• ovary
  • When the germ cells reach the gonads, they undergo proliferation via mitosis and at 13.5 days of rat development they begin to undergo meiosis in the ovary but arrested at the mitotic stage in the testes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term primary sexual characteristics denotes the kind of gamete the gonad produces: the ovary produces egg cells in the female, and the testis produces sperm cells in the male. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic
  • Although the mechanisms of avian sex determination remains unknown, the genetic sex is experimentally reversible by in ovo exposure to exogenous estrogens (ZZ-male feminization) or aromatase inhibitors (ZW-female masculinization). (biomedsearch.com)
  • A small proportion of families did not fit perfectly with this model, which suggests that other minor genetic and/or environmental factors are involved in sex determination in this species. (genetics.org)
  • With the arrival of genomics, large amounts of different genetic markers and genomic information are available for scanning genomes to look for their association with sex determination. (genetics.org)
  • Here we provide genetic proof that Sry is the only Y-linked gene necessary for cell migration into the gonad. (jax.org)
  • The process by which your baby becomes a boy or a girl, according to what's written in his or her genetic code, is awe-inspiring. (parents.com)
  • Intersex individuals, who have physical or genetic features considered to be mixed or atypical for one sex or the other, may use other criteria in making a clear determination. (wikipedia.org)
  • As sex-determining mechanisms, TSD and genetic sex determination (GSD) should be considered in an equivalent manner, which can lead to reconsidering the status of fish species that are claimed to have TSD when submitted to extreme temperatures instead of the temperature experienced during development in the wild, since changes in sex ratio with temperature variation are ecologically and evolutionally relevant. (wikipedia.org)
  • While TSD has been observed in many reptile and fish species, the genetic differences between sexes and molecular mechanisms of TSD have not been disclosed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also, experiments conducted at the pivotal temperature, where temperature is equivocal in its influence, have demonstrated an underlying genetic predisposition to be one sex or the other. (wikipedia.org)
  • baby's sex
  • This means that dad, although he can't control wether an X or a Y gets to the egg first, chooses you baby's sex. (parents.com)
  • A baby's sex is determined at the time of conception. (wikipedia.org)
  • opposite-sex
  • The term marriage equality refers to a political status in which same-sex marriage and opposite-sex marriage are considered legally equal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Same-sex marriage can provide those in same-sex relationships who pay their taxes with government services and make financial demands on them comparable to those afforded to and required of those in opposite-sex marriages. (wikipedia.org)
  • mammalian
  • Migration of mesonephric cells into the mammalian gonad depends on Sr" by B Capel, K H. Albrecht et al. (jax.org)
  • Migration of mesonephric cells into the mammalian gonad depends on Sry. (jax.org)
  • It has long been believed that the female form was the default template for the mammalian fetuses of both sexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanisms
  • However, the rate of turnover of sex-determining mechanisms is notably different among particular vertebrate lineages. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • As poikilotherms, reptiles (the term 'reptiles' denotes here the paraphyletic group, i.e. sauropsids with the exclusion of their inner avian group) are usually considered as a group with a rapid turnover of sex-determining mechanisms [ 4 , 5 ] and as a whole, they indeed exhibit a large variability in sex-determining systems [ 6 , 7 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The mechanisms by which Sry controls this process are unknown. (jax.org)
  • Leydig
  • Intratesticular exposure to doses (100 and 1000 pmol/testis) of BPA from post-EDS day 14-28 stimulated Leydig cell developmental regeneration process by increasing serum testosterone level and Leydig cell-specific gene (Lhcgr, Star, Cyp11a1, Hsd3b1, Cyp17a1, Hsd17b3, and Hsd11b1) and their protein expression levels. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Functional Leydig cells must form in the gonads. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulates
  • 17β-estradiol is synthesized primarily in the gonads of both sexes and regulates the development and function of reproductive organs. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • DAX1 (encoded by the NR0B1 gene) is a vertebrate specific orphan nuclear receptor that regulates gonadal development and sexual determination. (zfin.org)
  • developmental
  • We developed a protocol to feminize ZZ-male chicken embryonic gonads in a highly quantitative manner by direct injection of emulsified ethynylestradiol into yolk at various developmental stages. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The sex determination pathway appears to be less conserved than other developmental processes ( P enman and P iferrer 2008 ). (genetics.org)
  • These proteins have been implicated in oncogenesis and in several developmental processes, including regulation of cell fate and embryogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • SOX proteins are a large family of transcription factors that share a homologous HMG DNA-binding domain and are key regulators of many developmental and tissue-specific processes ( 14 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • female
  • In Xenopus laevis W-linked DM-domain gene (DM-W) had been described as a master determinant of the gonadal female sex. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Underlying this decision is a complex transcriptional network composed of male and female sub-networks that act in an antagonistic manner to balance the gonad between its alternate fates. (duke.edu)
  • In XX gonads, the female sub-network dominates and represses the male pathway. (duke.edu)
  • We recently established an innovative system for ESD studies using D. pulex WTN6 strain, in which the sex of the offspring can be controlled simply by changes in the photoperiod: the long-day and short-day conditions can induce female and male offspring, respectively. (springer.com)
  • To elucidate up- and downstream events of MF signaling during sex determination processes, we compared the transcriptomes of daphnids reared under the long-day (female) condition with short-day (male) and MF-treated (male) conditions. (springer.com)
  • It promotes female sex development and represses male sex development. (wikipedia.org)
  • They later commit to sex determination, becoming either female or male under normal circumstances. (wikipedia.org)
