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  • DHAP
  • The enzyme first uses Asp71 to specifically abstract the pro-S hydrogen from the C-3 of DHAP to form an ene-diol(ate)-enzyme intermediate, unlike the abstraction of C-3 pro-R hydrogen in TIM by Glu165. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using this shuttle system, NADH generated by cytosolic metabolisms including glycolysis is reoxidized to NAD+ reducing DHAP to G3P, and the reducing equivalent can be used for generating a proton gradient across the mitochondrial inner membrane by coupling and oxidizing G3P and reducing quinone. (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolites
  • The significance of this observation was first realized in the early 20th century when the phrase " inborn errors of metabolism " was used to describe hereditary conditions in which a variety of amino acids and other metabolites are excreted in the urine. (britannica.com)
  • Instead, it uses the synthetic nonoxidative glycolysis cycle to directly synthesize stoichiometric amounts of the two-carbon building block (acetyl-CoA), which is then converted to three-carbon metabolites to support growth. (pnas.org)
  • biosynthetic
  • Cells adapted to 25°C expressed changes in the abundance of 219 unique proteins representing a broad range of categories such as translation, glycolysis, biosynthetic (anabolic) processes, NAD, cytoskeletal organization, RNA processing, oxidoreductase activity, response-to-stress and cell redox homeostasis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • blood glucose levels
  • These lipases are activated by high epinephrine and glucagon levels in the blood (or norepinephrine secreted by sympathetic nerves in adipose tissue), caused by declining blood glucose levels after meals, which simultaneously lowers the insulin level in the blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • adipose tissue
  • Fatty acids are released, between meals, from the fat depots in adipose tissue, where they are stored as triglycerides, as follows: Lipolysis, the removal of the fatty acid chains from the glycerol to which they are bound in their storage form as triglycerides (or fats), is carried out by lipases. (wikipedia.org)
  • lactate
  • Glucose and lactate are then used normally as energy to fuel cells all over the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • the production of methylglyoxal and its further metabolism yields L-(+)-lactate and D-(-)-lactate, while deletion of the MGS gene leads to observation of optically pure D-(-)-lactate. (wikipedia.org)
  • mammals
  • for example, experiments can show that urea , the chief nitrogen-containing end product of protein metabolism in mammals , is formed exclusively in the liver . (britannica.com)
  • tissues
  • Glucose constitutes about 80% of the products, and is the primary structure that is distributed to cells in the tissues, where it is broken down or stored as glycogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • In blood and inflamed tissues glucose is the prevailing sugar. (frontiersin.org)
  • fatty acid
  • The hydrolysis, saponification, or transesterification of these triglycerides produces glycerol as well as the fatty acid derivative: Triglycerides (1) are treated with an alcohol such as ethanol (2) with catalytic base to give ethyl esters of fatty acids (3) and glycerol (4): Typical plant sources include soybeans or palm. (wikipedia.org)
  • transporter
  • RT-PCR and Western blot analyses demonstrated a significant decrease in mRNA expression and protein content of the muscle glucose transporter ( Glut4 ). (biomedcentral.com)
  • energy
  • Some glycerol is burned for energy, but its heat value is low. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inducing these characteristics in a clinical setting could potentially limit the damaging effects of energy insufficiency due to ischemia and prevent the disruption of integrated metabolism at low temperatures. (biomedcentral.com)
  • How about a carbon and energy source OTHER THAN GLUCOSE? (columbia.edu)
  • Ultimately from plants, who are able to synthesize it using an energy source obviously other than glucose, solar energy. (columbia.edu)
  • The efficient redesign of bacteria for biotechnological purposes, such as biofuel production, waste disposal or specific biocatalytic functions, requires a quantitative systems-level understanding of energy supply, carbon, and redox metabolism. (frontiersin.org)
  • insulin
  • This disease is characterized by hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance and symptoms caused by failure to produce and/or respond to insulin. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Ex vivo analysis of glucose uptake revealed that the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles did not respond to either insulin or 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR) stimulation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • absence
  • Our findings have implicated altered molecular clock dictating significant changes in altered substrate metabolism in the absence of feeding or activity changes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • respiratory
  • Genome comparisons within the family Actinomycetaceae reveal important differences related to respiratory metabolism and motility. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although haloarchaea share certain features in order to adapt to their extreme environment, i.e. acidic protein machineries, respiratory chains and rhodopsins, their metabolism is considerably different from each other. (springer.com)