britannica.com)
  • Graphite occurs in metamorphic rocks as a result of the reduction of sedimentary carbon compounds during metamorphism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Graphite intercalation compounds (GICs) are complex materials having a formula CXm where the ion Xn+ or Xn− is inserted (intercalated) between the oppositely charged carbon layers. (wikipedia.org)
  • In so-called stage 1 compounds, graphite layers and intercalated layers alternate and in stage 2 compounds, two graphite layers with no guest material in between alternate with an intercalated layer. (wikipedia.org)
  • The intercalation compounds graphite bisulfate and graphite perchlorate can be prepared by treating graphite with strong oxidizing agents in the presence of strong acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • temperature
  • Graphite was first synthesized accidentally by Edward G. Acheson while he was performing high-temperature experiments on carborundum. (britannica.com)
  • Researchers of Eindhoven University of Technology and the Radboud University Nijmegen in The Netherlands show for the first time why ordinary graphite is a permanent magnet at room temperature. (eurekalert.org)
  • The paper in Nature Physics " Room-temperature ferromagnetism in graphite driven by 2D networks of point defects" by Jiri Cervenka, Mikhail Katsnelson and Kees Flipse will appear online Sunday 4 October, 7:00 pm CET. (eurekalert.org)
  • experimental
  • Packaging is based on experimental branch lp:~kmisoft/graphite/arithmetic_exp and was intended to be used on CentOS 5 platform. (launchpad.net)
  • Graphite support can be added to applications on Linux with the package pango-graphite and on Windows with the experimental add-on MultiScribe. (wikipedia.org)
  • The use of graphite lines was developed by British Post Office scientists in conjunction with the stamp printers Harrison & Sons of High Wycombe and the stamps were first used in an experimental machine at Southampton. (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • The bulk material disperses in basic solutions to yield monomolecular sheets, known as graphene oxide by analogy to graphene, the single-layer form of graphite. (wikipedia.org)
  • It became well known by late 1939 that the two most promising moderators were heavy water and graphite. (wikipedia.org)
  • Compacted graphite iron (CGI), also known as vermicular graphite iron (GJV, VG, JV or GGV from the German: "Gusseisen mit Vermiculargraphit") especially in non-English speaking countries, is a metal which is gaining popularity in applications that require either greater strength, or lower weight than cast iron. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several other errors of misplaced graphite lines are also known and not all are included in the Stanley Gibbons catalogue. (wikipedia.org)
  • irregular
  • The maximally oxidized bulk product is a yellow solid with C:O ratio between 2.1 and 2.9, that retains the layer structure of graphite but with a much larger and irregular spacing. (wikipedia.org)
  • production
  • GRAPHITE is the work of a small creative team at 3dtotal.com , a website and independent publishing house dedicated to the production of inspirational and educational resources for artists. (kickstarter.com)
  • As a result of this meeting, over the next two years, MacPherson and Hamister developed thermal and gas extraction purification techniques at National Carbon for the production of boron-free graphite. (wikipedia.org)
  • R.D. Schelleng obtained a patent for the production of Compacted graphite iron in 1965. (wikipedia.org)
  • The project was re-activated in 2014 by its current owner, Valence Industries Ltd. Valence Industries is an ASX listed company (ASX code VXL) focused on graphite development and production. (wikipedia.org)
  • Valence reported first sales of graphite from the Uley mine, under its ownership, in 2014 and has all approvals in place to commence production at the mine, plus a high grade Ore Reserve. (wikipedia.org)
  • considerable
  • However, considerable Na intercalation into graphite can occur in cases when the ion is wrapped in a solvent shell through the process of co-intercalation. (wikipedia.org)
  • substance
  • Graphite is dark gray to black, opaque , and very soft (with a hardness of 1 1 / 2 on the Mohs scale ), while diamond may be colourless and transparent and is the hardest naturally occurring substance. (britannica.com)
  • This graphite substance went under the brand name dag which was a registered trademark of Acheson Colloids Ltd. The substance is still a product of the firm today. (wikipedia.org)
  • oxygen
  • However, in oxygen containing atmospheres graphite readily oxidizes to form CO2 at temperatures of 700 °C and above. (wikipedia.org)
  • explosive
  • The explosive detonates, breaking the graphite filament into very fine pieces which is ejected from the metal canister into a large gas-like plume. (wikipedia.org)
  • consistent
  • We want GRAPHITE to be of consistent high quality, with something different and special in every issue, and think four magazines a year will allow us time to get each one just right. (kickstarter.com)
  • similar
  • In this regard, Graphite is similar to AAT and different from OpenType which requires applications to provide built-in rendering information. (wikipedia.org)
  • small
  • Even the possibility that the graphite parts might very quickly break into small pieces could not be ruled out. (wikipedia.org)
  • however
  • In the Windscale fire, an untested annealing process for the graphite was used, and that contributed to the accident - however it was the uranium fuel rather than the graphite in the reactor that caught fire. (wikipedia.org)
  • different
  • The chassis is of course finds its legacy in the Graphite series but this one is different, in many ways. (guru3d.com)
  • Hydration and solvation properties of Brodie and Hummers graphite oxides are also remarkably different. (wikipedia.org)
  • form
  • Graphite is the most stable form of carbon under standard conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ultimately, graphite band marking was superseded by the use of phosphor band marking which was a more effective form of mail sorting and only phosphor bands remained on Wilding stamps after 22 June 1960. (wikipedia.org)
  • materials
  • These materials are prepared by treating graphite with a strong oxidant or a strong reducing agent: C + m X → CXm The reaction is reversible. (wikipedia.org)
  • makes
  • The packaging certainly makes getting Graphite & co onto CentOS and RHEL a whole lot easier. (launchpad.net)
  • This makes Graphite especially suited for minority writing systems that cannot rely on applications to provide built-in rendering information. (wikipedia.org)
  • include
  • Minerals associated with graphite include quartz, calcite, micas and tourmaline. (wikipedia.org)
  • Applications that support Graphite include the SIL WorldPad, XeTeX, OpenOffice.org (since version 3.2, except for the macOS version), LibreOffice (formerly except for the macOS version, since version 5.3 become availably on all platforms). (wikipedia.org)