• metabolism
  • Mesenchymal glioma stem cells are maintained by activated glycolytic metabolism involving aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A3," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America , vol. 110, no. 21, pp. 8644-8649, 2013. (hindawi.com)
  • 2 STUDIES ON THE INVOLVEMENT OF GENETIC, EPIGENETIC AND ENVRINOMENTALFACTORS IN THE PATHOGENESIS OF CONGENITAL HYPOTHYROIDISM.NOVEL PERSPECTIVES FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF A LARGELY UNEXPLAINED DISORDER AUXOLOGICO Endocrinology, Metabolism, Nutrition and Reproductive Sciences Therapeutic potential and safety assessment of induced dopaminergic neuronal (idan) cells directly reprogrammed from adult skin fibroblasts Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Exploiting immune cross reactivity to influenza viral antigens for successful pre pandemic vaccines. (docplayer.net)
  • The study of the tumor metabolism, also known as tumor metabolome describes the different characteristic metabolic changes in tumor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to cell-autonomous changes that drive a cancer cell to proliferate and contribute to tumorigenesis, it has also been observed that alterations in whole-organism metabolism such as obesity are associated with heightened risks for a variety of cancers. (wikipedia.org)
  • proliferation
  • Although it is well known that cancer epithelial cells and stromal cells interact extensively to form a critical network that sustains and regulates cancer growth, the development of cancer is generally attributed to clonal proliferation of transformed epithelial cells, resulting from accumulated genetic mutations of either somatic or adult stem cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 induce proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma cells via IGF-1 that influences bFGF and PDGF autocrine/paracrine loops . (qingres.com)
  • It is indeed in such milieu that PDGF ligands and receptors operate in an overall system mechanism that enhances in particular both the growth/proliferation activities of tumor cells. (qingres.com)
  • While many of the genetic and epigenetic abnormalities in neoplasms are probably neutral evolution, many have been shown to increase the proliferation of the mutant cells, or decrease their rate of death (apoptosis). (wikipedia.org)
  • At the level of the cell, there is selection for increased cell proliferation and survival, such that a mutant cell that acquires one of the hallmarks of cancer (see below), will have a competitive advantage over cells that have not acquired the hallmark. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • Genomic and expression profiling of glioblastoma stem cell-like spheroid cultures identifies novel tumor-relevant genes associated with survival," Clinical Cancer Research , vol. 15, no. 21, pp. 6541-6550, 2009. (hindawi.com)
  • Comprehensive genomic characterization defines human glioblastoma genes and core pathways. (naver.com)
  • In terms of overall functionality a link is created between autocrine malignant epithelial cells and glial cells in a manner that is further compounded by fusion receptor genes and the mutational and amplification dysfunctionalities of the receptor-ligand genes. (qingres.com)
  • It then, in cooperation with the transcription factor Tcf-4, modulates expression of a variety of Tcf-4 responsive target genes such as Paneth cell alpha defensins ( 28 - 30 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • However, reduced or absent expression of MGMT would cause increased rates of mutation, and one or more of the mutated genes may provide the cell with a selective advantage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, the fact that Jarid2 and the Pcl proteins are thought not to be present in the same complexes means that, in mammalian cells, distinct PRC2 complexes target different genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Maintenance of embryonic stem cells (ES) Lineage-specific genes are genes that will define the final identity of the differentiated cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • These genes are primed for expression (also known as existing in a bivalent state in embryonic stem cells but are kept in a repressed state by chromatin modifications. (wikipedia.org)
  • The human genome may encode over 1000 miRNAs, which are abundant in many mammalian cell types and appear to target about 60% of the genes of humans and other mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • overexpressed a human cDNA library in S. cerevisiae, and screened for genes that simultaneously affected cell cycle and cell polarity controls, inducing a filamentous yeast budding phenotype, and thus identified the HEF1 protein (Human Enhancer of Filamentation 1). (wikipedia.org)
  • Humans
  • Prom1/CD133 has been identified in colorectal, hepatocellular, and pancreatic cancer as a cancer stem cell marker and has been used as such to predict colon cancer recurrence in humans. (frontiersin.org)
  • NSCs
  • NSCs in the SGZ mainly give rise to new granular cells in the DG which are thought to be important for spatial learning and memory. (dkfz.de)
  • stromal cells
