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  • bacteria
  • It kills gram-positive and some gram-negative bacteria by disrupting the growth of the bacterial cell wall. (wikipedia.org)
  • At one time, meticillin was used to treat infections caused by certain gram-positive bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. (wikipedia.org)
  • These susceptibility data are given on a few medically significant bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus - 0.125 - >100 μg/ml Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) - 15.6 - >1000 μg/ml Streptococcus pneumoniae 0.39 μg/ml Like other beta-lactam antibiotics, meticillin acts by inhibiting the synthesis of bacterial cell walls. (wikipedia.org)
  • It inhibits cross-linkage between the linear peptidoglycan polymer chains that make up a major component of the cell wall of gram-positive bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Meticillin is insensitive to beta-lactamase (also known as penicillinase) enzymes secreted by many penicillin-resistant bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was previously used to treat infections caused by susceptible gram-positive bacteria, in particular, penicillinase-producing organisms such as Staphylococcus aureus that would otherwise be resistant to most penicillins. (wikipedia.org)
  • spontaneous isopeptide bond formation, as found in many surface proteins of Gram-positive bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • TCT is a soluble piece of peptidoglycan (PGN) found in the cell wall of all gram-negative bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most gram-negative bacteria keep TCT within the cell wall by using a PGN-transporter protein known as AmpG. (wikipedia.org)
  • At first, β-lactam antibiotics were mainly active only against Gram-positive bacteria, yet the recent development of broad-spectrum β-lactam antibiotics active against various Gram-negative organisms has increased their usefulness. (wikipedia.org)
  • Defensins are 2-6 kDa, cationic, microbicidal peptides active against many Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, fungi, and enveloped viruses, containing three pairs of intramolecular disulfide bonds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thermolysin (EC 3.4.24.27, Bacillus thermoproteolyticus neutral proteinase, thermoase, thermoase Y10, TLN) is a thermostable neutral metalloproteinase enzyme produced by the Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus thermoproteolyticus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) or carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) are Gram-negative bacteria that are resistant to the carbapenem class of antibiotics, considered the drugs of last resort for such infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell wall of both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria is a tight covalently bound and cross-linked peptidoglycan network and essential for bacterial growth, cell division and cellular structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacillus
  • Changing these amino acids to threonine (T) and alanine (A) respectively in a less stable thermolysin-like proteinase produced by Bacillus stearothermophillus (TLP-ste), results in individual reductions in stability of 7 °C (F63→T) and 6.3 °C (P69→A) and when combined a reduction in stability of 12.3 °C. In the synthesis of aspartame, less bitter-tasting byproduct is produced when the reaction is catalyzed by thermolysin. (wikipedia.org)
  • susceptible
  • Medical uses include: lower respiratory tract infections acute bacterial otitis media skin and skin structure infections urinary tract infections uncomplicated gonorrhea pelvic inflammatory disease bacterial septicemia intra-abdominal infections meningitis surgical prophylaxis lyme disease It is also a choice drug for treatment of bacterial meningitis caused by pneumococci, meningococci, Haemophilus influenzae, and "susceptible enteric Gram-negative rods, but not Listeria monocytogenes. (wikipedia.org)
  • amino acids
  • A conserved glycine in a beta bulge in HNP2 was replaced with a series of D-amino acids resulting in VCC activity proportional to side chain hydrophobicity and charge. (wikipedia.org)
  • toxicity
  • Particularly the toxin beta-cyanoalanine from seeds of V. sativa enhances the toxicity of such a mixture through its inhibition of sulfur amino acid metabolism [conversion of methionine to cysteine leading to excretion of cystathionine in urine] and hence depletion of protective reduced thiols. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzyme
  • However, some bacterial cells have the enzyme β-lactamase, which hydrolyzes the beta-lactam ring, rendering the drug inactive. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell wall
