• Subcutaneous
  • In conclusion, GIP in combination with hyperinsulinemia and slight hyperglycemia increased adipose tissue blood flow, glucose uptake, and FFA re-esterification, thus resulting in increased TAG deposition in abdominal, subcutaneous adipose tissue. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In humans, adipose tissue is located beneath the skin (subcutaneous fat), around internal organs (visceral fat), in bone marrow (yellow bone marrow), intermuscular (Muscular system) and in the breast tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fat in the lower body, as in thighs and buttocks, is subcutaneous and is not consistently spaced tissue, whereas fat in the abdomen is mostly visceral and semi-fluid. (wikipedia.org)
  • citric acid
  • This mechanism replenishes the intermediates of the citric acid cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • These ketone bodies are readily picked up by the extra-hepatic tissues, and converted into acetyl-CoA which then enters the citric acid cycle and is oxidized in the mitochondria for energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • The acetyl-CoA produced by β-oxidation enters the citric acid cycle in the mitochondrion by combining with oxaloacetate to form citrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • One of the main regulators of gene expression in fat is the transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR γ ), which is a fatty acid- and eicosanoid-dependent nuclear receptor that plays key roles in the development and maintenance of the adipose tissue. (nature.com)
  • Expression of this gene is regulated by glucocorticoids, retinoic acid and insulin. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mature protein encoded by the PDK4 gene contains 294 amino acids in its sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • The formation of adipose tissue appears to be controlled in part by the adipose gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT-4), also known as solute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 4, is a protein encoded, in humans, by the SLC2A4 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene expression promoted by a diet of fat and glucose, as well as high levels of inflammation related cytokines found in the obese, can result in cells that "produce fewer and smaller mitochondria than is normal," and are thus prone to insulin resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • Although it has been believed that brown adipose tissue (BAT) depots disappear shortly after the perinatal period in humans, PET imaging using the glucose analog 18 F-FDG has shown unequivocally the existence of functional BAT in adult humans, suggesting that many humans retain some functional BAT past infancy. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Diabetes
  • Clinically, diabetes is defined by excessive blood glucose concentrations. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • While effective glycemic management reduces the risk of diabetes-related complications in patients with T2DM, many patients are unable to reduce their glucose levels to target goals. (jaoa.org)
  • amino
  • Like all proteins, the unique amino acid arrangement in the primary sequence of GLUT4 are what allow it to transport glucose across the plasma membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • These enzymes are grouped into three classes based on their amino acid sequences, mechanism of reaction, method of catalysis and their structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • FRUCTOSE
  • Isomaltulose is a disaccharide carbohydrate composed of glucose and fructose linked by an alpha-1,6-glycosidic bond (chemical name: 6-0-α-D-glucopyranosyl-D-fructose). (wikipedia.org)
  • Like sucrose, isomaltulose can be digested to glucose and fructose. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, while in sucrose the glucose is linked to the anomeric carbon of the fructose (an α-1,2 linkage), in isomaltulose the linkage is to the 6 carbon (α-1,6), making isomaltulose a reducing sugar, unlike sucrose. (wikipedia.org)
  • depots
  • While expansion of UCP1-expressing adipose depots may be achieved in rodents via genetic and pharmacological manipulations or the transplantation of brown fat depots, these methods are difficult to use for human clinical intervention. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Adipose tissue is found in specific locations, which are referred to as adipose depots. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adipose depots in different parts of the body have different biochemical profiles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice have eight major adipose depots, four of which are within the abdominal cavity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both the mesenteric and omental depots incorporate much lymphoid tissue as lymph nodes and milky spots, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • occurs
  • Optimum AdPLA activity occurs in relatively basic conditions, between pH 7 and 9, to facilitate formation of a histidine-water complex and subsequent fatty acid hydrolysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Renal lipotoxicity occurs when excess long-chain nonesterified fatty acids are stored in the kidney and proximal tubule cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • primarily
  • Adipocyte hypotrophy was attributed primarily to reduced triacylglyceride content in WAT from lipolysis, while adipocyte differentiation did not play a role in reduced adipose tissue despite the effects of prostaglandins on adipogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glut4
  • Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays of the Glut4 promoter revealed that, relative to the DIO controls, CR significantly increased histone 4 acetylation, suggesting epigenetic regulation may underlie some of the differential effects of CR versus EX on the adipose transcriptome. (hindawi.com)
  • In the context of low adiposity, insulin activates signaling through the insulin receptor, resulting in translocation of the glucose transporter 4 (Glut4) to the cell membrane to increase glucose uptake into the adipocyte [ 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In order to increase glucose levels in the cell, GLUT4 is the primary transporter used in this facilitated diffusion. (wikipedia.org)
  • GLUT4, however, is still believed to be the primary transporter for glucose. (wikipedia.org)
  • Much like in other tissues, GLUT4 also responds to insulin signaling, and is transported into the plasma membrane to facilitate the diffusion of glucose into the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genetically engineered muscle insulin receptor knock‐out (MIRKO) mouse was designed to be insensitive to glucose uptake caused by insulin, meaning that GLUT4 is absent. (wikipedia.org)
  • intracellular
  • The exposure of rat Langerhans islets to glucose for 1 hour is able to remarkably induce the intracellular proinsulin levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • This also means that muscle cells are able to take in more glucose as its intracellular concentrations decrease. (wikipedia.org)