• enzymes
  • Many proteins are enzymes that catalyse biochemical reactions and are vital to metabolism . (wikipedia.org)
  • As one of the first enzymes to be studied, Alexander Fleming had shown them to be produced by phagocytes and epithelial cells (Neufeld).They are part of the glycoside hydrolase family, which are known for damaging the cell walls of bacterial cells by catalyzing hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-linkages. (wikibooks.org)
  • Several enzymes, carrier proteins, scaffolding proteins, and transcriptional regulatory factors carry out their functions as homo-oligomers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Edestin is a biologically active protein (most similar to globulins), and biologically active proteins are metabolized and used by the human body to manufacture antibodies (immunoglobulins), hormones, haemoglobin and enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Edestin is similar to serum globulin (blood plasma), and the biologically active protein of edestin is metabolized in the human body and capable of biosynthesizing: hormones (which regulate all the body processes), haemoglobin (which transports oxygen, carbon dioxide, and nitric oxide), enzymes (which catalyze and control biochemical reactions), antibodies (immunoglobulins which fend off invading bacteria, viruses, and other pathogens, as well as toxins or antigens as they enter the body). (wikipedia.org)
  • Secretion in bacterial species means the transport or translocation of effector molecules for example: proteins, enzymes or toxins (such as cholera toxin in pathogenic bacteria for example Vibrio cholerae) from across the interior (cytoplasm or cytosol) of a bacterial cell to its exterior. (wikipedia.org)
  • The type II secretion system is just one of many secretory systems found in Gram-negative bacteria and is used to secrete a variety of different proteins, including bacterial toxins and degradative enzymes such as proteases and lipases. (wikipedia.org)
  • genomes
  • The availability of multiple, essentially complete genome sequences of prokaryotes and eukaryotes spurred both the demand and the opportunity for the construction of an evolutionary classification of genes from these genomes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Such a classification system based on orthologous relationships between genes appears to be a natural framework for comparative genomics and should facilitate both functional annotation of genomes and large-scale evolutionary studies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The updated collection of orthologous protein sets for prokaryotes and eukaryotes is expected to be a useful platform for functional annotation of newly sequenced genomes, including those of complex eukaryotes, and genome-wide evolutionary studies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To avoid informational overflow from the constant influx of new genome sequences, a comprehensive evolutionary classification of the genes from all sequenced genomes is required. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Just a few years later, DNA methylation was first described in bacterial genomes ( Figure 2 ), but only in 1975, did 2 groups independently hypothesize that 5-methylcytosines were duplicated through cell division and regulated mRNA expression. (ahajournals.org)
  • It is estimated that 20-30% of all genes in most genomes encode membrane proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacteria
  • Chicken-type and goose-type lysozyme have a very high anti-bacterial potential mainly against Gram-positive bacteria, this has practical uses in food, pharmaceutical, and medical industries. (wikibooks.org)
  • Flagellin is the principal component of bacterial flagellum, and is present in large amounts on nearly all flagellated bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some bacteria are able to switch between multiple flagellin genes in order to evade this response. (wikipedia.org)
  • The propensity of the immune response to flagellin may be explained by two facts: Flagellin is an extremely abundant protein in flagellated bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein G is an immunoglobulin-binding protein expressed in group C and G Streptococcal bacteria much like Protein A but with differing binding specificities. (wikipedia.org)
  • Among the large ribosomal subunit, 18 proteins are universal, i.e. found in both bacteria, eukaryotes, and archea. (wikipedia.org)
  • 14 proteins are only found in bacteria, while 27 proteins are only found in archea and eukaryotes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In bacteria, it was shown that ClpP is capable to cleave full-length proteins without being associated with ClpA but the degradation is at a much slower rate. (wikipedia.org)
  • In several bacteria, such as E. coli, proteins tagged with the SsrA peptide (ANDENYALAA) encoded by tmRNA are digested by Clp proteases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Remarkably, further database and phylogenetic analysis highlighted four ESTs that are present in the A. ricciae genome but which represent genes probably arising from fungi or bacteria by horizontal gene transfer. (biologists.org)
  • If colonies contained resistant bacterial cells before entering into contact with the phage virus, one would expect that some of these cells would form new resistant colonies on the respread dish and so to find a higher number of surviving bacteria there. (wikipedia.org)
  • The type 2 secretion system (often referred to as the type II secretion system or the T2SS) is protein secretion machinery found in various species of Gram-negative bacteria, including various human pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Vibrio cholerae. (wikipedia.org)
