• sugars
  • The main question is how the Gal network is activated when glucose is depleted since both sugars cannot be metabolized simultaneously. (rice.edu)
  • It is well known that yeast, the humble ingredient that goes into our breads and beers, prefer to eat some sugars more than others. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Hola,at least in sacharomyces, you don´t need close aireation to have fermentation only adding sugars (glucose) above 1g/l yeast will partially oxide the sugar giving ethanol (crabtree efect) and pH lows a bit less than in respiration. (protocol-online.org)
  • Simulations also showed pronounced concentration gradients of sugars, which resulted in simultaneous xylose and glucose consumption and a steady state xylose consumption rate up to 220-fold higher than that found in suspension culture. (diva-portal.org)
  • Encapsulation of the yeast resulted in consumption of at least 50% more xylose compared with suspended cells over 96-hour fermentations in medium containing both sugars. (diva-portal.org)
  • A specially engineered strain of yeast is used to break down the seaweeed, producing glucose and galactose, two sugars. (greenanswers.com)
  • Lactobacillus pontis breaks down sugars that cannot be metabolized by the yeast in the culture, just as many Lactobacillus species do. (wikipedia.org)
  • The lactic acid producing bacteria are responsible for breaking down sugars and the yeast uses by-products from this process to form carbon dioxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzymes
  • It has also been known for some time that synthesis of respiratory enzymes is increased in the presence of galactose compared to glucose [ 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • We used the WT yeast and strains with genetic alterations grown under CCR and catabolite derepressed conditions to investigate whether the increase in amino acid uptake during catabolite derepression is accompanied by (i) increase in the oxidation of amino acids and (ii) increase in the activity and expression of TCA cycle enzymes. (hindawi.com)
  • strains
  • Under CDR, leucine oxidation was (i) proportional to uptake, as demonstrated by decreased uptake and oxidation of leucine in strains deleted of major leucine permeases and (ii) entirely dependent upon the TCA cycle, as cytochrome c1 (Cyt1) deleted strains could not grow in galactose. (hindawi.com)
  • There are recombinant yeast strains that address both of these issues, but co-utilisation of glucose and xylose is still an issue that needs to be resolved. (diva-portal.org)
  • The yeast grew at a variety of temperatures between 25 and 37 °C (77 and 99 °F), but no growth was observed at 5 °C (41 °F) or 40 °C (104 °F). The kerosene from which the two yeast strains were isolated was analyzed with gas chromatography and shown to have 48 identifiable components. (wikipedia.org)
  • cerevisiae
  • When glucose, the preferred fuel in S. cerevisiae , is substituted by galactose, amino acid uptake is increased. (hindawi.com)
  • In S. cerevisiae and other yeast, growth in glucose as the carbon source represses transcription of numerous genes (termed glucose repression or carbon catabolite repression, CCR) [ 1 , 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • S. cerevisiae is currently the only yeast cell known to have Berkeley bodies present, which are involved in particular secretory pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, beer brewers slowly switched from top-fermenting (S. cerevisiae) to bottom-fermenting (S. pastorianus) yeast and this created a shortage of yeast for making bread, so the Vienna Process was developed in 1846. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1879, Great Britain introduced specialized growing vats for the production of S. cerevisiae, and in the United States around the turn of the century centrifuges were used for concentrating the yeast, making modern commercial yeast possible, and turning yeast production into a major industrial endeavor. (wikipedia.org)
  • The optimum temperature for growth of S. cerevisiae is 30-35 °C (86-95 °F). Two forms of yeast cells can survive and grow: haploid and diploid. (wikipedia.org)
  • substrates
  • Based upon these observations we put forward a prima facie model [ 5 ] suggesting that the surfeit of amino acids during catabolite derepression in yeast may serve as reductive substrates for the TCA cycle providing an electron source for mitochondrial energy transduction. (hindawi.com)
  • haploid
  • The fungus exists predominantly in the asexual state as a unicellular, haploid yeast yet this species can sometimes produce a sexual state when conjugation of compatible yeast cells occurs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Meiosis was occurring within the teliospore, followed by germination of the teliospore and beginning of the haploid yeast state. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is typically found in the asexual state as a unicellular haploid yeast, however a sexually reproducing state can sometimes form. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathways
  • Now, two inventive teams have applied an engineering approach coupled with computer modeling to reveal new details about key biological pathways by which yeast cells regulate themselves in a changing environment, as reported in the January 25, 2008 issue of Science and the August 28, 2008 issue of Nature . (bcr.org)
  • glycerol
