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  • procedure
  • This benchmark article described for the first time the theory and procedure of the quantitative autoradiographic [14C] deoxyglucose method for the quantitative determination of local glucose utilization in the nervous system and the values obtained with it in normal and anesthetized rats. (nih.gov)
  • insulin
  • The hormone insulin helps the glucose get to the cells, so it can be used for energy. (kidshealth.org)
  • Imagine a future where, thanks to improved insulin formulations and other drugs, staying within ideal blood-glucose range is no longer a struggle. (jdrf.org)
  • But while today's insulin formulations save lives, it's difficult to achieve the tight control over blood glucose that occurs naturally in people without diabetes. (jdrf.org)
  • One is designing a glucose-responsive insulin (GRI) that will circulate through the bloodstream, turning on when it's needed to control blood sugar and turning off when blood sugar starts to go low. (jdrf.org)
  • In 2003, a Massachusetts Institute of Technology chemical engineer founded a company called SmartCells to develop a glucose-responsive insulin. (jdrf.org)
  • In 2010, our judgment was validated when SmartCells was acquired by Merck, which is now testing the resulting glucose-responsive insulin in clinical trials. (jdrf.org)
  • JDRF is continuing to fund research of glucose-responsive insulin and we are making headway with several projects. (jdrf.org)
  • We are also exploring whether several medications used to treat type 2 diabetes will help people with T1D achieve better glucose control and allow for lower insulin doses. (jdrf.org)
  • Most type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients rely solely on insulin to control their glucose levels, but a growing number of researchers and medical professionals are exploring whether non-insulin drugs could be paired with insulin to better manage T1D. (jdrf.org)
  • In June 2014, the FDA approved MannKind's Afrezza®, a fasting-acting inhaled insulin, to aid glucose control in adults with T1D. (jdrf.org)
  • If your cat is on insulin, glucose monitoring at home can help ensure the amounts your cat is receiving are adequate. (vetinfo.com)
  • The acetate derivative of L-glucose, L-glucose pentaacetate, was found to stimulate insulin release, and might therefore be of therapeutic value for type 2 diabetes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Flux through the glucose cycle is regulated by several hormones including insulin and glucagon as well as allosteric regulation of both hexokinase and glucose 6-phosphatase. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a consequence, in conjunction with insulin administrations, the prime requirement for diabetic patients is to regularly monitor their blood glucose levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • A typical system consists of: a disposable glucose sensor placed just under the skin, which is worn for a few days until replacement a link from the sensor to a non-implanted transmitter which communicates to a radio receiver an electronic receiver worn like a pager (or insulin pump) that displays glucose levels with nearly continuous updates, as well as monitors rising and falling trends. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ambulatory Glucose Profile (AGP) is a single page, standardized report for interpreting a patient's daily glucose and insulin patterns. (wikipedia.org)
  • The (AGP) as it is known in the diabetes community now includes several additional sections: glucose statistics, glucose profile graph, and either daily glucose pattern calendar images or insulin dosage graphs. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] At Einstein, an NIH funded project was undertaken to use SMBG data to devise an algorithm that would determine how much insulin was required to alter blood glucose levels in type 1 diabetes. (wikipedia.org)
  • hydrolysis
  • The two ways in which glucose uptake can take place are facilitated diffusion (a passive process) and secondary active transport (an active process which depends on the ion-gradient which is established through the hydrolysis of ATP, known as primary active transport). (wikipedia.org)
  • As the cotransport of glucose with sodium from the lumen does not directly require ATP hydrolysis but depends upon the action of the ATPase, this is described as secondary active transport. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glucose syrup, also known as confectioner's glucose, is a syrup made from the hydrolysis of starch. (wikipedia.org)
  • Depending on the method used to hydrolyse the starch and on the extent to which the hydrolysis reaction has been allowed to proceed, different grades of glucose syrup are produced, which have different characteristics and uses. (wikipedia.org)
