• cornea
  • Patients with dehisced PK required subsequent cornea surgery more often than those with OG injuries (p=0.0025), but had similar rates for subsequent retina, glaucoma, and lens surgeries (p=0.12, p=0.55, p=0.23, respectively). (arvojournals.org)
  • The results of eye exposure can range from stinging, burning pain and strong irritation to blistering and scarring of the cornea, along with blepharospasm, lacrimation, and edema of the eyelids and periorbital area. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is continuous with the dura mater and the cornea, and maintains the shape of the globe, offering resistance to internal and external forces, and provides an attachment for the extraocular muscle insertions. (wikipedia.org)
  • sclera
  • it is a continuation of the sclera (the white of the eye), the tough outer coat that helps protect the delicate mechanism of the eye. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Evisceration-the removal of the contents of the globe while leaving the sclera and extraocular muscles intact-is easier to perform, offers long-term orbital stability, and is more aesthetically pleasing, i.e., a greater measure of movement of the prosthesis and thus a more natural appearance. (wikipedia.org)
  • The sclera, also known as the white of the eye, is the opaque, fibrous, protective, outer layer of the eye containing mainly collagen and some elastic fiber. (wikipedia.org)
  • The human eye is relatively rare for having an iris that is small enough for its position to be plainly visible against the sclera. (wikipedia.org)
  • The sclera forms the posterior five-sixths of the connective tissue coat of the globe. (wikipedia.org)
  • Along with the vessels of the conjunctiva (which is a thin layer covering the sclera), those in the episclera render the inflamed eye bright red. (wikipedia.org)
  • The eyes of all non-human primates are dark with small, barely visible sclera. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human eyes are somewhat distinctive in the animal kingdom in that the sclera is very plainly visible whenever the eye is open. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is not just due to the white color of the human sclera, which many other species share, but also to the fact that the human iris is relatively small and comprises a significantly smaller portion of the exposed eye surface compared to other animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is believed that the conspicuous sclera of the human eye makes it easier for one individual to infer where another individual is looking, increasing the efficacy of this particular form of nonverbal communication. (wikipedia.org)
  • The bony area that makes up the human eye socket provides exceptional protection to the sclera. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, if the sclera is ruptured by a blunt force or is penetrated by a sharp object, the recovery of full former vision is usually rare. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cushion of orbital fat protects the sclera from head-on blunt forces, but damage from oblique forces striking the eye from the side is not prevented by this cushion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Examination
  • As soon as a patient turns in to a medic seeking advice in a possible eye injury, a normal eye examination should be immediately performed, maybe using a topical eye anesthetic. (articleworld.org)
  • Slitlamp examination of the right eye revealed exposed scleral buckle with abscess from 6 o'clock to 4 o'clock position, ciliary injection, fibrin in the anterior chamber, +4 cells, +4 fl are, 2.5 mm hyphema, 360° posterior synechiae and cataractous lens. (filipinodoctors.org)
  • Clinical examination of the face A careful history and thorough clinical examination form the basis for the diagnosis of almost all facial injuries. (issuu.com)
  • Ideally, ointment would not be used when referring to an ophthalmologist, since it diminishes the ability to carry out a thorough eye examination. (wikipedia.org)
  • The usual eye examination should be attempted, and may require a topical anesthetic in order to be tolerable. (wikipedia.org)
  • Depending on the medical history and preliminary examination, the primary care physician should designate the eye injury as a true emergency, urgent or semi-urgent. (wikipedia.org)
  • During an eye examination, the doctor sees these deposits in the stroma as clear, comma-shaped overlapping dots and branching filaments, creating a lattice effect. (wikipedia.org)
  • severity
  • OTS was calculated for the remaining non-PK open globes, resulting in 34 eyes with OTS of similar severity. (arvojournals.org)
  • The severity of the injury varies widely depending on the body parts involved, the characteristics of the penetrating object, and the amount of energy transmitted to the tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Presently, the treatment of injuries is organized both by severity and anatomic area to permit the smallest exposure possible to achieve a good result (CT based facial fracture treatment). (issuu.com)
  • Seatbelts and airbags have reduced the severity and incidence of facial injury, but primary and secondary enforcement of the laws vary in effectiveness with ethnicity, education and geographic location.2 A unique aspect of facial injury treatment is that the aesthetic result may be the chief indication for treatment. (issuu.com)
  • The goal of investigation is the assessment of the severity of the ocular injury with an eye to implementing a management plan as soon as is required. (wikipedia.org)
  • TBI can be classified based on severity, mechanism (closed or penetrating head injury), or other features (e.g., occurring in a specific location or over a widespread area). (wikipedia.org)
  • TBI is usually classified based on severity, anatomical features of the injury, and the mechanism (the causative forces). (wikipedia.org)
  • The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), the most commonly used system for classifying TBI severity, grades a person's level of consciousness on a scale of 3-15 based on verbal, motor, and eye-opening reactions to stimuli. (wikipedia.org)