  • We recently reported that during catabolite derepression (with galactose or glycerol as carbon source), there is an increase in yeast amino acid permease gene and protein expression, amino acid uptake, and oxygen consumption [ 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • amino acids
  • In summary, CDR upregulation of amino acid uptake is accompanied by increased utilization of amino acids for yeast growth. (hindawi.com)
  • Little information exists on the utilization of the increased amino acids under conditions of stress such as catabolite derepression in yeast. (hindawi.com)
  • galactosemia
  • Regardless, median galactose-1-phosphate levels act as the most accurate predictors of the severity of symptoms associated with Type III galactosemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • uridylyltransferase
  • i.e., glucose-1-phosphate + UTP ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } UDP-glucose + pyrophosphate UTP-glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase is an enzyme found in all three domains (bacteria, eukarya, and archaea) as it is a key player in glycogenesis and cell wall synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recently, human UTP-glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase has been studied and crystallized, revealing a different type of regulation than other organisms previously studied. (wikipedia.org)
  • The structure of UTP-glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase is significantly different between prokaryotes and eukaryotes, but within eukaryotes, the primary, secondary, and tertiary structures of the enzyme are quite conserved. (wikipedia.org)
  • In many species, UTP-glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase is found as a homopolymer consisting of identical subunits in a symmetrical quaternary structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Crystal structure of UTP-glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase from Burkholderia xenovorans Human UTP-glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase isoform 1 subunit with UDP-glucose bound Human genes encoding proteins with UTP-glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase activity include two isoforms with molecular weights of 56.9 and 55.7 kDa, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • An exception is the brain, which has high levels of glycogen but low specific activity of UTP-glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase. (wikipedia.org)
  • In animal cells, UTP-glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase is found predominantly in the cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacteria with defective UTP-glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase are unable to incorporate galactose into their cell walls. (wikipedia.org)
  • UTP-glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase uses an ordered sequential Bi Bi mechanism for both the forward and reverse reactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similar to other sugar nucleotidyltransferases, UTP-glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase activity requires two divalent cations to stabilize the binding of negatively charged phosphate groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • epimerase
  • Galactose epimerase deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder, which means the defective gene is located on an autosome, and two copies of the defective gene - one from each parent - are required to inherit the disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) Galactose epimerase deficiency -230350 Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) UDP-Galactose-4-Epimerase -606953 Lai K, Elsas LJ, Wierenga KJ (November 2009). (wikipedia.org)
  • The enzyme UDP-glucose 4-epimerase (EC 5.1.3.2), also known as UDP-galactose 4-epimerase or GALE, is a homodimeric epimerase found in bacterial, fungal, plant, and mammalian cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • live yeast
  • The slurry yeast made by small bakers and grocery shops became cream yeast, a suspension of live yeast cells in growth medium, and then compressed yeast, the fresh cake yeast that became the standard leaven for bread bakers in much of the Westernized world during the early 20th century. (wikipedia.org)
  • glycogen
  • High galactose-1-phosphate levels have been shown to interfere with phosphoglucomutase, glycogen phosphorylase, UDP-glycopyrophosphorylase, and inositol monophosphatase activity in bacterial models and in vitro, yet in vivo mechanisms toxicity have yet to be confirmed. (wikipedia.org)
  • concentration
  • The onset of the network's activation depends on the time it takes to pass a specific threshold of the glucose concentration. (rice.edu)
  • Results In silico simulations of encapsulated yeast showed that the presence of concentration gradients of inhibitors can explain the improved inhibitor tolerance of encapsulated yeast. (diva-portal.org)
  • microfluidic
  • The bioengineers built yeast growth chambers in which food is delivered by microfluidic tubes. (bio-medicine.org)
  • To understand the mechanisms by which cells respond to changes, the two teams created microfluidic arrays that confine yeast cells in a chamber and feed them in regular cycles, controlled by software. (bcr.org)
  • Mettetal's team added bursts of salt to the microfluidic array in order to tease out how yeast responds to changes in osmotic pressure-the salt level in the surrounding medium. (bcr.org)
