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  • ovary
  • It also discusses the processes leading to the testis- and ovary-specific structures and functions. (ebooks.com)
  • When the germ cells reach the gonads, they undergo proliferation via mitosis and at 13.5 days of rat development they begin to undergo meiosis in the ovary but arrested at the mitotic stage in the testes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term primary sexual characteristics denotes the kind of gamete the gonad produces: the ovary produces egg cells in the female, and the testis produces sperm cells in the male. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • The sex-determining (SD) master gene can differ even between closely related fish species. (genetics.org)
  • Moreover, it is a proposed regulatory mechanism for several species, whose study has so far been limited or led to inconclusive data as to the attempt to detect a single, specific, sex-determining gene. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 3 OOGENESIS IN Sparus aurata L. Maria Alice Ramos IPIMAR - Departamento de Aquicultura Av. Brasília Lisboa, Portugal Recebido em Aceite em ABSTRACT The evolution of gonad activity in Sparus aurata L., a hermaphrodite protandric species, is dependent on the age and growth of the fish. (docplayer.net)
  • Fish embryos go through a process called mid-blastula transition which is observed around the tenth cell division in some fish species. (wikipedia.org)
  • In many species of stingless bees, especially Melipona bicolor, the queen lays her eggs during the provisioning and oviposition process and the spermatheca fertilizes the egg as it passes along the oviduct. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, it is also difficult to compare with previous studies, especially since the majority have been done on mice, and there are different processes between species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Not all species share a common sex-determination system. (wikipedia.org)
  • In most animals, including humans, sex is determined genetically, but in some species it can be determined due to social, environmental, or other factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although most species with male and female sexes have individuals that are either male or female, hermaphroditic animals, such as worms, have both male and female reproductive organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] In some species of reptiles, including alligators, sex is determined by the temperature at which the egg is incubated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other species, such as some snails, practice sex change: adults start out male, then become female. (wikipedia.org)
  • some species consist entirely of ZZ individuals, with sex determined by the presence of Wolbachia. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, men tend to be taller than women, but there are many people of both sexes who are in the mid-height range for the species. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is used in reference to species with temperature-dependent sex determination, such as crocodilians and turtles. (wikipedia.org)
  • whose sex
  • Another model organism whose sex depends on the X:A ratio, Caenorhabditis elegans, has furthermore to provide for the brief period of spermatogenesis in hermaphrodites (XX) without the benefit of the "male" genes of the sex determination pathway. (biomedcentral.com)
  • With regard to gender, a woman may also be a person whose sex assignment does not align with their gender identity, or those who have sexual characteristics that do not fit typical notions of male or female (intersex). (wikipedia.org)
  • testes
  • The specification into either female or male fates for the organism itself also depends on the development of the gonads, which have yet to differentiate into ether ovaries or testes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Males: The SRY gene when transcribed and processed produces SRY protein that binds to DNA and directs the development of the gonad into testes. (wikipedia.org)
  • female
  • Underlying this decision is a complex transcriptional network composed of male and female sub-networks that act in an antagonistic manner to balance the gonad between its alternate fates. (duke.edu)
  • In XX gonads, the female sub-network dominates and represses the male pathway. (duke.edu)
  • We recently established an innovative system for ESD studies using D. pulex WTN6 strain, in which the sex of the offspring can be controlled simply by changes in the photoperiod: the long-day and short-day conditions can induce female and male offspring, respectively. (springer.com)
  • To elucidate up- and downstream events of MF signaling during sex determination processes, we compared the transcriptomes of daphnids reared under the long-day (female) condition with short-day (male) and MF-treated (male) conditions. (springer.com)
  • After macroscopic observation, the gonads were sectioned into pieces measuring 0.5 cm in diameter, these tissues were prepared for light microscopy, to determine the distribution of male and female germinal tissues. (docplayer.net)
  • It promotes female sex development and represses male sex development. (wikipedia.org)
  • They later commit to sex determination, becoming either female or male under normal circumstances. (wikipedia.org)
  • WNT4 is required for female sex development. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the mouse, somatic sex determination (i.e. determination of either female or male gonads) begins at embryonic day 10.5 in mice, but is not finalised until day 12.5. (wikipedia.org)
  • The XY system contrasts in several ways with the ZW sex-determination system found in birds, some insects, many reptiles, and various other animals, in which the heterogametic sex is female. (wikipedia.org)
  • Disruption of either of these processes in males produces female-typical development. (wikipedia.org)
  • At least by implication, female gender identity simply required a female sex of rearing and lack of an obvious penis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Over the next five weeks, the fetus begins producing hormones that cause its sex organs to grow into either male or female organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • The precursor of the internal female sex organs is called the Müllerian system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each spermatozoon can fuse with a larger female gamete, or ovum, in the process of fertilization. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ova, which are the female sex cells, are much larger than the sperm and are normally formed within the ovaries of the fetus before its birth. (wikipedia.org)