  • The type II secretion system is one of six protein secretory systems that are commonly found in gram negative bacteria along with the type I secretion system, the type III secretion system, The type IV secretion system, the chaperone/usher pathway, the autotransporter pathway/type V secretion system and the type VI secretion system (some bacteria also utilize the type VII secretion system). (wikipedia.org)
  • Like these other systems, the type II secretion system enables the transport of cytoplasmic proteins across the lipid bilayers that make up the cell membranes in gram negative bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • The type II secretion system is a membrane bound protein complex found in Gram-negative bacteria that is used to secrete proteins found in the cytoplasm of the bacteria into the extracellular space outside of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The GSPs are common among a number of different bacterial species and when they come together they form a complex that is structurally very similar to the type IV pili, an appendage that is also commonly found in gram negative bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • beta barrel proteins, which are found only in outer membranes of Gram-negative bacteria, and outer membranes of mitochondria and chloroplasts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 2 (NOD2), also known as caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 15 (CARD15) or inflammatory bowel disease protein 1 (IBD1), functions as a mammalian cytosolic pathogen recognition molecule and plays an anti-bacterial role by limiting survival of intracellular invasive bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • coli
  • Taken together with previous results, 22 of the 54 E. coli ribosomal protein genes can be individually deleted from the genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ribosome of E. coli has about 22 proteins in the small subunit (labelled S1 to S22) and 33 proteins in the large subunit (somewhat counter-intuitively called L1 to L36). (wikipedia.org)
  • One such pathway that is used by Escherichia coli involves uptake of a siderophore, ferric enterobactin (Fe-ent), by a series of gene products from the Fep operon. (pnas.org)
  • Fe-ent is specifically recognized by FepA, an E. coli outer membrane protein that imports it into the periplasm. (pnas.org)
  • Members of this group include: PagC, required by Salmonella typhimurium for survival in macrophages and for virulence in mice Rck outer membrane protein of the S. typhimurium and S. enteritidis virulence plasmid Ail, a product of the Yersinia enterocolitica chromosome capable of mediating bacterial adherence to and invasion of epithelial cell lines OmpX from Escherichia coli that promotes adhesion to and entry into mammalian cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Three of these genes, from Mycobacterium smegmatis , Corynebacterium glutamicum , and Halobacterium salinarum , were cloned and functionally expressed in Escherichia coli . (asm.org)
  • We report here an E. coli mutant with an altered HU protein and the X-ray structure of the latter. (jbsdonline.com)
  • In vitro , purified mutant HU, unlike the wild-type protein, generated highly condensed, globular DNA-protein complexes upon interaction with free DNA, suggesting it is through reorganization of the nucleoid confirmation that the mutant HU sets the transcription pattern of a commensal E. coli towards a more pathogenic lifestyle. (jbsdonline.com)
  • Such a nucleosome-like structure together with the observed phenotype of the HU mutant leads us to propose that the E. coli nucleoid architecture dictates the global transcription profile and, consequently, the overall bacterial behavioral pattern. (jbsdonline.com)
  • For instance, about 1000 of the ~4200 proteins of E. coli are thought to be membrane proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • Viruses are often characterized by a small genome, only coding for a few proteins. (ibs.fr)
  • The five further variants are expressed over the whole cell cycle and their encoding genes are scattered in the genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Epigenetic mechanisms are flexible genomic factors that not only can change genome function under exogenous influence, but also can provide a molecular substrate that allows for the stable propagation of gene expression states from one generation of cells to the next. (ahajournals.org)
  • At a higher cost, whole-genome tiling arrays featuring 2.1 million probes can be used to provide qualitative calls on the methylation of genes or loci but without achieving individual methylation measures on single CpGs. (ahajournals.org)
  • The genes encoding these GSPs are usually found together in the genome in a single operon and many of these genes overlap. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • The notions of orthology and paralogy are intimately linked because, if a duplication (s) occurred after the speciation event that separated the compared species, orthology becomes a relationship between sets of paralogs (co-orthologs), rather than individual genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The corresponding H1 variants in two different species, such as human and mouse H1.4 are orthologs - they had a common ancestor gene and were separated by speciation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Within one species, the paralogous H1 variants show a high conservation of the globular core domain, while the N- and C-termini are more divergent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Of 75 unique sequences, approximately half (36) were similar to known genes from other species. (biologists.org)
