• gene
  • Intratesticular exposure to doses (100 and 1000 pmol/testis) of BPA from post-EDS day 14-28 stimulated Leydig cell developmental regeneration process by increasing serum testosterone level and Leydig cell-specific gene (Lhcgr, Star, Cyp11a1, Hsd3b1, Cyp17a1, Hsd17b3, and Hsd11b1) and their protein expression levels. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • The sex-determining (SD) master gene can differ even between closely related fish species. (genetics.org)
  • b) Genetic action, when at least one specific gene is considered to be the central regulator in a cascade of events leading to the determination of sexual phenotype. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Moreover, it is a proposed regulatory mechanism for several species, whose study has so far been limited or led to inconclusive data as to the attempt to detect a single, specific, sex-determining gene. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here we provide genetic proof that Sry is the only Y-linked gene necessary for cell migration into the gonad. (jax.org)
  • Here, we generate zebrafish with a mutation in the ar gene (aruab105/105) and examine the role of AR in sexual determination and gonad development. (deepdyve.com)
  • These findings demonstrate that AR regulates sexual determination, testis development, and oocyte maturation and suggest that AR regulates sexually dimorphic gene expression. (deepdyve.com)
  • Presence of this gene starts off the process of virilization. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene is involved in the patterning of sex determination, lung development, and skeletal development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Males: The SRY gene when transcribed and processed produces SRY protein that binds to DNA and directs the development of the gonad into testes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Testis-determining factor (TDF), also known as sex-determining region Y (SRY) protein, is a DNA-binding protein (also known as gene-regulatory protein/transcription factor) encoded by the SRY gene that is responsible for the initiation of male sex determination in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutations in this gene lead to a range of sex-related disorders with varying effects on an individual's phenotype and genotype. (wikipedia.org)
  • SRY is a quickly evolving gene and its regulation has been difficult to study because sex determination is not a highly conserved phenomenon within the animal kingdom. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanisms
  • Although the mechanisms of avian sex determination remains unknown, the genetic sex is experimentally reversible by in ovo exposure to exogenous estrogens (ZZ-male feminization) or aromatase inhibitors (ZW-female masculinization). (biomedsearch.com)
  • However, the rate of turnover of sex-determining mechanisms is notably different among particular vertebrate lineages. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • As poikilotherms, reptiles (the term 'reptiles' denotes here the paraphyletic group, i.e. sauropsids with the exclusion of their inner avian group) are usually considered as a group with a rapid turnover of sex-determining mechanisms [ 4 , 5 ] and as a whole, they indeed exhibit a large variability in sex-determining systems [ 6 , 7 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The mechanisms by which Sry controls this process are unknown. (jax.org)
  • The development of sexual differences begins with the XY sex-determination system that is present in humans, and complex mechanisms are responsible for the development of the phenotypic differences between male and female humans from an undifferentiated zygote. (wikipedia.org)
  • As sex-determining mechanisms, TSD and genetic sex determination (GSD) should be considered in an equivalent manner, which can lead to reconsidering the status of fish species that are claimed to have TSD when submitted to extreme temperatures instead of the temperature experienced during development in the wild, since changes in sex ratio with temperature variation are ecologically and evolutionally relevant. (wikipedia.org)
  • While TSD has been observed in many reptile and fish species, the genetic differences between sexes and molecular mechanisms of TSD have not been disclosed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic
  • A small proportion of families did not fit perfectly with this model, which suggests that other minor genetic and/or environmental factors are involved in sex determination in this species. (genetics.org)
  • With the arrival of genomics, large amounts of different genetic markers and genomic information are available for scanning genomes to look for their association with sex determination. (genetics.org)
  • Regulation of sex steroid production is also a major result of these genetic interactions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, downstream of this dominant genetic switch are complex antagonistic signaling pathways that wage the battle of the sexes in the bipotential gonad. (duke.edu)
  • Intersex individuals, who have physical or genetic features considered to be mixed or atypical for one sex or the other, may use other criteria in making a clear determination. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also, experiments conducted at the pivotal temperature, where temperature is equivocal in its influence, have demonstrated an underlying genetic predisposition to be one sex or the other. (wikipedia.org)
  • females
  • This region appeared mostly undifferentiated between males and females, and no relevant recombination frequency differences were detected between sexes. (genetics.org)
  • FGF9's role in sex determination begins with its expression in the bi-potent gonads for both females and males. (wikipedia.org)