  • The original glucose syrups were manufactured by acid hydrolysis of corn starch at high temperature and pressure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Maltose is also less humectant than glucose, so candy produced with high-maltose syrup will not become sticky as easily as candy produced with a standard glucose syrup.p. 81 Irrespective of the feedstock or the method used for hydrolysis, certain steps are common to the production of glucose syrup: Before conversion of starch to glucose can begin, the starch must be separated from the plant material. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glucose-6-phosphatase-α and glucose-6-phosphatase-β are both functional phosphohydrolases, and have similar active site structure, topology, mechanism of action, and kinetic properties with respect to G6P hydrolysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Based on pH kinetic studies of glucose-6-phosphatase-α catalysis, it was proposed that the hydrolysis of glucose-6-Phosphate was completed via a covalent phosphohistidine glucose-6-Phosphate intermediate. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hydrolysis of glucose-6-phosphate begins with a nucleophilic attack on the sugar-bound phosphate by His176 resulting in the formation of a phosphohistidine bond and the degradation of a carbonyl. (wikipedia.org)
  • uptake
  • GLUT1 and GLUT3 are located in the plasma membrane of cells throughout the body, as they are responsible for maintaining a basal rate of glucose uptake. (wikipedia.org)
  • therefore GLUT1 and GLUT3 have a high affinity for glucose and uptake from the bloodstream is constant. (wikipedia.org)
  • As muscle is a principal storage site for glucose and adipose tissue for triglyceride (into which glucose can be converted for storage), GLUT4 is important in post-prandial uptake of excess glucose from the bloodstream. (wikipedia.org)
  • urine
  • Renal glucose reabsorption is the part of kidney (renal) physiology that deals with the retrieval of filtered glucose, preventing it from disappearing from the body through the urine. (wikipedia.org)
  • If glucose is not reabsorbed by the kidney, it appears in the urine, in a condition known as glucosuria. (wikipedia.org)
  • cotransport
  • In August 1960, in Prague, Robert K. Crane presented for the first time his discovery of the sodium-glucose cotransport as the mechanism for intestinal glucose absorption. (wikipedia.org)
  • negligible
  • At pH 7, glucose exists in solution in cyclic hemiacetal form as 63.6% β-D-glucopyranose and 36.4% α-D-glucopyranose, the proportion of linear and furanose form being negligible. (wikipedia.org)
  • fermentation
  • Glucose - 5 g/l Dipotassium phosphate - 5 g/l Proteose Peptone - 5 g/l Distilled water - 1000 ml pH - 6.9 Principle: It is used to determine the ability of an organism to produce mixed acids by fermentation of glucose and to overcome the buffering capacity of the medium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Positive control: Escherichia coli Negative control: Klebsiella It is used to determine the ability of some organisms to produce a neutral end product, acetyl methyl carbinol (acetoin) from glucose fermentation.The production of acetoin, a neutral reacting end product produced by members such as Klebsiella, Enterobacter etc., is the chief end product of glucose metabolism and form less quantities of mixed acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • pentose phospha
  • As a result, any glucose 6-phosphate produced in those cells is committed to cellular metabolic pathways, primarily pentose phosphate pathway or glycolysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • phosphate
  • The glucose cycle (also known as the hepatic futile cycle) occurs primarily in the liver and is the dynamic balance between glucose and glucose 6-phosphate. (wikipedia.org)
  • A phosphate group breaks the bond between C 1 of a glucose ring and the O that connects it to the next(phosphorolysis). (wikipedia.org)
  • The transfer of the glucose 6-phosphate is carried out by a transporter protein (T1) and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) contains structures allowing the exit of the phosphate group (T2) and glucose (T3). (wikipedia.org)
  • The active site of glucose-6-phosphatase-α was initially identified by the presence of a conserved phosphate signature motif usually found in lipid phosphatases, acid phosphatases, and vanadium haloperoxidases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glucose phosphate broth is used to perform Methyl Red (MR) test and Voges Proskauer (VP) test. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inoculate MacConkey's (Glucose phosphate broth) with pure culture of test organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glucose Phosphate Broth A: α-Naphthol - 5 g Absolute Ethyl Alcohol - 100 ml - 0.6 ml - 3 parts B: KOH - 40 g Distilled water - 100 ml - 0.2 ml - 1 part Inoculate a tube of glucose phosphate broth with a pure inoculum of test organism and incubate at 35 °C for 24 hours. (wikipedia.org)
  • patients