  • This alignment can show which amino acids are conserved between species and are important for the function of the protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytoplasmic
  • Globin E: a globin responsible for storing and delivering oxygen to the retina in birds Globin-coupled sensors: chimeric, with an N-terminal myoglobin-like domain and a C-terminal domain that resembles the cytoplasmic signalling domain of bacterial chemoreceptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some secreted proteins are translocated across the cytoplasmic membrane by the Sec translocon, which requires the presence of an N-terminal signal peptide on the secreted protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • amino acids
  • Proteins differ from one another primarily in their sequence of amino acids, which is dictated by the nucleotide sequence of their genes , and which usually results in protein folding into a specific three-dimensional structure that determines its activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • In animals, proteins are needed in the diet to provide the essential amino acids that cannot be synthesized . (wikipedia.org)
  • Most proteins consist of linear polymers built from series of up to 20 different L -α- amino acids . (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins (polypeptides) are made of amino acids arranged in a linear chain that folds into globular or fibrilar forms, depending on the sequence of the amino acids. (docme.ru)
  • The sequence of amino acids in a protein is defined by the sequence of a gene, which is encoded in the genetic code. (docme.ru)
  • They act as polymerases synthesizing proteins by one-at-a-time addition of amino acids to a growing peptide chain, while translocating along the mRNA template. (docme.ru)
  • The term "Histone H2A" is intentionally non-specific and refers to a variety of closely related proteins that vary often by only a few amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gene produces a 17 kDa protein composed of 144 amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • outer membrane
  • FepA is a member of a family of outer membrane proteins classified as TonB-dependent receptors on the basis of the presence of a short consensus sequence near the N terminus known as the TonB box, with which TonB physically interacts ( 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • It also has a role in the resistance against attack by the human complement system a Bacteriophage lambda outer membrane protein, Lom OspA/B are Lipoproteins from Borrelia burgdorferi. (wikipedia.org)
  • OspA and OspB share 53% amino acid identity and likely have a similar antiparallel "free-standing" β sheet protein structure associated with the outer membrane surface via a lipidated NH2-terminal cysteine residue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although OmpX has the same beta-sheet topology as the structurally related outer membrane protein A (OmpA) InterPro: IPR000498, their barrels differ with respect to the shear numbers and internal hydrogen-bonding networks. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the type II secretion system GspD creates a pore in the outer membrane of the bacterial cell through which proteins can be secreted. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like the outer membrane secretin GspD these proteins are transported into the periplasm via the Sec translocation pathway before being inserted into the inner membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • Conformational transitions of RNA play fundamental roles in the processes of RNA refolding and annealing, in the catalysis of chemical reactions by ribozymes, and in the regulation of gene expression by riboswitches. (ibs.fr)
  • They modulate gene expression, without the assistance of proteins, in response to particular environmental conditions like nutrient availability. (ibs.fr)
  • The regulation of gene expression depends on the conformational rearrangement of the riboswitch in response to direct binding of the nutrient in a specific pocket or aptamer in the RNA. (ibs.fr)
  • PIN1 expression is located throughout globular embryo, but eventually attains polar distribution. (iastate.edu)
  • For example, individual H1 variant knockout mice reveal specific phenotypes and distinct effects on gene expression and chromatin structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Epigenetics is the study of heritable alterations in phenotypes and gene expression that occur without changes in the DNA sequence. (ahajournals.org)
  • At that time, Allfrey et al had already demonstrated that histone acetylation and methylation contributed to gene expression control. (ahajournals.org)
  • An increased plasma transferrin level is often seen in patients suffering from iron deficiency anemia, during pregnancy, and with the use of oral contraceptives, reflecting an increase in transferrin protein expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, not only can bdelloid rotifers accumulate foreign genes and render them transcriptionally competent, but their expression pattern can be modified for participation in the desiccation stress response, and is presumably adaptive in this context. (biologists.org)
  • nevertheless there are no appropriate tools to study the expression networks among these sets of coexpressed genes. (jove.com)
  • The aim of the developed tools is to allow studying the complex expression dependences that exist between sets of coexpressed genes. (jove.com)