  • The symbol for the planet and goddess Venus or Aphrodite in Greek is the sign also used in biology for the female sex. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the first weeks of life, a fetus has no anatomic or hormonal sex, and only a karyotype distinguishes male from female. (wikipedia.org)
  • sex hormone levels in male and female fetuses and infants differ, and both androgen receptors and estrogen receptors have been identified in brains. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several sex-specific genes not dependent on sex steroids are expressed differently in male and female human brains. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, this change in sex is permanent: once an initial phase female or male changes into a terminal phase male, it cannot change back. (wikipedia.org)
  • development
  • However, only eutherian SRY genes have been empirically examined by functional analyses, and the involvement of marsupial SRY in male gonad development remains speculative. (beds.ac.uk)
  • These processes are all necessary for the development of an embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • The absence of WNT4 is required for male sex development. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gonads have an important role in germ cell development, converting the bipotential cells into gametogonia. (wikipedia.org)
  • FGF family members possess broad mitogenic and cell survival activities, and are involved in a variety of biological processes, including embryonic development, cell growth, morphogenesis, tissue repair, tumor growth and invasion. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene is involved in the patterning of sex determination, lung development, and skeletal development. (wikipedia.org)
  • FGF9 has also been shown to play a vital role in male sex development. (wikipedia.org)
  • GADD45G is involved in several different processes, including sexual development, human-specific brain development, tumor suppression, and the cellular stress response. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the male sexual development pathway, GADD45G is essential for activating SRY, leading to proper formation of the gonads and sex-determination. (wikipedia.org)
  • At an early stage in embryonic development, both sexes possess equivalent internal structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Its expression causes the development of primary sex cords, which later develop into seminiferous tubules. (wikipedia.org)
  • During puberty, hormones which stimulate androgen production result in the development of secondary sexual characteristics, thus exhibiting greater differences between the sexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The thermosensitive, or temperature-sensitive, period (TSP) is the period during development when sex is irreversibly determined. (wikipedia.org)
  • reproductive
  • SEX ratio is a central demographic parameter directly related to the reproductive potential of individuals and populations ( P enman and P iferrer 2008 ). (genetics.org)
  • The sex of an early embryo cannot be determined because the reproductive structures do not differentiate until the seventh week. (wikipedia.org)
  • In most animals, differences of exposure of a fetal or infant brain to sex hormones produce significant differences of brain structure and function which correlate with adult reproductive behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • behavior
  • citation needed] Two processes: defeminization, and masculinization, are involved in producing male typical morphology and behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • somatic
  • Sex specification of the germ cells requires the repression of pluripotency and relies on the communication between the somatic cells of the gonads and germ cells Reitzel et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • germ cell
  • The germ cell population (~40 in mice), after specification, migrate to the developing gonads where they differentiate further into gametogonia. (wikipedia.org)
  • hormonal
  • Over a regular interval, in response to hormonal signals, a process of oogenesis matures one ovum which is released and sent down the Fallopian tube. (wikipedia.org)
  • occurs
  • The ankyrin family of proteins form specialized membrane domains in various cell types, including neurons and cardiomyocytes but little is known about how this process occurs. (duke.edu)
  • This process contrasts with the process in other chordates, which occurs by an infolding of the ectoderm to form a hollow tube. (wikipedia.org)
  • After the fate of the gonads is finalised, the sex specification of the germ cells occurs at 12.5-15.5 days. (wikipedia.org)
  • Disorders
  • Indication, Collection, and Laboratory Processing of Cytologic Samples -- The Cellular and Acellular Components of the Urinary Sediment -- The Cytologic Makeup of the Urinary Sediment According to the Collection Technique -- Cytologic Manifestations of Benign Disorders Affecting Cells of the Lower Urinary Tract -- Tumors and Related Conditions of the Bladder and Lower Urinary Tract -- Urine-Based Assays Complementing Cytologic Examination in the Detection of Urothelial Neoplasm. (stanford.edu)
  • gene
  • It is called SRY (for Sex-determining Region on the Y), and it is a transcription factor: it binds to a bunch of other gene sequences in a bunch of other places in the genome and controls their activity, either turning them on or off. (madartlab.com)
  • Human sex is determined by the presence or absence of a Y chromosome with a functional SRY gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Y-centered sex determination, the SRY gene is not the only gene to have an influence on sex. (wikipedia.org)
  • At least one monotreme, the platypus, presents a particular sex determination scheme that in some ways resembles that of the ZW sex chromosomes of birds and lacks the SRY gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, homologues to the avian DMRT1 gene on platypus sex chromosomes X3 and X5 suggest that it is possible the sex-determining gene for the platypus is the same one that is involved in bird sex-determination. (wikipedia.org)