  • In both males and females, the sex organs consist of three structures: the gonads, the internal genitalia, and the external genitalia. (wikipedia.org)
  • In males, the gonads are the testes and in females they are the ovaries. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, Cymothoa exigua changes sex depending on the number of females present in the vicinity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Accordingly, sex is defined operationally across species by the type of gametes produced (i.e.: spermatozoa vs. ova) and differences between males and females in one lineage are not always predictive of differences in another. (wikipedia.org)
  • undeveloped testes), or phenotypical females with an XY karyotype (undeveloped reproductive organs), or who exhibit biological and/or behavioral characteristics of both sexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Large females and some males can permanently change coloration and/or sex and enter the terminal phase coloration, which has a blue head, black and white bars behind the head, and a green body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Infected bluehead wrasses have been found to change sex earlier than uninfected females, possibly in response to the parasite. (wikipedia.org)
  • individuals may begin life either as males or females, but females can change sex later in life and become males. (wikipedia.org)
  • male
  • Underlying this decision is a complex transcriptional network composed of male and female sub-networks that act in an antagonistic manner to balance the gonad between its alternate fates. (duke.edu)
  • In XX gonads, the female sub-network dominates and represses the male pathway. (duke.edu)
  • The cladoceran crustacean Daphnia pulex produces female offspring by parthenogenesis under favorable conditions, but in response to various unfavorable external stimuli, it produces male offspring (environmental sex determination: ESD). (springer.com)
  • We recently established an innovative system for ESD studies using D. pulex WTN6 strain, in which the sex of the offspring can be controlled simply by changes in the photoperiod: the long-day and short-day conditions can induce female and male offspring, respectively. (springer.com)
  • To elucidate up- and downstream events of MF signaling during sex determination processes, we compared the transcriptomes of daphnids reared under the long-day (female) condition with short-day (male) and MF-treated (male) conditions. (springer.com)
  • It promotes female sex development and represses male sex development. (wikipedia.org)
  • They later commit to sex determination, becoming either female or male under normal circumstances. (wikipedia.org)
  • The absence of WNT4 is required for male sex development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Environmental sex determination occurs when extrinsic factors influence whether an embryo develops into a female or a male. (genetics.org)
  • The specification into either female or male fates for the organism itself also depends on the development of the gonads, which have yet to differentiate into ether ovaries or testes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the mouse, somatic sex determination (i.e. determination of either female or male gonads) begins at embryonic day 10.5 in mice, but is not finalised until day 12.5. (wikipedia.org)
  • FGF9 has also been shown to play a vital role in male sex development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Defeminization and masculinization are the processes that a fetus goes through to become a male. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Two processes: defeminization, and masculinization, are involved in producing male typical morphology and behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the male sexual development pathway, GADD45G is essential for activating SRY, leading to proper formation of the gonads and sex-determination. (wikipedia.org)
  • Over the next five weeks, the fetus begins producing hormones that cause its sex organs to grow into either male or female organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutation of the Zinc fingers or inactivation of WT1 results in reduced male gonad size. (wikipedia.org)
  • A male (♂) organism is the physiological sex that produces sperm. (wikipedia.org)
  • A common symbol used to represent the male sex is the Mars symbol, ♂ (Unicode: U+2642 Alt codes: Alt+11)-a circle with an arrow pointing northeast. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although most species with male and female sexes have individuals that are either male or female, hermaphroditic animals, such as worms, have both male and female reproductive organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other species, such as some snails, practice sex change: adults start out male, then become female. (wikipedia.org)
  • With regard to gender, a woman may also be a person whose sex assignment does not align with their gender identity, or those who have sexual characteristics that do not fit typical notions of male or female (intersex). (wikipedia.org)
  • In the first weeks of life, a fetus has no anatomic or hormonal sex, and only a karyotype distinguishes male from female. (wikipedia.org)
  • sex hormone levels in male and female fetuses and infants differ, and both androgen receptors and estrogen receptors have been identified in brains. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, this change in sex is permanent: once an initial phase female or male changes into a terminal phase male, it cannot change back. (wikipedia.org)
  • determine sex