  • For this purpose, we start detecting the nonlinear expression relationships between pairs of genes, plus the coexpressed genes. (jove.com)
  • Next, we form networks among sets of coexpressed genes that maintain nonlinear expression dependences between all of them. (jove.com)
  • The expression relationship between the sets of coexpressed genes is defined by the expression relationship between the skeletons of these sets, where this skeleton represents the coexpressed genes with a well-defined nonlinear expression relationship with the skeleton of the other sets. (jove.com)
  • As a result, we can study the nonlinear expression relationships between a target gene and other sets of coexpressed genes, or start the study from the skeleton of the sets, to study the complex relationships of activation and deactivation between the sets of coexpressed genes that carry out the different cellular processes present in the expression experiments. (jove.com)
  • structures
  • This enzyme was the first enzyme to have its structure determined, although crystal structures of other proteins had been determined previously. (wikibooks.org)
  • Therefore a model has been proposed according to which H1 variants have two distinct roles, a common and a specific one: Individual H1 proteins are redundant in their ability to compact chromatin globally and to stabilize overall higher order chromatin structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Crystal structures of FhuA with and without its siderophore bound show very little change near the binding site but large changes at the N terminus of the protein, 30 Å away on the inner face of the membrane. (pnas.org)
  • The high-resolution structures of the bacterial homologues provided an invaluable insight on many aspects of substrate recognition and transport through biological channels. (asm.org)
  • The high-resolution structures of two bacterial MFS proteins were solved: LacY, the lactose permease ( 1 ), and GlpT, the phosphate, glycerol 3-phosphate antiporter ( 10 ). (asm.org)
  • The propensity of many proteins to oligomerize and associate to form complex structures from their constituent monomers, is analyzed in terms of their hydrophobic (H), and electric pseudo-dipole (D) moment vectors. (jove.com)
  • page needed] De Novo synthesis of protein benefits from knowledge of existing protein structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Compared to other classes of proteins, the determination of membrane protein structures has remained a challenge in large part due to the difficulty in establishing experimental conditions where the correct conformation of the protein in isolation from its native environment is preserved. (wikipedia.org)
  • myoglobin
  • A representation of the 3D structure of the protein myoglobin showing turquoise α-helices . (wikipedia.org)
  • A few decades after Kubo's report the crystallization of a lupin phytoglobin (known as leghemoglobin) by Vainshtein and collaborator revealed that the tertiary structure of this protein and that of the sperm whale myoglobin was remarkably similar, thus indicating that the phytoglobin discovered by Kubo did indeed correspond to a globin. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first and third intron of the phytogb genes are localized in the same position as that of the myoglobin genes, which suggests that phytogb and myoglobin genes evolved from a common ancestor more than 600 million years ago. (wikipedia.org)
  • The globin fold was thus the first protein fold discovered (myoglobin was the first protein whose structure was solved). (wikipedia.org)
  • peptides
  • The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the peptidase family S14 and hydrolyzes proteins into small peptides in the presence of ATP and magnesium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Polypeptide toxins and many antibacterial peptides, such as colicins or hemolysins, and certain proteins involved in apoptosis, are sometimes considered a separate category. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequence
  • Multidrug transporters are ubiquitous proteins, and, based on amino acid sequence similarities, they have been classified into several families. (asm.org)
  • Although the sequence similarity of these proteins is low (∼20% identity), their folds are highly similar. (asm.org)
  • There are many proteins like FGF1 (aFGF), FGF2 (bFGF), interleukin-1 (IL1) etc. which do not have a signal sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • carboxy-terminal
  • The predicted secondary structure is primarily alpha helix, but the carboxy-terminal half of the protein has high potential to adopt a coiled-coil form. (wikipedia.org)
  • lipid
  • Integral and peripheral proteins may be post-translationally modified, with added fatty acid or prenyl chains, or GPI (glycosylphosphatidylinositol), which may be anchored in the lipid bilayer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Annular lipid shell Carrier protein Inner nuclear membrane proteins Ion channel Ion pump (biology) List of MeSH codes (D12.776) Receptor (biochemistry) Transmembrane proteins Johnson JE, Cornell RB (1999). (wikipedia.org)
  • RNAs
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Prospects 4350 of the genetic code into proteins is performed by a complex apparatus comprising the ribosome, messenger RNA (mRNA), transfer RNAs (tRNAs), and accessory protein factors. (docme.ru)
  • Theoretical investigations pointed to correlated effects of protein-binding onto binding affinities during the assembly process Ribosomes, which synthesize the proteome of cells, are complex ribonucleoproteins that, in eukaryotes, contain 79-80 proteins and four ribosomal RNAs(rRNAs). (wikipedia.org)
