• DHAP
  • The enzyme first uses Asp71 to specifically abstract the pro-S hydrogen from the C-3 of DHAP to form an ene-diol(ate)-enzyme intermediate, unlike the abstraction of C-3 pro-R hydrogen in TIM by Glu165. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using this shuttle system, NADH generated by cytosolic metabolisms including glycolysis is reoxidized to NAD+ reducing DHAP to G3P, and the reducing equivalent can be used for generating a proton gradient across the mitochondrial inner membrane by coupling and oxidizing G3P and reducing quinone. (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolites
  • The significance of this observation was first realized in the early 20th century when the phrase " inborn errors of metabolism " was used to describe hereditary conditions in which a variety of amino acids and other metabolites are excreted in the urine. (britannica.com)
  • Instead, it uses the synthetic nonoxidative glycolysis cycle to directly synthesize stoichiometric amounts of the two-carbon building block (acetyl-CoA), which is then converted to three-carbon metabolites to support growth. (pnas.org)
  • biosynthetic
  • Cells adapted to 25°C expressed changes in the abundance of 219 unique proteins representing a broad range of categories such as translation, glycolysis, biosynthetic (anabolic) processes, NAD, cytoskeletal organization, RNA processing, oxidoreductase activity, response-to-stress and cell redox homeostasis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • blood glucose levels
  • These lipases are activated by high epinephrine and glucagon levels in the blood (or norepinephrine secreted by sympathetic nerves in adipose tissue), caused by declining blood glucose levels after meals, which simultaneously lowers the insulin level in the blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • adipose tissue
  • Fatty acids are released, between meals, from the fat depots in adipose tissue, where they are stored as triglycerides, as follows: Lipolysis, the removal of the fatty acid chains from the glycerol to which they are bound in their storage form as triglycerides (or fats), is carried out by lipases. (wikipedia.org)
  • lactate
  • Glucose and lactate are then used normally as energy to fuel cells all over the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • the production of methylglyoxal and its further metabolism yields L-(+)-lactate and D-(-)-lactate, while deletion of the MGS gene leads to observation of optically pure D-(-)-lactate. (wikipedia.org)
  • hydrolysis
  • The hydrolysis, saponification, or transesterification of these triglycerides produces glycerol as well as the fatty acid derivative: Triglycerides (1) are treated with an alcohol such as ethanol (2) with catalytic base to give ethyl esters of fatty acids (3) and glycerol (4): Typical plant sources include soybeans or palm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Crude glycerol from the hydrolysis of triglycerides can be purified by treatment with activated carbon to remove organic impurities, alkali to remove unreacted glycerol esters, and ion exchange to remove salts. (wikipedia.org)
  • precursors
  • Owing to oversupply, efforts are being made to convert glycerol to synthetic precursors, such as acrolein and epichlorohydrin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glucose is oxidized to carbon dioxide or partially oxidized products such as acetate and succinate, often referred to as overflow products, or it is converted into precursors for biosynthesis. (frontiersin.org)
  • cellular
  • Methylglyoxal, a reactive intermediate of cellular metabolism, is the most potent precursor of AGEs and is strictly correlated with an increase of oxidative stress in Alzheimer's disease. (hindawi.com)
  • At the cellular level, glucose is transported from the blood into the cells through glucose transporters, and once in the cell, it is either stored (glycogenosis) or oxidized (glycolysis). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Circadian rhythms are approximate 24-h oscillations in a variety of outputs including sleep/wake cycles, metabolism, and many aspects of cellular function. (biomedcentral.com)
  • glycogen
  • Glucose constitutes about 80% of the products, and is the primary structure that is distributed to cells in the tissues, where it is broken down or stored as glycogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • The glycogen in the liver can function as a backup source of glucose between meals. (wikipedia.org)
  • precursor
  • By this I mean, I still have to interview a freshmen with april about her food choices, code and analyze all the data, start and finish a research paper on Intermediate Hyperglycemia ( the precursor to Diabetes Type 2), and write a response paper for minority health readings. (blogspot.com)
  • insulin
  • This disease is characterized by hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance and symptoms caused by failure to produce and/or respond to insulin. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Ex vivo analysis of glucose uptake revealed that the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles did not respond to either insulin or 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR) stimulation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • hyperglycemia
  • Progressive changes in body composition (decreases in percent fat) were seen in the iMS Bmal1 −/− mice from 3 to 12 weeks post-treatment as well as glucose intolerance and non-fasting hyperglycemia. (biomedcentral.com)
  • absence
  • Our findings have implicated altered molecular clock dictating significant changes in altered substrate metabolism in the absence of feeding or activity changes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • energy
  • Some glycerol is burned for energy, but its heat value is low. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inducing these characteristics in a clinical setting could potentially limit the damaging effects of energy insufficiency due to ischemia and prevent the disruption of integrated metabolism at low temperatures. (biomedcentral.com)
  • How about a carbon and energy source OTHER THAN GLUCOSE? (columbia.edu)
  • Ultimately from plants, who are able to synthesize it using an energy source obviously other than glucose, solar energy. (columbia.edu)
  • The efficient redesign of bacteria for biotechnological purposes, such as biofuel production, waste disposal or specific biocatalytic functions, requires a quantitative systems-level understanding of energy supply, carbon, and redox metabolism. (frontiersin.org)
  • biodiesel
  • Production will increase as the EU directive 2003/30/EC are implemented, which required the replacement of 5.75% of petroleum fuels with biofuel across all member states by 2010, as glycerol is a byproduct in the production of biodiesel. (wikipedia.org)
  • form
  • A second base deprotonates the hydroxyl group, leading to the collapse of the en-diol(ate) to form the 2-hydroxy 2-propenal enol intermediate along with dissocation of inorganic phosophate (-OPO3) through the cleavage of a C-O bond rather than an O-P bond. (wikipedia.org)