  • pyruvate
  • I have done research online to find a clear representation of the cycle, and both glucose and pyruvate structure. (brainmass.com)
  • Glucose-6-phosphate readily enters glycolysis, leading to the production of ATP and pyruvate. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • Thus, changes in the glucose-depletion rate not only affect the dynamics of the Gal network's activation, but can also affect the phenotypic outcomes of the single cells within the population. (rice.edu)
  • We suggest that yeast cells have two types of recombination hotspots, α (transcription factor dependent) and β (transcription factor independent). (genetics.org)
  • The undulating sine wave represents pulses of glucose delivered to the yeast cells while galactose levels remained constant. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Some of the components of this signaling cascade are not only involved in mating but also in inducing morphological transitions of yeast cells. (embopress.org)
  • For centuries, yeast has helped scientists understand how cells work. (bcr.org)
  • The research team on the Nature paper applied a similar engineering approach to better understand how yeast cells respond to fluctuations in nutrient levels. (bcr.org)
  • Levels of airborne yeast cells peak during the night and are abundant in areas of decaying leaves and grains. (wikipedia.org)
  • The budding yeast-like cells produced during the asexual stage are ellipsoidal to subcylindrical in shape and 8-25 × 2-5.5 μm in size. (wikipedia.org)
  • Induction of the sexual stage begins with anastomosis of compatible yeast cells to form dikaryotic hyphae with clamp connections. (wikipedia.org)
  • In nature, yeast cells are found primarily on ripe fruits such as grapes (before maturation, grapes are almost free of yeasts). (wikipedia.org)
  • can harbor yeast cells from autumn to spring and transmit them to their progeny. (wikipedia.org)
  • The diploid cells (the preferential 'form' of yeast) similarly undergo a simple lifecycle of mitosis and growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • synthesis
  • The long-chain bases, sometimes simply known as sphingoid bases, are the first non-transient products of de novo sphingolipid synthesis in both yeast and mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • More recently, functional gene clustering has been reported in eukaryotes, from yeasts to filamentous fungi, plants, and animals. (springer.com)
  • These include gene clusters for use of different carbon and nitrogen sources in yeasts, for production of antibiotics, toxins, and virulence determinants in filamentous fungi, for production of defense compounds in plants, and for innate and adaptive immunity in animals (the major histocompatibility locus). (springer.com)
  • mechanism
  • They recognized that the yeast phase produced by Sporobolomyces exhibited the same forcible discharge mechanism as the basidiospores of the Basidiomycota. (wikipedia.org)
  • significantly
  • In particular, the mean of the Gal1-accumulation time increases significantly when glucose is depleted instantaneously. (rice.edu)
  • It has also been reported from blotched frozen peas stored at 0 °C (32 °F) for 8 weeks with yeast burden increasing significantly after 24 weeks at −18 °C (0 °F), suggesting an ability to proliferate at temperatures below freezing. (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • It is well known that yeast the humb. (bio-medicine.org)
  • To find something new in the well-known galactose network after predicting it is extremely exciting," said Matthew Bennett, the first author on the Nature paper and a postdoctoral researcher in the Systems Biodynamics Lab in UC San Diego's bioengineering department. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Sporoidiobolus salmonicolor is a yeast-like fungus in the Basidiomycota more commonly known by the name of its asexual yeast-like state, Sporobolomyces salmonicolor. (wikipedia.org)
  • as well as better processes for growing and harvesting top-fermenting yeasts, known as press-yeast. (wikipedia.org)
  • dairy products
  • Galactose is found in dairy products, as well as in fruits and vegetables, and can be produced endogenously in the breakdown of glycoproteins and glycolipids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hasty
  • The model started filtering out the glucose pulses too soon," said Hasty, who stressed the utility of their tried-and-true engineering approach. (bio-medicine.org)
  • mammalian
  • The main mammalian sphingoid bases are dihydrosphingosine and sphingosine, while dihydrosphingosine and phytosphingosine are the principle sphingoid bases in yeast. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dihydroceramide is found in both yeast and mammalian systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • carbohydrate
  • The main part of the investigation, however, involves checking the rate of the yeast respiration in different carbohydrate solutions (e.g. (bio.net)
  • accumulation
  • Using a mathematical simulation, we demonstrate that the increase in the accumulation time is due to the loss of energy when glucose is instantaneously depleted. (rice.edu)
  • biosynthesis
  • Furthermore, glucose-6-phosphate may be converted to inositol-1-phosphate by inositol-3-phosphate synthase, generating a precursor needed for inositol biosynthesis. (wikipedia.org)