  • binds
  • When ethylene binds, either auxin binding or function of the protein in transporting auxin is inhibited. (iastate.edu)
  • The native molecule also binds albumin, but because serum albumin is a major contaminant of antibody sources, the albumin binding site has been removed from recombinant forms of Protein G. In addition to Protein G, other immunoglobulin-binding bacterial proteins such as Protein A, Protein A/G and Protein L are all commonly used to purify, immobilize or detect immunoglobulins. (wikipedia.org)
  • In many metabolic reactions, a protein that acts as an electron carrier binds to an enzyme that acts its reductase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, these loops form a protruding beta sheet, the edge of which presumably binds to external proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • When a transferrin protein loaded with iron encounters a transferrin receptor on the surface of a cell, e.g., erythroid precursors in the bone marrow, it binds to it and is transported into the cell in a vesicle by receptor-mediated endocytosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is found in the mucosa and binds iron, thus creating an environment low in free iron that impedes bacterial survival in a process called iron withholding. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathways
  • Recent studies have revealed that viruses and bacterial pathogens exploit the host ubiquitination pathways to gain entry and to aid their survival/replication inside host cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Signaling via cAMP in fungi: interconnections with mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways", Arch Microbiology, vol. 170, pp. 395-404, 1998. (patentgenius.com)
  • At least four nonclassical (unconventional) protein secretion pathways have been described. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first step involves the Sec and Tat secretory pathways which are responsible for transporting proteins across the inner membrane into the periplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • survival
  • It has been suggested that lysogeny may generally have a role in bacterial survival in animal hosts, and perhaps in pathogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Secretion is a very important mechanism in bacterial functioning and operation in their natural surrounding environment for adaptation and survival. (wikipedia.org)
  • anti-bacterial
  • GRIM-19 acts as a downstream anti-bacterial effector in CARD15-mediated innate mucosal responses by regulating intestinal epithelial cell responses to microbes. (wikipedia.org)
  • mitochondrial matrix
  • The protein is transported into mitochondrial matrix and is associated with the inner mitochondrial membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • ClpP protease is a major contributor for mitochondrial protein quality control system and removing damaged or misfolded proteins in mitochondrial matrix. (wikipedia.org)
  • The flow of electrons changes the redox state of the protein, resulting in a conformational change and pK shift of the ionizable side chain, which pumps four hydrogen ions out of the mitochondrial matrix. (wikipedia.org)
  • downstream
  • The gene for Rep proteins is usually found directly downstream of the origin of replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mitogen-activated-protein-kinases (MAPK) acts as downstream signalling compounds, leading ultimately to PAMP-triggered immunity in which more than 900 genes are up-/down-regulated upon flg22 treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • synthesis
  • There are 4 main limiting factors leading to no initiation of replication in iterons: Transcriptional autorepression Initiator dimerization Initiator titration Handcuffing Transcriptional auto-repression is thought to reduce initiator synthesis by repressing the formation of the Rep proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytosol
  • Grow by incorporating lipids and proteins from the cytosol. (brainscape.com)
  • Misfolded proteins are usually identified here and retrotranslocated by ER-associated degradation to the cytosol, where they are degraded by a proteasome. (wikipedia.org)
  • ribosomal
  • All ribosomal proteins have been isolated and many specific antibodies have been produced. (wikipedia.org)
  • More recently, a near-complete (near)atomic picture of the ribosomal proteins is emerging from the latest high-resolution cryo-EM data (including PDB ID: 5AFI). (wikipedia.org)
  • This is also reflected by the fact that several ribosomal proteins do not appear to be essential when deleted. (wikipedia.org)
  • In conjunction with previous reports, 22 ribosomal proteins have been shown to be nonessential in B. subtilis, at least for cell proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • transporters
  • Some of these proteins utilize primary energy source and their activity depends on ATP (ABC transporters) while others utilize secondary energy sources by coupling their activity to the movement of protons down a concentration gradient ( 19 , 27 ). (asm.org)
  • A feature that distinguishes VMAT proteins from other drug transporters and multidrug transporters of the MFS is a long loop between transmembrane segments TM1 and TM2 that contains glycosylation sites ( 34 ). (asm.org)
  • The fold conservation in the MFS proteins and the intriguing connection between multidrug transporters of the MFS and the vesicular neurotransmitter transporters led us to identify and characterize multidrug transporters that are related to VMAT. (asm.org)
