• white adipos
  • Rosiglitazone, a thiazolidinedione known to activate the glycerol biogenesis pathway, increases PDK4 mRNA transcription in white adipose tissue, but not in liver or muscle tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • The two superficial depots are the paired inguinal depots, which are found anterior to the upper segment of the hind limbs (underneath the skin) and the subscapular depots, paired medial mixtures of brown adipose tissue adjacent to regions of white adipose tissue, which are found under the skin between the dorsal crests of the scapulae. (wikipedia.org)
  • ketone bodies
  • Ketone bodies Ketone bodies are three water-soluble molecules (acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and their spontaneous breakdown product, acetone) that are produced by the liver from fatty acids during periods of low food intake (fasting), carbohydrate restrictive diets, starvation, prolonged intense exercise, alcoholism or in untreated (or inadequately treated) type 1 diabetes mellitus. (wikipedia.org)
  • These ketone bodies are readily picked up by the extra-hepatic tissues, and converted into acetyl-CoA which then enters the citric acid cycle and is oxidized in the mitochondria for energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore
  • They are therefore always released into the blood by the liver together with newly produced glucose, after the liver glycogen stores have been depleted (these glycogen stores are depleted after only 24 hours of fasting). (wikipedia.org)
  • fructose
  • Glucose will be degraded though glycolysis until fructose 1,6-bisphosphate is broken down to glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fructose, or fruit sugar, is a simple ketonic monosaccharide found in many plants, where it is often bonded to glucose to form the disaccharide, sucrose. (wikipedia.org)
  • High-fructose corn syrup is a mixture of glucose and fructose as monosaccharides. (wikipedia.org)
  • Yeast enzymes convert sugar (glucose, or fructose) to ethanol and carbon dioxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because fructose exists to a greater extent in the open-chain form than does glucose, the initial stages of the Maillard reaction occur more rapidly than with glucose. (wikipedia.org)
  • The sweetness of fructose is perceived earlier than that of sucrose or glucose, and the taste sensation reaches a peak (higher than that of sucrose) and diminishes more quickly than that of sucrose. (wikipedia.org)
  • concentration
  • Usually glycerol 3-phosphate is generated from glucose by glycolysis, but when glucose concentration drops in the cytosol, it is generated by another pathway called glyceroneogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • In other words, it can regulate fatty acid concentration in the cytosol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Strong activity in glyceroneogenesis will induce the re-esterification of fatty acid which will result in decrease of fatty acid concentration in the cytosol. (wikipedia.org)
  • The interaction of glucose and lipogenic gene expression is assumed to be managed by the increasing concentration of an unknown glucose metabolite through the activity of glucokinase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Type 2 diabetes is characterized by high rates of glucagon secretion into the blood which are unaffected by, and unresponsive to the concentration of glucose in the blood glucose. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is released in response to stress and low blood-glucose concentration. (wikipedia.org)
  • galactose
  • It is one of the three dietary monosaccharides, along with glucose and galactose, that are absorbed directly into blood during digestion. (wikipedia.org)
  • anti-inflammatory
  • Prebiotic soluble fiber products, like those containing inulin or oligosaccharides, may contribute to relief from inflammatory bowel disease, as in Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, and Clostridium difficile, due in part to the short-chain fatty acids produced with subsequent anti-inflammatory actions upon the bowel. (wikipedia.org)
  • adipocytes
  • Adipocytes, also known as lipocytes and fat cells, are the cells that primarily compose adipose tissue, specialized in storing energy as fat. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apart from adipocytes, which comprise the highest percentage of cells within adipose tissue, other cell types are present, collectively termed stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • glucagon
  • These lipases are activated by high epinephrine and glucagon levels in the blood (or norepinephrine secreted by sympathetic nerves in adipose tissue), caused by declining blood glucose levels after meals, which simultaneously lowers the insulin level in the blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • Mitochondrial proteins (proteins transcribed from mitochondrial DNA) vary depending on the tissue and the species. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • In humans, adipose tissue is located beneath the skin (subcutaneous fat), around internal organs (visceral fat), in bone marrow (yellow bone marrow), intermuscular (Muscular system) and in the breast tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pyruvate
  • Glyceroneogenesis uses pyruvate, alanine, glutamine or any substances from the TCA cycle as precursors for glycerol 3-phosphate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pyruvate generated from alanine will enter glyceroneogenesis and generate glycerol 3-phosphate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pyruvic acid Oxaloacetic acid The reaction it catalyzes is: pyruvate + HCO− 3 + ATP → oxaloacetate + ADP + P It is an important anaplerotic reaction that creates oxaloacetate from pyruvate. (wikipedia.org)
  • liver cells
  • Under these circumstances oxaloacetate is hydrogenated to malate which is then removed from the mitochondrion to be converted into glucose in the cytoplasm of the liver cells, from where it is released into the blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • pyruvic
  • Acetone is the decarboxylated form of acetoacetate which cannot be converted back into acetyl-CoA except via detoxification in the liver where it is converted into lactic acid, which can, in turn, be oxidized into pyruvic acid, and only then into acetyl-CoA. (wikipedia.org)
  • carbon
  • Both are 4-carbon molecules, that can readily be converted back into acetyl-CoA by most tissues of the body, with the notable exception of the liver. (wikipedia.org)
  • Malonyl-CoA provides the two-carbon building blocks that are used to create larger fatty acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • The carbon dioxide released during fermentation will remain dissolved in water, where it will reach equilibrium with carbonic acid, unless the fermentation chamber is left open to the air. (wikipedia.org)
  • The dissolved carbon dioxide and carbonic acid produce the carbonation in bottled fermented beverages. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • The variation of body fat distribution resulting from normal growth is influenced by nutritional and hormonal status in dependence on intrinsic differences in cells found in each adipose depot. (wikipedia.org)
  • convert
  • With expense of NADH, dihydroxyacetone phosphate will convert to glycerol 3- phosphate (Figure 4), which is the final product of glyceroneogenesis. (wikipedia.org)