• gluconeogenesis
  • Ketone bodies are produced by the liver under the circumstances listed above (i.e. fasting, starving, low carbohydrate diets, prolonged exercise and untreated type 1 diabetes mellitus) as a result of intense gluconeogenesis, which is the production of glucose from non-carbohydrate sources (not including fatty acids). (wikipedia.org)
  • In response to insulin levels being below normal (when blood levels of glucose begin to fall below the normal range), glucagon is secreted in increasing amounts and stimulates both glycogenolysis (the breakdown of glycogen) and gluconeogenesis (the production of glucose from other sources). (wikipedia.org)
  • Glucagon, through stimulating the liver to release glucose by glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis, has the opposite effect of insulin. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulates
  • Here we review recent advances in understanding how glucose regulates gene transcription in mammals. (physiology.org)
  • Until recently, research into the intracellular signaling mechanisms whereby glucose regulates genes in mammalian cells has been undertaken largely without reference to simpler organisms. (physiology.org)
  • pancreatic
  • Insulin is secreted by pancreatic β cells in response to increased circulating levels of glucose after a meal. (jci.org)
  • factors related to stress, socio-economic status and history have been shown to activate the stress response, which increases the production of glucose and insulin resistance, as well as inhibiting pancreatic function and thus might be of importance, although it is not fully corroborated by the scientific evidence. (wikipedia.org)
  • In mammals, PC is expressed in a tissue-specific manner, with its activity found to be highest in the liver and kidney (gluconeogenic tissues), in adipose tissue and lactating mammary gland (lipogenic tissues), and in pancreatic islets. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • Insulin binding to the IR results in activation of the insulin receptor substrate (IRS) protein and subsequent signaling to the PI3K/Akt and Erk1/2 pathways, resulting in translocation of Glut4 vesicles, glucose uptake, cell proliferation, and survival. (cellsignal.com)
  • Glucose increases the expression of genes whose protein products catalyze important regulatory steps in the pathways of lipid synthesis (Table 1 ⇓ ) ( 3 , 15 ). (physiology.org)
  • To circumvent possible compensatory mechanisms linked to the early and systemic loss of DEPTOR, we have deleted DEPTOR specifically in the liver, a tissue in which DEPTOR protein is expressed and affected in response to mTOR activation. (ipstherapeutique.com)
  • The mature protein encoded by the PDK4 gene contains 294 amino acids in its sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Insulin increase protein synthesis by increasing amino acid transport into the cells as well as by increasing DNA transcription and RNA translation. (howmed.net)
  • Absence of insulin leads to increased protein catabolism and depletion of protein stores which leads to an increase in plasma amino acids. (howmed.net)
  • Glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT-4), also known as solute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 4, is a protein encoded, in humans, by the SLC2A4 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first evidence for this distinct glucose transport protein was provided by David James in 1988. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a meal containing carbohydrates or protein is eaten and digested, blood glucose levels rise, and the pancreas secretes insulin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Notably, this is not the same as the presence of Myf5 protein, which is involved in the development of many tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • The human insulin protein is composed of 51 amino acids, and has a molecular mass of 5808 Da. (wikipedia.org)
  • When compared to other macronutrient classes (carbohydrates and protein), fatty acids yield the most ATP on an energy per gram basis, when they are completely oxidized to CO2 and water by beta oxidation and the citric acid cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • adipocyte
  • Adipocyte hypotrophy was attributed primarily to reduced triacylglyceride content in WAT from lipolysis, while adipocyte differentiation did not play a role in reduced adipose tissue despite the effects of prostaglandins on adipogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activation of PPAR-γ in fat results in decreased adipocyte lipolysis and hence free fatty acid availability ( 1 , 2 , 4 , 15 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Both adipocytes and brown adipocyte may be derived from pericytes, the cells which surround the blood vessels that run through white fat tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • citric acid
  • The acetyl-CoA produced by β-oxidation enters the citric acid cycle in the mitochondrion by combining with oxaloacetate to form citrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Beta oxidation, in the mitochondrial matrix, then cuts the long carbon chains of the fatty acids (in the form of acyl-CoA molecules) into a series of two-carbon (acetate) units, which, combined with co-enzyme A, form molecules of acetyl CoA, which condense with oxaloacetate to form citrate at the "beginning" of the citric acid cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzymes
