• increases
  • As activity increases and it begins to pump faster, the cardiac muscles begin to oxidize glucose at a higher rate. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the vesicles fuse with the plasma membrane, GLUT4 transporters are inserted and become available for transporting glucose, and glucose absorption increases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glucose in the body increases after food consumption. (wikipedia.org)
  • amino
  • Like all proteins, the unique amino acid arrangement in the primary sequence of GLUT4 are what allow it to transport glucose across the plasma membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fructose undergoes the Maillard reaction, non-enzymatic browning, with amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • concentration
  • Understanding how islet cells sense changes in the concentration of blood glucose is an important question for human health since defective glucose-stimulated insulin release is a contributory factor in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). (physiology.org)
  • In the liver, these genes are all activated by external glucose in the physiological concentration range (4-16 mM) provided that insulin is present ( 5 ) The requirement for insulin is explained by the need for the prior induction of the glucokinase gene. (physiology.org)
  • In other words, it can regulate fatty acid concentration in the cytosol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Strong activity in glyceroneogenesis will induce the re-esterification of fatty acid which will result in decrease of fatty acid concentration in the cytosol. (wikipedia.org)
  • The concentration of glucose in the blood decreases as a result, staying within the normal range even when a large amount of carbohydrates is consumed. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the cell surface, GLUT4 permits the facilitated diffusion of circulating glucose down its concentration gradient into muscle and fat cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glucose-6-phosphate cannot diffuse back out of cells, which also serves to maintain the concentration gradient for glucose to passively enter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • When carbohydrates are consumed, digested, and absorbed the pancreas senses the subsequent rise in blood glucose concentration and releases insulin to promote an uptake of glucose from the blood stream. (wikipedia.org)
  • adipocyte
  • Adipocyte hypotrophy was attributed primarily to reduced triacylglyceride content in WAT from lipolysis, while adipocyte differentiation did not play a role in reduced adipose tissue despite the effects of prostaglandins on adipogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activation of PPAR-γ in fat results in decreased adipocyte lipolysis and hence free fatty acid availability ( 1 , 2 , 4 , 15 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Both adipocytes and brown adipocyte may be derived from pericytes, the cells which surround the blood vessels that run through white fat tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • citric acid
  • The acetyl-CoA produced by β-oxidation enters the citric acid cycle in the mitochondrion by combining with oxaloacetate to form citrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Beta oxidation, in the mitochondrial matrix, then cuts the long carbon chains of the fatty acids (in the form of acyl-CoA molecules) into a series of two-carbon (acetate) units, which, combined with co-enzyme A, form molecules of acetyl CoA, which condense with oxaloacetate to form citrate at the "beginning" of the citric acid cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulation
  • see below), an important transcription factor in the regulation of the fatty acid synthase ( FAS ) gene, is independent of external glucose. (physiology.org)
  • Glucose, which quickly equilibrates across the liver cell plasma membrane via the high-Michaelis-Menten constant ( K m ) glucose transporter GLUT2 can then be phosphorylated to glucose 6-phosphate (G6P), which may provide the signal for the regulation of these genes. (physiology.org)
  • The regulation of glucose can remain normal or be slightly defective in that the glucose levels may rise but not as high as in diabetes mellitus. (healthhype.com)
  • During module 3 we will focus on physiological regulation of plasma glucose. (coursera.org)
  • Professor Jens Juul Holst will guide you through the complex regulation of glucose in humans. (coursera.org)
  • lactate production
  • In the 1920s, Otto Warburg observed that tumor cells undergo high rates of glycolysis and lactate production in the presence of oxygen, a condition usually found only in the oxygen-deprived state. (cellsignal.com)
  • ketone bodies
  • Ketone bodies Ketone bodies are three water-soluble molecules (acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and their spontaneous breakdown product, acetone) that are produced by the liver from fatty acids during periods of low food intake (fasting), carbohydrate restrictive diets, starvation, prolonged intense exercise, alcoholism or in untreated (or inadequately treated) type 1 diabetes mellitus. (wikipedia.org)
  • lactic acid
  • Acetone is the decarboxylated form of acetoacetate which cannot be converted back into acetyl-CoA except via detoxification in the liver where it is converted into lactic acid, which can, in turn, be oxidized into pyruvic acid, and only then into acetyl-CoA. (wikipedia.org)
  • fructose
  • Glucose will be degraded though glycolysis until fructose 1,6-bisphosphate is broken down to glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fructose, or fruit sugar, is a simple ketonic monosaccharide found in many plants, where it is often bonded to glucose to form the disaccharide, sucrose. (wikipedia.org)
  • High-fructose corn syrup is a mixture of glucose and fructose as monosaccharides. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sucrose is a compound with one molecule of glucose covalently linked to one molecule of fructose. (wikipedia.org)
  • Yeast enzymes convert sugar (glucose, or fructose) to ethanol and carbon dioxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because fructose exists to a greater extent in the open-chain form than does glucose, the initial stages of the Maillard reaction occur more rapidly than with glucose. (wikipedia.org)
  • The sweetness of fructose is perceived earlier than that of sucrose or glucose, and the taste sensation reaches a peak (higher than that of sucrose) and diminishes more quickly than that of sucrose. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulates
  • The situation is analogous to the fuel tank of a car and the throttle that regulates fuel oxidation, except that in the car there is just one fuel and just one engine: in humans there are three major nutrients and a variety of tissues and organs, each of which may have its own preferences for fuels, that vary with time. (emedmd.com)
  • Here we review recent advances in understanding how glucose regulates gene transcription in mammals. (physiology.org)
  • Until recently, research into the intracellular signaling mechanisms whereby glucose regulates genes in mammalian cells has been undertaken largely without reference to simpler organisms. (physiology.org)
  • peripheral
  • The pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes is not well understood but patients exhibit a reduced population of islet beta-cells, reduced secretory function of islet beta-cells that survive and peripheral tissue insulin resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzymes
  • WAT is responsible for releasing fatty acids from stored triacylglycerol as energy sources for other tissues which is regulated predominately by AdPLA over other phospholipase A2 enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecule
  • We are testing the effects of direct small-molecule AMPK activators and phytochemicals in muscle, liver and adipose tissue. (deduveinstitute.be)
  • The energy released in this process is captured in the form of 1 GTP and 11 ATP molecules per acetyl group (or acetic acid molecule) oxidized. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once inside the cell long-chain-fatty-acid-CoA ligase catalyzes the reaction between a fatty acid molecule with ATP (which is broken down to AMP and inorganic pyrophosphate) to give a fatty acyl-adenylate, which then reacts with free coenzyme A to give a fatty acyl-CoA molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • hormones
  • Fatty acids can also be cleaved, or partially cleaved, from their chemical attachments in the cell membrane to form second messengers within the cell, and local hormones in the immediate vicinity of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The prostaglandins made from arachidonic acid stored in the cell membrane, are probably the most well known group of these local hormones. (wikipedia.org)
  • occurs
  • Optimum AdPLA activity occurs in relatively basic conditions, between pH 7 and 9, to facilitate formation of a histidine-water complex and subsequent fatty acid hydrolysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this article, we provide a perspective on the effects of hypoxia on the function of white adipocytes and consider, in particular, whether hypoxia also occurs in brown adipose tissue (BAT). (frontiersin.org)
  • This occurs between meals, during fasting, starvation and strenuous exercise, when blood glucose levels are likely to fall. (wikipedia.org)