  • The DAP residue is responsible for directly bonding to the D-alanine peptide of another PGN molecule, thus aiding TCT's attachment within the cell wall. (wikipedia.org)
  • Commonly
  • Commonly, a standard Gram-negative and Gram-positive quality control strain are compared. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lysinibacillus fusiformis (commonly abbreviated L. fusiformis) is a gram-positive, rod-shaped bacterium of the genus Lysinibacillus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Energy
  • The uninitiated might doubt that we found room for 250 mg of caffeinated energy plus beta-alanine for stamina in there, but one shot turns them into believers. (allstarhealth.com)
  • less
  • As a result, a strand long enough to circle the Earth would weigh less than 500 grams (18 oz). (wikipedia.org)
  • approximately
  • At birth, the adrenal glands weight approximately eight to nine grams (twice that of the adult adrenal glands) and are 0.5% of the total body weight. (wikipedia.org)
  • weeks
  • After a few weeks of supplementation with beta-alanine, this sensation normally lessens or subsides. (nutritionexpress.com)
  • Five weeks later, the pancreatic alpha and beta cells have begun to emerge. (wikipedia.org)
  • While the fetal pancreas has functional beta cells by 14 to 24 weeks of gestation, the amount of insulin that is released into the bloodstream is relatively low. (wikipedia.org)
  • surface
  • Lysinibacillus fusiformis was initially isolated from the surface of beta vulgaris by German biologist Dr. O. Gottheil in 1901. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • During the early stages of fetal development, the number of pancreatic alpha cells outnumbers the number of pancreatic beta cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • From the middle stage until term, the beta cells continue to increase in number until they reach an approximate 1:1 ratio with the alpha cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • Types of CRE are sometimes known as KPC (Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase) and NDM (New Delhi Metallo-beta-lactamase). (wikipedia.org)
  • alpha
  • On the basis of their size and pattern of disulfide bonding, mammalian defensins are classified into alpha, beta and theta categories. (wikipedia.org)
  • The secondary structure of each domain is quite different, the N-terminal domain consists of mostly beta pleated sheet, while the C-terminal domain is mostly alpha helical in structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • patients
  • Policies regarding contact precaution for patients infected or colonized by Gram-negative pathogens were also observed in hospitals reporting decreases in CRE prevalence. (wikipedia.org)
  • susceptible
  • Medical uses include: lower respiratory tract infections acute bacterial otitis media skin and skin structure infections urinary tract infections uncomplicated gonorrhea pelvic inflammatory disease bacterial septicemia intra-abdominal infections meningitis surgical prophylaxis lyme disease It is also a choice drug for treatment of bacterial meningitis caused by pneumococci, meningococci, Haemophilus influenzae, and "susceptible enteric Gram-negative rods, but not Listeria monocytogenes. (wikipedia.org)
  • infections caused
  • in particular, in cases of relapse or where the infection is unresponsive to metronidazole treatment (for this indication, vancomycin is given orally, rather than by its typical intravenous route) For treatment of infections caused by Gram-positive microorganisms in patients with serious allergies to beta-lactam antimicrobials. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell wall
  • The DAP residue is responsible for directly bonding to the D-alanine peptide of another PGN molecule, thus aiding TCT's attachment within the cell wall. (wikipedia.org)
  • alpha
  • Five weeks later, the pancreatic alpha and beta cells have begun to emerge. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the early stages of fetal development, the number of pancreatic alpha cells outnumbers the number of pancreatic beta cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • From the middle stage until term, the beta cells continue to increase in number until they reach an approximate 1:1 ratio with the alpha cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • As with most PGRPs, PGLYRP1 has one carboxy-terminal type 2 amidase domain (also known as a PGRP domain) and consists of three alpha helices, five beta strands and coils, and has three pairs of conserved cysteins which form three disulphide bonds. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • While the fetal pancreas has functional beta cells by 14 to 24 weeks of gestation, the amount of insulin that is released into the bloodstream is relatively low. (wikipedia.org)