• carboxylic acid
  • the carboxylic acid closer to the amine generally loses a proton, and the acid becomes the neutral zwitterion −OOC-CH(NH+ 3)-(CH 2)2-COOH. (wikipedia.org)
  • At even higher pH, the other carboxylic acid group loses its proton and the acid exists almost entirely as the glutamate anion −OOC-CH(NH+ 3)-(CH 2)2-COO−, with a single negative charge overall. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite being thermodynamically favorable, direct amide bond formation between an amine and carboxylic acid suffers from a high activation energy, and as such often requires high temperatures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other names in common use include delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase, 1-pyrroline dehydrogenase, pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase, pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid dehydrogenase, L-pyrroline-5-carboxylate-NAD+ oxidoreductase, and 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate:NAD+ oxidoreductase. (wikipedia.org)
  • lactic acid bac
  • In some cases, production of biomass itself is the objective, as in the case of baker's yeast and lactic acid bacteria starter cultures for cheesemaking. (wikipedia.org)
  • kinase
  • Two examples of these conserved signature indels are a two-amino-acid insertion in a conserved region of the enzyme phosphoribose diphosphate:decaprenyl-phosphate phosphoribosyltransferase and a three-amino-acid insertion in acetate kinase, both of which are found only in Corynebacterium species. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecule
  • However, in the solid state and mildly acid water solutions, the molecule assumes an electrically neutral zwitterion structure −OOC-CH(NH+ 3)-(CH 2)2-COOH. (wikipedia.org)
  • glutamate
  • Examples are as follows: Alanine + α-ketoglutarate ⇌ pyruvate + glutamate Aspartate + α-ketoglutarate ⇌ oxaloacetate + glutamate Both pyruvate and oxaloacetate are key components of cellular metabolism, contributing as substrates or intermediates in fundamental processes such as glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, and the citric acid cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biosynthetically, it is produced from methylamine and glutamic acid by the enzyme methylamine-glutamate N-methyltransferase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nevertheless, glutamate is formally classified as a non-essential amino acid, because it can be synthesized from alpha-Ketoglutaric acid, which is produced as part of the citric acid cycle by a series of reactions whose starting point is citrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • Note that by eating enough protein in your diet, you get all of the amino acids you need. (lifebridgehealth.org)
  • The acidic side chain of glutamic acid confers one negative charge under most conditions to proteins in which this amino acid is found, thus increasing the water solubility of the protein. (encyclopedia.com)
  • We find that the GAD binding present in most IDDM sera ( n = 11 of 12) is composed of two distinct GAD antibody specificities that target different conformation-dependent regions of the GAD 65 protein, one that is located between amino acids 240 and 435 (termed IDDM-E1) and one that is located between amino acids 451 and 570 (termed IDDM-E2). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Chemical synthesis facilitates the production of peptides which are difficult to express in bacteria, the incorporation of unnatural amino acids, peptide/protein backbone modification, and the synthesis of D-proteins, which consist of D-amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is also used as a dietary supplement by bodybuilders and other athletes who ingest it before bed, with breakfast, or as a meal after working out as it breaks down at a slower rate than whey protein, thus supplying the body with a sustained amino acid release. (wikipedia.org)
  • insoluble
  • Pioneered by Robert Bruce Merrifield, SPPS caused a paradigm shift within the peptide synthesis community, and allows the rapid assembly of a peptide chain through successive reactions of amino acids onto an insoluble porous support. (wikipedia.org)
  • At neutral or acid pH, casein is relatively insoluble in water, and is easily separated from other milk proteins, sugars and minerals. (wikipedia.org)
  • synthesis
  • At the end of the synthesis the crude peptide is cleaved from the solid support using a reagent such as anhydrous hydrogen fluoride or trifluoroacetic acid, depending on the chemistry used (see below). (wikipedia.org)
  • Various green chemistry routes are being developed for the synthesis of acrylonitrile from renewable feedstocks, such as lignocellulosic biomass, glycerol (from biodiesel production), or glutamic acid (which can itself be produced from renewable feedstocks). (wikipedia.org)
  • amine
  • This avoids unwanted reaction at those groups during the peptide coupling step, which occurs between the peptide N-terminal amine and the C-terminal carboxylate of the amino acid to be coupled. (wikipedia.org)
  • The free N-terminal amine of the peptide is coupled to a single N-protected amino acid unit. (wikipedia.org)
  • The N-terminal protecting group is removed in the subsequent step, revealing a new N-terminal amine onto which a further amino acid may be attached. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chain
  • Each amino acid to be coupled to the peptide chain N-terminus must be protected on its N-terminus and side chain using appropriate protecting groups such as Boc (acid-labile) or Fmoc (base-labile), depending on the side chain and the protection strategy used (see below). (wikipedia.org)
  • wheat gluten
  • The amino acid was isolated from wheat gluten in 1866 and chemically synthesized in 1890. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The substance was discovered and identified in the year 1866, by the German chemist Karl Heinrich Ritthausen who treated wheat gluten (for which it was named) with sulfuric acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • amide
  • Thus highly optimized amide bond formation conditions are required, employing highly efficient coupling reagents and adding an excess of each amino acid (between 2- and 10-fold). (wikipedia.org)
  • food
  • Poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) produced by various strains of Bacillus has potential applications as a thickener in the food industry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Various kits are commercially available to help in food pathogen nucleic acids extraction, PCR detection, and differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • intermediate
  • Free glutamic acid (that not incorporated into proteins) can also be converted reversibly to α-ketoglutaric acid, an intermediate in the Krebs cycle, and as such can be degraded to carbon dioxide and water, or transformed into sugars. (encyclopedia.com)
  • It is not essential to the human diet, since it can be synthesized in the body from the common intermediate α-ketoglutaric acid. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The serine, threonine and cysteine peptidases utilise the amino acid as a nucleophile and form an acyl intermediate - these peptidases can also readily act as transferases. (wikipedia.org)
  • name
  • Some are better known by name than number: niacin, pantothenic acid, biotin and folate. (wikipedia.org)
  • fermentation
  • The lignocellulosic route involves fermentation of the biomass to propionic acid and 3-hydroxypropionic acid which are then converted to acrylonitrile by dehydration and ammoxidation. (wikipedia.org)
  • carbon
  • The cell wall is distinctive, with a predominance of mesodiaminopimelic acid in the murein wall and many repetitions of arabinogalactan, as well as corynemycolic acid (a mycolic acid with 22 to 26 carbon atoms), bound by disaccharide bonds called L-Rhap-(1 → 4)--D-GlcNAc-phosphate. (wikipedia.org)