  • WNT4 is required for female sex development. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the mouse, somatic sex determination (i.e. determination of either female or male gonads) begins at embryonic day 10.5 in mice, but is not finalised until day 12.5. (wikipedia.org)
  • The XY system contrasts in several ways with the ZW sex-determination system found in birds, some insects, many reptiles, and various other animals, in which the heterogametic sex is female. (wikipedia.org)
  • At least by implication, female gender identity simply required a female sex of rearing and lack of an obvious penis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The precursor of the internal female sex organs is called the Müllerian system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each spermatozoon can fuse with a larger female gamete, or ovum, in the process of fertilization. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although most species with male and female sexes have individuals that are either male or female, hermaphroditic animals, such as worms, have both male and female reproductive organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other species, such as some snails, practice sex change: adults start out male, then become female. (wikipedia.org)
  • With regard to gender, a woman may also be a person whose sex assignment does not align with their gender identity, or those who have sexual characteristics that do not fit typical notions of male or female (intersex). (wikipedia.org)
  • The symbol for the planet and goddess Venus or Aphrodite in Greek is the sign also used in biology for the female sex. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the first weeks of life, a fetus has no anatomic or hormonal sex, and only a karyotype distinguishes male from female. (wikipedia.org)
  • sex hormone levels in male and female fetuses and infants differ, and both androgen receptors and estrogen receptors have been identified in brains. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • The sex-determining (SD) master gene can differ even between closely related fish species. (genetics.org)
  • Fish embryos go through a process called mid-blastula transition which is observed around the tenth cell division in some fish species. (wikipedia.org)
  • In many species of stingless bees, especially Melipona bicolor, the queen lays her eggs during the provisioning and oviposition process and the spermatheca fertilizes the egg as it passes along the oviduct. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, it is also difficult to compare with previous studies, especially since the majority have been done on mice, and there are different processes between species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Not all species share a common sex-determination system. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] In some species of reptiles, including alligators, sex is determined by the temperature at which the egg is incubated. (wikipedia.org)
  • some species consist entirely of ZZ individuals, with sex determined by the presence of Wolbachia. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, men tend to be taller than women, but there are many people of both sexes who are in the mid-height range for the species. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is used in reference to species with temperature-dependent sex determination, such as crocodilians and turtles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phenotype
  • mutations in this gene lead to a range of sex-related disorders with varying effects on an individual's phenotype and genotype. (wikipedia.org)
  • occurs
  • The increase occurs near the final stages of which their sex can be determined by temperature (stage 52). (wikipedia.org)
  • This process contrasts with the process in other chordates, which occurs by an infolding of the ectoderm to form a hollow tube. (wikipedia.org)
  • After the fate of the gonads is finalised, the sex specification of the germ cells occurs at 12.5-15.5 days. (wikipedia.org)
  • development
  • Cell migration from the mesonephros into the differentiating gonad is consistently associated with Sty's presence and with testis cord formation, suggesting that cell migration plays a critical role in the initiation of testis cord development. (jax.org)
  • These processes are all necessary for the development of an embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • The absence of WNT4 is required for male sex development. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gonads have an important role in germ cell development, converting the bipotential cells into gametogonia. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene is involved in the patterning of sex determination, lung development, and skeletal development. (wikipedia.org)
  • FGF9 has also been shown to play a vital role in male sex development. (wikipedia.org)
  • GADD45G is involved in several different processes, including sexual development, human-specific brain development, tumor suppression, and the cellular stress response. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the male sexual development pathway, GADD45G is essential for activating SRY, leading to proper formation of the gonads and sex-determination. (wikipedia.org)
  • Its expression causes the development of primary sex cords, which later develop into seminiferous tubules. (wikipedia.org)
  • The thermosensitive, or temperature-sensitive, period (TSP) is the period during development when sex is irreversibly determined. (wikipedia.org)
  • somatic
  • Sex specification of the germ cells requires the repression of pluripotency and relies on the communication between the somatic cells of the gonads and germ cells Reitzel et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • hormonal
  • Over a regular interval, in response to hormonal signals, a process of oogenesis matures one ovum which is released and sent down the Fallopian tube. (wikipedia.org)
  • glands
  • The internal genitalia are all the accessory glands and ducts that connect the gonads to the outside environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • germ cells
  • They originate from primordial germ cells, which have migrated to the gonads. (wikipedia.org)
  • The germ cells are bipotential in that prior to migrating to the gonads, they are capable of forming either spermatogonia or oogonia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Within the seminiferous tubules Here, germ cells develop into spermatogonia, spermatocytes, spermatids and spermatozoon through the process of spermatogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • The germ cell population (~40 in mice), after specification, migrate to the developing gonads where they differentiate further into gametogonia. (wikipedia.org)
  • behavior
  • citation needed] Two processes: defeminization, and masculinization, are involved in producing male typical morphology and behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • primary
  • These cells are differentiated with a primary function of seminal fluid synthesis, a process that is strongly androgen dependent, and undergo atrophy or apoptosis in response to androgen withdrawal. (aacrjournals.org)