  • L-Glucose was once proposed as a low-calorie sweetener and it is suitable for patients with diabetes mellitus, but it was never marketed due to excessive manufacturing costs. (wikipedia.org)
  • This resulted in 75% of the research patients providing erroneous glucose data thus thwarting efforts to find an algorithm. (wikipedia.org)
  • tubule
  • Firstly, the glucose in the proximal tubule is co-transported with sodium ions into the proximal convoluted tubule walls via the SGLT2 cotransporter. (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolism
  • Each glucose transporter isoform plays a specific role in glucose metabolism determined by its pattern of tissue expression, substrate specificity, transport kinetics, and regulated expression in different physiological conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • amino acids
  • Glucose-6-phosphatase consists of 357 amino acids, and is anchored to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by nine transmembrane helicies. (wikipedia.org)
  • tolerance test
  • The condition is diagnosed with the help of a glucose tolerance test, which measures the body's response to glucose. (buzzle.com)
  • There are several different kinds of glucose tests: Fasting blood sugar (FBS), fasting plasma glucose (FPG): 8 or 12 or 14 hours after eating Glucose tolerance test: continuous testing Postprandial glucose test (PC): 2 hours after eating Random glucose test A range of 4 to 5.5 mmol/l (70 to 99 mg/dl) before a meal is normal. (wikipedia.org)
  • sodium
  • These ReliOn glucose tablets come in a 50 count bottle and are free of any caffeine, sodium or fat. (walmart.com)
  • Hence reabsorption of glucose is dependent upon the existing sodium gradient which is generated through the active functioning of the NaKATPase. (wikipedia.org)
  • occur
  • L-Glucose does not occur naturally in higher living organisms, but can be synthesized in the laboratory. (wikipedia.org)
  • cyclic
  • Like the D-isomer, L-glucose usually occurs as one of four cyclic structural isomers - α- and β-L-glucopyranose (the most common, with a six-atom ring), and α- and β-L-glucofuranose (with a five-atom ring). (wikipedia.org)
  • aldohexose
  • L-Glucose is an organic compound with formula C6H12O6 or H-(C=O)-(CHOH)5-H, specifically one of the aldohexose monosaccharides. (wikipedia.org)
  • gluconeogenesis
  • Usually produced only in hepatocytes, in fasting conditions other tissues such as the intestines, muscles, brain, and kidneys are able to produce glucose following activation of gluconeogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • diabetic
  • Could someone tell me the glucose values for a non diabetic for the fasting (pre-breakfast), one hour after eating, two hours after eating. (medhelp.org)
  • Glucose monitoring is important for any owner with a diabetic cat to ensure they remain healthy and happy. (vetinfo.com)
  • clinical trials
  • Read on to learn how JDRF research in the past year is making life with type 1 diabetes (T1D) better, including clinical trials of a therapy that helps to reduce HbA1c-which provides a longer-term gauge of blood-glucose control-and improves other key health measures. (jdrf.org)
  • doses
  • A successful GRI would keep tight control over blood sugar, reduce the need for glucose monitoring and probably require fewer doses to maintain control throughout the day. (jdrf.org)
  • oxygen
  • citation needed] It also helps remove oxygen from food packaging, or D-glucose from egg white to prevent browning. (wikipedia.org)
  • A Negatively charged oxygen then transfers its electrons reforming a carbonyl and breaking its bond with glucose. (wikipedia.org)
  • type
  • Glucose is a type of sugar used by the body for energy. (kidshealth.org)
  • My son has type 1 and I know what his glucose values should be for these times and I know that anything under 80 is considered to be low for him. (medhelp.org)
  • Glucometers , depending on the type you get, might be a little pricy, but they will be much cheaper than taking your cat to the vet every time they need their glucose checked. (vetinfo.com)
  • Home glucose testing was adopted for type 2 diabetes more slowly than for type 1, and a large proportion of people with type 2 diabetes have never been instructed in home glucose testing. (wikipedia.org)
  • A glucose test is a type of blood test used to determine the amount of glucose in the blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • The term "self-testing" is used to distinguish it from in vitro diagnostics testing for blood glucose in hospitals, commercial labs and doctor's offices, the so-called "professional" component of the glucose testing market. (cnbc.com)
  • Early experiments showed that notatin exhibits in vitro antibacterial activity (in the presence of glucose) due to hydrogen peroxide formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hence
  • Depending on the process used, glucose syrups with different compositions, and hence different technical properties, can have the same DE. (wikipedia.org)