  • facial
  • The teachings of John Converse, Nicholas Georgiade and Reed Dingman provided the benchmark for an entire generation of surgeons in facial injury repair. (issuu.com)
  • Timing of treatment Timing is important in optimizing the management of facial injuries. (issuu.com)
  • Bone and soft tissue injuries in the facial area should be managed as soon as the patient's general condition permits. (issuu.com)
  • Indeed, the skillful facial surgeon must have as complete a knowledge of their ancillary injuries as well as those of the face. (issuu.com)
  • Classically, facial soft tissue and bone injuries are not acute surgical emergencies, but both the ease of obtaining a good result and the quality of the result are better with early or immediate management. (issuu.com)
  • These patients may receive facial injury management at the time that other injuries are being stabilized. (issuu.com)
  • Ophthalmologist
  • Delay should be discussed with the ophthalmologist as it may increase the risk of damage to the eye. (clinicalpainadvisor.com)
  • As such, general or emergency room doctors should refer cases involving the posterior segment of the eye or intraocular foreign bodies to an ophthalmologist. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • A putative xanthophyll-binding protein has also been described, which may explain the high variability among people to accumulate these carotenoids into eye tissues. (barnardhealth.us)
  • The penetrating object may remain in the tissues, come back out the way it entered, or pass through the tissues and exit from another area. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to causing damage to the tissues they contact, medium- and high-velocity projectiles cause a secondary cavitation injury: as the object enters the body, it creates a pressure wave which forces tissue out of the way, creating a "temporary cavity" that can be much larger than the object itself. (wikipedia.org)
  • commonly
  • Usually occurring in violent crime or armed combat, penetrating injuries are commonly caused by gunshots and stabbings. (wikipedia.org)
  • In other cases, injuries may require surgery to restore function, but commonly, both goals are evident. (issuu.com)
  • Commonly the eye remains relatively painless while the inflammatory disease spreads through the uvea, where characteristic focal infiltrates in the choroid named Dalén-Fuchs nodules can be seen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chronic
  • However, one can argue that the health problems associated with high intakes of protein, fats, or energy are really manifestations of nutrient toxicity, i.e., cardiovascular diseases , cancers , and eye diseases such as macular degeneration and other chronic diseases. (barnardhealth.us)
  • lens
  • Unlike the lens of a camera, the lens of the eye focuses by a process called accommodation. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This means that when the eye sees something in the distance, muscles pull the lens, stretching it until it is thin and almost flat, so that the light rays are only slightly bent as they pass through it. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In the left eye, there was note of medium- to large-sized keratic precipitates on the endothelium, +3 cells, +3 fl are, fibrin in the anterior chamber, 360° posterior synechiae, bowing of the iris plane and cataractous lens. (filipinodoctors.org)
  • Damage may result when the lenses are removed, rather than when the lens is still in contact with the eye. (wikipedia.org)
  • suggests
  • Sudden eye pain after working with a chisel, hammer, grinding wheel, or saw suggests a penetrating globe injury. (aafp.org)
  • This makes it easier for one individual to infer where another individual is looking, and the cooperative eye hypothesis suggests this has evolved as a method of nonverbal communication. (wikipedia.org)
  • Whereas
  • The short millimeter waves used in ADS only penetrate the top layers of skin, with most of the energy being absorbed within 0.4 mm ( 1⁄64 inch), whereas microwaves will penetrate into human tissue about 17 mm (0.67 inch). (wikipedia.org)
  • 1995
  • Retrospective study of 19 children up to 18 years age, undergoing vitrectomy for EFE at a referral eye center from January 1995 to December 2015. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • She was diagnosed with idiopathic macular hole in both eyes in 1995. (filipinodoctors.org)
  • damage
  • The eye is at particular risk of oxidative damage due to high oxygen concentrations, large amounts of oxidizable fatty acids in the retina, and exposure to ultraviolet rays. (barnardhealth.us)
  • It has been proposed that antioxidants may prevent cellular damage in the eye by reacting with free radicals produced during the process of light absorption. (barnardhealth.us)
  • In addition to the damage caused at the moment of injury, a variety of events in the minutes to days following the injury may result in secondary injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • thermal injury
  • According to an official military assessment, "In the event of an overexposure to a power density sufficient to produce thermal injury, there is an extremely low probability that scars derived from such injury might later become cancerous. (wikipedia.org)
  • clinical
  • The visual acuity of a patient with an eye injury should always be tested because vision changes provide objective tools to monitor clinical improvement or deterioration. (aafp.org)
  • Data on demographic profile, the type and source of injury of the patients, and clinical presentation and visual profile were documented using a uniform and validated datasheet. (slideshare.net)
  • Diagnosis is clinical, seeking a history of eye injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • socket
  • The optic nerve leaves the orbit (eye socket) via the optic canal, running postero-medially towards the optic chiasm, where there is a partial decussation (crossing) of fibres from the temporal visual fields (the nasal hemi-retina) of both eyes. (wikipedia.org)