  • They include 1) direct translocation of proteins across the plasma membrane likely through membrane transporters, 2) blebbing, 3) lysosomal secretion, and 4) release via exosomes derived from multivesicular bodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • secretory
  • The proteins are then moved into secretory vesicles which travel along the cytoskeleton to the edge of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once these secretory proteins are in the periplasm the second step can then take place and they are secreted out of the cell through the type II secretion system. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a result, GspD is essential for the correct function system because without it secretory proteins cannot exit the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • biochemical
  • All this information enables the creation of large protein interaction networks - similar to metabolic or genetic/epigenetic networks - that empower the current knowledge on biochemical cascades and molecular etiology of disease, as well as the discovery of putative protein targets of therapeutic interest. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosome
  • They are encoded by genes within histone cluster 1 located in human cells on chromosome 6. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gene coding for transferrin in humans is located in chromosome band 3q21. (wikipedia.org)
  • The NDUFA13 gene is located on the p arm of chromosome 19 in position 13.2 and spans 11,995 base pairs. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • It is a 65-kDa (G148 protein G) and a 58 kDa (C40 protein G) cell surface protein that has found application in purifying antibodies through its binding to the Fab and Fc region. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Phytogbs3 are structurally similar to the bacterial truncated globins and are found in algae and land plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such proteins have been implicated in desiccation tolerance and at least five were found. (biologists.org)
  • Globular proteins found in edestin (and in Alpha 1 globulins, Alpha 2 globulins, Beta globulins and Gamma globulins) are long peptide-chains, precursors for biological proteins essential for life. (wikipedia.org)
  • Erythrocruorin: highly cooperative extracellular respiratory proteins found in annelids and arthropods that are assembled from as many as 180 subunit into hexagonal bilayers. (wikipedia.org)
  • consists
  • This structure consists of an origin of replication upstream of a gene that codes for a replication initiator protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • The crystal structure of FepA ( 1 ) shows that its TonB box is on the periplasmic side of the membrane, part of the 150-aa N-terminal globular domain that fills the interior of the large membrane-spanning β barrel of FepA (Fig. 2 A ). This barrel, which consists of 22 antiparallel strands, has large extracellular loops. (pnas.org)
  • This family consists of several bacterial and phage Ail/Lom-like proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • H2A consists of a main globular domain and a long N-terminal tail or C-terminal on one end of the molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • virulence
  • The Yersinia enterocolitica Ail protein is a known virulence factor. (wikipedia.org)
  • The chromosomal condensation was accompanied by dramatic changes in the morphology, physiology, and metabolic profile including repression of many housekeeping genes involved in carbon catabolism and amino acid anabolism, but activation of quiescent genes associated with virulence in mammalian hosts. (jbsdonline.com)
  • cell
  • Other proteins are important in cell signaling , immune responses , cell adhesion , and the cell cycle . (wikipedia.org)
  • The lysosome was initially given credence for the responsibility of protein turnover in a cell. (frontiersin.org)
  • Many molecular processes within a cell are carried out by molecular machines that are built from a large number of protein components organized by their PPIs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins in this family are predicted to consist of eight transmembrane beta-sheets and four cell surface-exposed loops. (wikipedia.org)
  • Irregular shaped area inside a prokaryotic cell formed from the genetic material (DNA, RNA and protein complex) and serves as a nucleus. (brainscape.com)
  • GRIM-19, a cell death regulatory protein, is essential for assembly and function of mitochondrial complex I". Mol Cell Biol. (wikipedia.org)
  • inner membrane
  • Fe-ent is subsequently bound by a periplasmic binding protein, FepB, and transported across the inner membrane by the FepCDG complex. (pnas.org)
  • The FepCDG complex is an ATP-dependent ABC transporter, but the overall process is limited by the ability of FepA to carry out active transport ( 4 ) with the assistance of inner membrane proteins TonB and ExbBD and the inner membrane chemiosmotic proton gradient ( 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • The inner membrane complex is made up of several different Gsp proteins which are embedded in the inner membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • antimicrobial
  • The oral tissues, a part of the mucosal immune system, are constantly covered by saliva, which harbors a similar set of antimicrobial proteins as other mucosal fluids [ 2 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • ribosome
  • These, together with electronic microscopy and the use of certain reactives, have allowed for the determination of the topography of the proteins in the ribosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is why the number of proteins in a ribosome is of 56. (wikipedia.org)