  • WAT is responsible for releasing fatty acids from stored triacylglycerol as energy sources for other tissues which is regulated predominately by AdPLA over other phospholipase A2 enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Yeast enzymes convert sugar (glucose, or fructose) to ethanol and carbon dioxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • lactate production
  • In the 1920s, Otto Warburg observed that tumor cells undergo high rates of glycolysis and lactate production in the presence of oxygen, a condition usually found only in the oxygen-deprived state. (cellsignal.com)
  • inhibition
  • High-fat feeding induces RAGE ligand Hmgb1 mRNA transcripts and carboxymethyllysine (CML)-AGE epitopes in liver and adipose tissue, and inhibition of RAGE by genetic or pharmacologic means has led to the unexpected result in mice that RAGE is required for the development of diet-induced obesity and its associated pathologies of insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • lactic acid
  • Acetone is the decarboxylated form of acetoacetate which cannot be converted back into acetyl-CoA except via detoxification in the liver where it is converted into lactic acid, which can, in turn, be oxidized into pyruvic acid, and only then into acetyl-CoA. (wikipedia.org)
  • fructose
  • Glucose will be degraded though glycolysis until fructose 1,6-bisphosphate is broken down to glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fructose, or fruit sugar, is a simple ketonic monosaccharide found in many plants, where it is often bonded to glucose to form the disaccharide, sucrose. (wikipedia.org)
  • High-fructose corn syrup is a mixture of glucose and fructose as monosaccharides. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sucrose is a compound with one molecule of glucose covalently linked to one molecule of fructose. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fructose undergoes the Maillard reaction, non-enzymatic browning, with amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because fructose exists to a greater extent in the open-chain form than does glucose, the initial stages of the Maillard reaction occur more rapidly than with glucose. (wikipedia.org)
  • The sweetness of fructose is perceived earlier than that of sucrose or glucose, and the taste sensation reaches a peak (higher than that of sucrose) and diminishes more quickly than that of sucrose. (wikipedia.org)
  • lipid
  • Concurrent minimization of adipose creation, improved lipid profiles, lowered prandial and post-prandial blood glucose levels, and PPARγ activation will turn you into a human fat burning machine. (anabolicminds.com)
  • Regardless of your age, sex, or goal, everyone can benefit from the opportunity to improve lipid levels, glucose levels, and body fat levels, as well as reduce risk of cardiovascular diseases by obstructing LDL particles ( bad cholesterol ) before they attach to arterial walls. (anabolicminds.com)
  • A recent medical study concluded that Berberine is as potent as Metformin better known as Glucophage with regards to control of insulin/glucose levels and lipid parameters. (anabolicminds.com)
  • Fatty acids are a family of molecules classified within the lipid macronutrient class. (wikipedia.org)
  • ketone
  • Additionally, HCA promotes ketone production and slows muscle tissue breakdown in a hypocaloric environment. (anabolicminds.com)
  • Ketone bodies Ketone bodies are three water-soluble molecules (acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and their spontaneous breakdown product, acetone) that are produced by the liver from fatty acids during periods of low food intake (fasting), carbohydrate restrictive diets, starvation, prolonged intense exercise, alcoholism or in untreated (or inadequately treated) type 1 diabetes mellitus. (wikipedia.org)
  • hydrolysis
  • Optimum AdPLA activity occurs in relatively basic conditions, between pH 7 and 9, to facilitate formation of a histidine-water complex and subsequent fatty acid hydrolysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • peripheral
  • The pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes is not well understood but patients exhibit a reduced population of islet beta-cells, reduced secretory function of islet beta-cells that survive and peripheral tissue insulin resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • transporter
  • Glucose, which quickly equilibrates across the liver cell plasma membrane via the high-Michaelis-Menten constant ( K m ) glucose transporter GLUT2 can then be phosphorylated to glucose 6-phosphate (G6P), which may provide the signal for the regulation of these genes. (physiology.org)
  • cellular
  • During conditions of glucose deprivation when cellular ATP levels fall, the serine/threonine kinase AMPK becomes active. (cellsignal.com)
  • AMPK is an energy sensor that is activated by an elevated AMP/ATP ratio due to cellular and environmental stress, such as low glucose, heat shock, hypoxia, and ischemia. (cellsignal.com)
  • There is growing recognition that low O 2 tension, indeed overt hypoxia, can occur in tissues with important implications for cellular function. (frontiersin.org)
  • When insulin binds to the insulin receptor, it leads to a cascade of cellular processes that promote the usage or, in some cases, the storage of glucose in the cell. (wikipedia.org)