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  • lipid
  • In 2008, Cao and colleagues [ 11 ] showed that mice deficient in lipid chaperones aP2 and mal1 present increased levels of palmitoleic acid in serum. (hindawi.com)
  • The genes activated by PPARG stimulate lipid uptake and adipogenesis by fat cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alternatively, fatty acids can be converted to lipid intermediates like diacylglycerol, ceramides and fatty acyl-CoAs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interestingly, marrow adipose tissue response to exercise approximates that of WAT exercise reduces both adipocyte size as well as MAT volume as quantified by MRI or μCT imaging of bone stained with the lipid binder osmium. (wikipedia.org)
  • amino
  • AMPK α1 is the catalytic subunit of the heterotrimeric AMPK protein with a length of 548 amino acids. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • The mature protein encoded by the PDK4 gene contains 294 amino acids in its sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like all proteins, the unique amino acid arrangement in the primary sequence of GLUT4 are what allow it to transport glucose across the plasma membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • These enzymes are grouped into three classes based on their amino acid sequences, mechanism of reaction, method of catalysis and their structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Subcutaneous
  • In conclusion, GIP in combination with hyperinsulinemia and slight hyperglycemia increased adipose tissue blood flow, glucose uptake, and FFA re-esterification, thus resulting in increased TAG deposition in abdominal, subcutaneous adipose tissue. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In humans, adipose tissue is located beneath the skin (subcutaneous fat), around internal organs (visceral fat), in bone marrow (yellow bone marrow), intermuscular (Muscular system) and in the breast tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fat in the lower body, as in thighs and buttocks, is subcutaneous and is not consistently spaced tissue, whereas fat in the abdomen is mostly visceral and semi-fluid. (wikipedia.org)
  • citric acid
  • This mechanism replenishes the intermediates of the citric acid cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • These ketone bodies are readily picked up by the extra-hepatic tissues, and converted into acetyl-CoA which then enters the citric acid cycle and is oxidized in the mitochondria for energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • One of the main regulators of gene expression in fat is the transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR γ ), which is a fatty acid- and eicosanoid-dependent nuclear receptor that plays key roles in the development and maintenance of the adipose tissue. (nature.com)
  • The interaction of glucose and lipogenic gene expression is assumed to be managed by the increasing concentration of an unknown glucose metabolite through the activity of glucokinase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression of this gene is regulated by glucocorticoids, retinoic acid and insulin. (wikipedia.org)
  • The formation of adipose tissue appears to be controlled in part by the adipose gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT-4), also known as solute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 4, is a protein encoded, in humans, by the SLC2A4 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene expression promoted by a diet of fat and glucose, as well as high levels of inflammation related cytokines found in the obese, can result in cells that "produce fewer and smaller mitochondria than is normal," and are thus prone to insulin resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • Although it has been believed that brown adipose tissue (BAT) depots disappear shortly after the perinatal period in humans, PET imaging using the glucose analog 18 F-FDG has shown unequivocally the existence of functional BAT in adult humans, suggesting that many humans retain some functional BAT past infancy. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • adipocyte
  • In the context of low adiposity, insulin activates signaling through the insulin receptor, resulting in translocation of the glucose transporter 4 (Glut4) to the cell membrane to increase glucose uptake into the adipocyte [ 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Adipocyte hypotrophy was attributed primarily to reduced triacylglyceride content in WAT from lipolysis, while adipocyte differentiation did not play a role in reduced adipose tissue despite the effects of prostaglandins on adipogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • obese
  • Moreover, when saturated fatty acids are replaced by MUFA in the diet of obese women, levels of inflammatory markers decrease, including IL-6 and visfatin in serum [ 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Elevated blood glucose and a non-obese phenotype are consistently documented characteristics of GK animals. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Body composition also showed a higher percentage of water and lean tissue mass compared to non-AdPLA deficient obese mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • In an obese person, excess adipose tissue hanging downward from the abdomen is referred to as a panniculus. (wikipedia.org)
  • FRUCTOSE
  • Glucose will be degraded though glycolysis until fructose 1,6-bisphosphate is broken down to glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Isomaltulose is a disaccharide carbohydrate composed of glucose and fructose linked by an alpha-1,6-glycosidic bond (chemical name: 6-0-α-D-glucopyranosyl-D-fructose). (wikipedia.org)
  • Like sucrose, isomaltulose can be digested to glucose and fructose. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, while in sucrose the glucose is linked to the anomeric carbon of the fructose (an α-1,2 linkage), in isomaltulose the linkage is to the 6 carbon (α-1,6), making isomaltulose a reducing sugar, unlike sucrose. (wikipedia.org)
  • depots
  • While expansion of UCP1-expressing adipose depots may be achieved in rodents via genetic and pharmacological manipulations or the transplantation of brown fat depots, these methods are difficult to use for human clinical intervention. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Adipose tissue is found in specific locations, which are referred to as adipose depots. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adipose depots in different parts of the body have different biochemical profiles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice have eight major adipose depots, four of which are within the abdominal cavity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both the mesenteric and omental depots incorporate much lymphoid tissue as lymph nodes and milky spots, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • occurs
  • Optimum AdPLA activity occurs in relatively basic conditions, between pH 7 and 9, to facilitate formation of a histidine-water complex and subsequent fatty acid hydrolysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Renal lipotoxicity occurs when excess long-chain nonesterified fatty acids are stored in the kidney and proximal tubule cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibits
  • Normally this insulin response triggers glucose being taken into body cells, to be used for energy, and inhibits the body from using fat for energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been proposed that these changes lead to an accumulation of cytosolic citrate, which in turn inhibits PFK-1, followed by an increase in glucose 6-phosphate, which eventually inhibits hexokinase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diabetes
  • Many insulin sensitizing drugs (namely, the thiazolidinediones) used in the treatment of diabetes activate PPARG as a means to lower serum glucose without increasing pancreatic insulin secretion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glut4
  • Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays of the Glut4 promoter revealed that, relative to the DIO controls, CR significantly increased histone 4 acetylation, suggesting epigenetic regulation may underlie some of the differential effects of CR versus EX on the adipose transcriptome. (hindawi.com)
  • In order to increase glucose levels in the cell, GLUT4 is the primary transporter used in this facilitated diffusion. (wikipedia.org)
  • GLUT4, however, is still believed to be the primary transporter for glucose. (wikipedia.org)
  • Much like in other tissues, GLUT4 also responds to insulin signaling, and is transported into the plasma membrane to facilitate the diffusion of glucose into the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genetically engineered muscle insulin receptor knock‐out (MIRKO) mouse was designed to be insensitive to glucose uptake caused by insulin, meaning that GLUT4 is absent. (wikipedia.org)
  • intracellular
  • The exposure of rat Langerhans islets to glucose for 1 hour is able to remarkably induce the intracellular proinsulin levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • This also means that muscle cells are able to take in more glucose as its intracellular concentrations decrease. (wikipedia.org)
  • decrease
  • Monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) rich diet has been reported to decrease plasma total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol and increase HDL-cholesterol levels [ 2 - 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • decreasing consumption of saturated fats and trans fatty acids while replacing them with unsaturated fats may decrease the risk. (wikipedia.org)
  • inert
  • Adipose tissue is not an inert cell mass contributing only to the storage of fat, but a sophisticated ensemble of cellular components with highly specialized and complex functions. (nature.com)
  • Far from being hormonally inert, adipose tissue has, in recent years, been recognized as a major endocrine organ, as it produces hormones such as leptin, estrogen, resistin, and the cytokine TNFα. (wikipedia.org)