  • Temperature pulses during the thermosensitive period are often sufficient to determine sex, but after the TSP, sex is unresponsive to temperature. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • Fish embryos go through a process called mid-blastula transition which is observed around the tenth cell division in some fish species. (wikipedia.org)
  • In many species of stingless bees, especially Melipona bicolor, the queen lays her eggs during the provisioning and oviposition process and the spermatheca fertilizes the egg as it passes along the oviduct. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, it is also difficult to compare with previous studies, especially since the majority have been done on mice, and there are different processes between species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Not all species share a common sex-determination system. (wikipedia.org)
  • In most animals, including humans, sex is determined genetically, but in some species it can be determined due to social, environmental, or other factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • some species consist entirely of ZZ individuals, with sex determined by the presence of Wolbachia. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, men tend to be taller than women, but there are many people of both sexes who are in the mid-height range for the species. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is used in reference to species with temperature-dependent sex determination, such as crocodilians and turtles. (wikipedia.org)
  • hormones
  • During puberty, hormones which stimulate androgen production result in the development of secondary sexual characteristics, thus exhibiting greater differences between the sexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In most animals, differences of exposure of a fetal or infant brain to sex hormones produce significant differences of brain structure and function which correlate with adult reproductive behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • female
  • WNT4 is required for female sex development. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has long been believed that the female form was the default template for the mammalian fetuses of both sexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Disruption of either of these processes in males produces female-typical development. (wikipedia.org)
  • At least by implication, female gender identity simply required a female sex of rearing and lack of an obvious penis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The precursor of the internal female sex organs is called the Müllerian system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each spermatozoon can fuse with a larger female gamete, or ovum, in the process of fertilization. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ova, which are the female sex cells, are much larger than the sperm and are normally formed within the ovaries of the fetus before its birth. (wikipedia.org)
  • The symbol for the planet and goddess Venus or Aphrodite in Greek is the sign also used in biology for the female sex. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • The germ cell population (~40 in mice), after specification, migrate to the developing gonads where they differentiate further into gametogonia. (wikipedia.org)
  • ovaries
  • Examples of sex-dichotomous differences include aspects of the sex-specific genital organs such as ovaries, a uterus or a phallic urethra. (wikipedia.org)
  • reproductive
  • SEX ratio is a central demographic parameter directly related to the reproductive potential of individuals and populations ( P enman and P iferrer 2008 ). (genetics.org)
  • The sex of an early embryo cannot be determined because the reproductive structures do not differentiate until the seventh week. (wikipedia.org)
  • development
  • These processes are all necessary for the development of an embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell migration from the mesonephros into the differentiating gonad is consistently associated with Sty's presence and with testis cord formation, suggesting that cell migration plays a critical role in the initiation of testis cord development. (jax.org)
  • The gonads have an important role in germ cell development, converting the bipotential cells into gametogonia. (wikipedia.org)
  • FGF family members possess broad mitogenic and cell survival activities, and are involved in a variety of biological processes, including embryonic development, cell growth, morphogenesis, tissue repair, tumor growth and invasion. (wikipedia.org)
  • GADD45G is involved in several different processes, including sexual development, human-specific brain development, tumor suppression, and the cellular stress response. (wikipedia.org)
  • At an early stage in embryonic development, both sexes possess equivalent internal structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Its expression causes the development of primary sex cords, which later develop into seminiferous tubules. (wikipedia.org)
  • somatic
  • Sex specification of the germ cells requires the repression of pluripotency and relies on the communication between the somatic cells of the gonads and germ cells Reitzel et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • hormonal
  • Over a regular interval, in response to hormonal signals, a process of oogenesis matures one ovum which is released and sent down the Fallopian tube. (wikipedia.org)
  • germ cells
  • The germ cells are bipotential in that prior to migrating to the gonads, they are capable of forming either spermatogonia or oogonia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Within the seminiferous tubules Here, germ cells develop into spermatogonia, spermatocytes, spermatids and spermatozoon through the process of spermatogenesis. (wikipedia.org)