  • More research must be conducted in order to determine the exact sex determining gene of the platypus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The process starts when the transcription factor Testis determining factor (encoded by the sex-determining region SRY of the Y chromosome) activates SOX-9 activity by binding to an enhancer sequence upstream of the gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is because of the presence of the sex determining region of the Y chromosome, also known as the SRY gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Testis-determining factor (TDF), also known as sex-determining region Y (SRY) protein, is a DNA-binding protein (also known as gene-regulatory protein/transcription factor) encoded by the SRY gene that is responsible for the initiation of male sex determination in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutations in this gene lead to a range of sex-related disorders with varying effects on an individual's phenotype and genotype. (wikipedia.org)
  • SRY is a quickly evolving gene and its regulation has been difficult to study because sex determination is not a highly conserved phenomenon within the animal kingdom. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene is involved in the patterning of sex determination, lung development, and skeletal development. (wikipedia.org)
  • steroids
  • Anestrus is an obligatory period characterized by a quiescent endometrium and the absence of circulating sex steroids. (vin.com)
  • Within those two classes are five types according to the receptors to which they bind: glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids (corticosteroids), androgens, estrogens, and progestogens (sex steroids). (wikipedia.org)
  • This difference in the relative amounts of these sex steroids is largely responsible for the physiological differences that distinguish men from women. (wikipedia.org)
  • secondary
  • Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) of the male-to-female (MTF) type is hormone replacement therapy and sex reassignment therapy used to change the secondary sexual characteristics of transgender and transsexual people from masculine (or androgynous) to feminine. (wikipedia.org)
  • The purpose of this form of HRT is to cause the development of the secondary sex characteristics of the desired sex, such as breasts and a feminine pattern of hair, fat, and muscle distribution. (wikipedia.org)
  • While HRT cannot undo the effects of a person's first puberty, developing secondary sex characteristics associated with a different gender can relieve some or all of the distress and discomfort associated with gender dysphoria, and can help the person to "pass" or be seen as the gender they identify with. (wikipedia.org)
  • Parasites reduce host biological fitness by general or specialized pathology, from parasitic castration and impairment of secondary sex characteristics, to the modification of host behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • assignment
  • Some intersex people also receive this form of HRT, either starting in childhood to confirm the assigned sex or later if the assignment proves to be incorrect. (wikipedia.org)
  • With regard to gender, a woman may also be a person whose sex assignment does not align with their gender identity, or those who have sexual characteristics that do not fit typical notions of male or female (intersex). (wikipedia.org)
  • Since ability to determine even the type of gonads in infancy was limited, sex of assignment and rearing were determined mainly by the appearance of the external genitalia. (wikipedia.org)
  • testis
  • In the early 1950s, it consisted primarily of the ability to remove an unwanted or nonfunctional gonad, to bring a testis into a scrotum, to repair a milder chordee or hypospadias, to widen a vaginal opening, and to remove a clitoris. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cords form in the central part of the yet-undifferentiated gonad, turning it into a testis. (wikipedia.org)
  • primary
  • Transcriptomic resources are capable of assessing biological processes at the primary level and provide useful tools for understanding environmental interactions. (google.com)
  • Its expression causes the development of primary sex cords, which later develop into seminiferous tubules. (wikipedia.org)
  • fetus
  • This is a cue for a surge in testosterone production, which in turn signals the developing fetus to alter gonad development. (madartlab.com)
  • In the first weeks of life, a fetus has no anatomic or hormonal sex, and only a karyotype distinguishes male from female. (wikipedia.org)
  • person's
  • Prior to the medicalization of intersex, Canon and common law referred to a person's sex as male, female or hermaphrodite, with legal rights as male or female depending on the characteristics that appeared most dominant. (wikipedia.org)
  • hormone levels
  • sex hormone levels in male and female fetuses and infants differ, and both androgen receptors and estrogen receptors have been identified in brains. (wikipedia.org)
  • sexual
  • Intraspecific differential expression between sexes may be indicative of evolutionary selection leading to sexual dimorphism (Ellegren and Parsch 2007). (google.com)
  • Most organisms that create their offspring using sexual reproduction have two sexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • typically
  • siRNA is loaded to Argonaute2 and silences highly complementary target RNAs by cleaving them-a process typically called RNAi. (jhmi.edu)
  • male
  • A common symbol used to represent the male sex is the Mars symbol, ♂ (Unicode: U+2642 Alt codes: Alt+11)-a circle with an arrow pointing northeast. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutation of the Zinc fingers or inactivation of WT1 results in reduced male gonad size. (wikipedia.org)
  • gametogenesis
  • Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secreted from hypothalamic nuclei into the portal hypophyseal circulation causes pulsatile release of stored pituitary gonadotrophins inducing steroid synthesis and gametogenesis by the gonad. (vin.com)
  • monotremes
  • Instead, homologues with eutherian sex chromosomes lie on the platypus chromosome 6, which means that the eutherian sex chromosomes were autosomes at the time that the monotremes diverged from the therian mammals (marsupials and eutherian mammals). (wikipedia.org)
  • biological
  • Establishment of baseline data greatly enhances our understanding of important biological processes and can provide valuable genomic resources for future studies. (google.com)