• enzymes
  • This review will cover phase I cytochrome P450 enzymes as well as phase II enzymes, specifically UDP-glucuronosyl transferases, glutathione S-transferases, amino acid transferases, N-acetyl transferases, and methyltransferases. (hindawi.com)
  • Glutathione is a cofactor in many important enzymes that help protect us from the harm of heavy metals, chemicals, and smoke. (healthy.net)
  • Pantothenic acid functions and is present in all living cells, mostly in the form of coenzyme A. CoA is thecofactor of one of the most important enzymes of intermediate metabolism. (canixalife.com)
  • Thiols
  • Thiols are also responsible for a class of wine faults caused by an unintended reaction between sulfur and yeast and the "skunky" odor of beer that has been exposed to ultraviolet light. (wikipedia.org)
  • sulfate
  • Though sometimes found in pure, native form, sulfur usually occurs as sulfide and sulfate minerals. (wikipedia.org)
  • The greatest commercial use of the element is the production of sulfuric acid for sulfate and phosphate fertilizers, and other chemical processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The uptake of sulfate by the roots and its transport to the shoot is strictly controlled and it appears to be one of the primary regulatory sites of sulfur assimilation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regulation and expression of the majority of sulfate transporters are controlled by the sulfur nutritional status of the plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nature of these transporters is not yet fully solved, whether sulfate itself or metabolic products of the sulfur assimilation (O-acetylserine, cysteine, glutathione) act as signals in the regulation of sulfate uptake by the root and its transport to the shoot, and in the expression of the sulfate transporters involved. (wikipedia.org)
  • The activation of sulfate is catalyzed by ATP sulfurylase, which affinity for sulfate is rather low (Km approximately 1 mM) and the in situ sulfate concentration in the chloroplast is most likely one of the limiting/regulatory steps in sulfur reduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolism
  • In the treatment of acetaminophen overdose, acetylcysteine acts to maintain or replenish depleted glutathione reserves in the liver and enhance non-toxic metabolism of acetaminophen. (wikipedia.org)
  • divalent sulfur
  • Furthermore, reflecting the polarizability of divalent sulfur, the S−S bond is susceptible to scission by polar reagents, both electrophiles and especially nucleophiles (Nu): RS−SR + Nu− → RS−Nu + RS− The disulfide bond is about 2.05 Å in length, about 0.5 Å longer than a C−C bond. (wikipedia.org)
  • sulfide
  • When selenium is compounded with sulfur to form a sulfide, it has antibiotic and antifungal properties. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Sulfates taken up by the roots are the major sulfur source for growth, though it has to be reduced to sulfide before it is further metabolized. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cystathionine gamma-lyase also catalyses the following elimination reactions: L-homoserine to form H2O, NH3 and 2-oxobutanoate L-cystine, producing thiocysteine, pyruvate and NH3 L-cysteine producing pyruvate, NH3 and H2S In some bacteria and mammals, including humans, this enzyme takes part in generating hydrogen sulfide. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • Because the gene encoding the primary protein structure is generally expressed in a host system foreign to that in which it is normally transcribed and translated, the resultant product protein, while having the correct amino acid sequence, has different characteristics from the native protein. (google.com)
  • citation needed
  • citation needed] Sulfur reacts with nearly all other elements with the exception of gold, platinum, iridium, nitrogen, tellurium, iodine and the noble gases. (wikipedia.org)
  • susceptible
  • However, earlier studies found that exposing cultured human RPE cells to a more oxidized 'cystine environment' makes them more susceptible to apoptosis or programmed death. (sciencebasedhealth.com)
  • elemental sulfur
  • Elemental sulfur is a bright yellow crystalline solid at room temperature. (wikipedia.org)
  • Today, almost all elemental sulfur is produced as a byproduct of removing sulfur-containing contaminants from natural gas and petroleum. (wikipedia.org)
  • HPLC analysis of "elemental sulfur" reveals an equilibrium mixture of mainly S8, but with S7 and small amounts of S6. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the converse reaction, carbanionic reagents react with elemental sulfur to afford mixtures of the thioether, disulfide, and higher polysulfides. (wikipedia.org)
  • nutrients
  • Sulfur is one of the top 10 most abundant nutrients in the body. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • What we haven't written about is how using sulfur in conjunction with vitamin C amplifies the benefits of both of these nutrients significantly.We have been using the analogy of sulfur being like a locomotive freight train because sulfur functions in the soil and your body similarly to how a locomotive freight train pulls all the other box cars down the tracks. (investigatorsreport.com)
  • oxygen
  • Glutathione helps inactivate the reactive oxygen species hydrogen peroxide by reducing it to water. (sciencebasedhealth.com)
  • Because sulfur is a larger element than oxygen, the C-S bond lengths, typically around 180 picometers in length, is about 40 picometers longer than a typical C-O bond. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to the lesser electronegativity difference between sulfur and hydrogen compared to oxygen and hydrogen, an S-H bond is less polar than the hydroxyl group. (wikipedia.org)
  • The key elements of an amino acid are carbon (C), hydrogen (H), oxygen (O), and nitrogen (N), although other elements are found in the side chains of certain amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • glutamate
  • Cells make glutathione in two adenosine triphosphate-dependent steps: First, gamma-glutamylcysteine is synthesized from L-glutamate and cysteine via the enzyme gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (glutamate cysteine ligase, GCL). (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanism
  • In the gamma synthase mechanism, the gamma carbon is attacked by a sulfur nucleophile, resulting in the formation of a new sulfur-gamma carbon bond. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzyme
  • This enzyme belongs to the family of oxidoreductases, specifically those acting on a sulfur group of donors with other, known, acceptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to the redox-dependent control, the plant GCL enzyme is feedback inhibited by glutathione. (wikipedia.org)
  • atoms
  • In the newer R/S system of designating chirality, based on the atomic numbers of atoms near the asymmetric carbon, cysteine (and selenocysteine) have R chirality, because of the presence of sulfur (resp. (wikipedia.org)
  • plastids
  • GCL is exclusively located in plastids, and glutathione synthetase (GS) is dual-targeted to plastids and cytosol, thus GSH and gamma-glutamylcysteine are exported from the plastids. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • Sulfur opens up your cells and makes them more permeable so the things they need to survive and replicate get in there, and vitamin C is like a master swordsman that slices and dices the cellular enemies that don't belong in there. (investigatorsreport.com)
  • form
  • Being abundant in native form, sulfur was known in ancient times, being mentioned for its uses in ancient India, ancient Greece, China, and Egypt. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is formed by joining pantothenic acid with other materialsto form a structure of coenzyme A. CoA activates acetate by converting it to an acetyl CoA. (canixalife.com)
  • Mechanistically, the amino group of propargylglycine attacks the aldimine to form an external aldimine. (wikipedia.org)
  • nutrient
  • Sulfur is a non-metallic element (number 16) that is a critical nutrient for the body. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • One nutrient that is found extensively in the glycocalyx is sulfur. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Without proper amounts of sulfur in the soil, or your diet, every other mineral and nutrient sits on the tracks waiting for the locomotive to either pull them from the soil into the plants, or from your bloodstream into your cells. (investigatorsreport.com)
  • Sulfur is becoming more widely appreciated as a really significant nutrient, without which many other things won't work correctly. (investigatorsreport.com)