  • Stromal cells are generally considered to be derived primarily from the host's normal mesenchymal stromal cells or bone marrow. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • However, the origins of stromal cells have been quite controversial. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • A carcinoma is a complex tissue composed of multiple cell types, including epithelial cancer cells as well as stromal cells that include fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and inflammatory cells [ 1 - 4 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The paracrine and autocrine functionalities and dysfunctionalities of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor-alpha and receptor-beta constitute a predominantly mesenchymal axis with stromal cells such as fibroblasts, pericytes and smooth muscle cells. (qingres.com)
  • In this regard, cancer cells and stromal cells can symbiotically recycle and maximize the use of nutrients. (wikipedia.org)
  • epithelial cells
  • To determine the role of polyploidy in tumor development, we examined the fate of normal mullerian epithelial cells during the immortalization and transformation process by tracing the expression of SV40 large T antigen. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The mucosal epithelial cells arise from intestinal stem cells located in the crypt ( 5 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • In addition, PROM1 has been identified in the apical plasma membrane of epithelial cells of pancreas ( 13 ), liver (canals of Hering, interlobular ducts) ( 14 ), kidney ( 15 ), prostate ( 16 ), and skin ( 17 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • survival
  • The most malignant form, glioblastoma (GBM), is resistant to current standard treatment, and the current 5-year overall survival of grade IV GBM patients using radiotherapy with concomitant TMZ treatment is only 9.8% ( 2 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a central cellular sensor of energy stress, suggesting a potentially critical role in determining the survival of cells under metabolic stress. (nih.gov)
  • On a clinical level, this translates into a prolonged survival of glioblastoma patients with a methylated MGMT promoter. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hypoxic adaptation by cancer cells is essential for survival and progression of a tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mesenchymal
  • A mesenchymal glioma stem cell profile is related to clinical outcome," Oncogenesis , vol. 3, article e91, 2014. (hindawi.com)
  • The epithelial-mesenchymal transition generates cells with properties of stem cells. (naver.com)
  • The incremental populations of PDGF receptor number attest to a dysfunction that links parent cell populations of the tumor lesion with the participation of mesenchymal stromal elements such as fibroblasts and pericytes within a further context of smooth muscle cells. (qingres.com)
  • invasion
  • Invasion is a complex process involving interactions between tumor cells with the extracellular matrix (ECM), in addition to normal cells. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Some studies have reported that normal brain cells influence GBM invasion behavior ( 6 , 8 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Confirming the metabolic flux results, immunohistochemical analysis showed an up-regulation of lactate dehydrogenase in the bevacizumab-treated tumor core as well as in single tumor cells infiltrating the brain, which may explain the increased invasion observed after bevacizumab treatment. (jove.com)
  • vivo
  • In this work, we have designed a novel cationic peptide of 27 amino acids (Cypep-1), which shows efficacy against a number of cancer cell types, both in vitro and in vivo, while normal human fibroblasts were significantly less affected. (jove.com)
  • By using a two component vector consisting of a transgene of interest and MGMT, in vivo drug selection can be utilized to select for successfully transduced cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • biology
  • The Paddison lab has broad expertise in functional genomics, stem cell biology, and molecular biology, and provides a vibrant research environment for career advancement toward top-tier academic or industry positions. (genomeweb.com)
  • Despite a causative role during malignant transformation and progression in hepatocarcinogenesis, consequences of c-MYC activation for the biology of hepatic cancer stem cells (CSC) are undefined. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The endothelial cell plays a crucial role in PDGF biology in the activation and pericyte response of supplying vasculature in a manner that is reflected in such phenomena as chemotaxis and increased tumor blood supply. (qingres.com)
  • mechanisms
  • The interactions of aberrant cell migratory mechanisms and the tumor microenvironment likely differentiate cancer from normal cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Therefore, improving therapeutic approaches for GBM require a better understanding of cancer cell migration mechanisms. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Isolation of an aggressive subpopulation of migratory cells will enable studies of underlying molecular mechanisms. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Traditionally, PGCCs were considered to be senescent and not able to divide, since multiple mechanisms exist in animal cells to limit polyploid cell growth [ 13 , 14 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • cancer
  • Molecular subclasses of high-grade glioma predict prognosis, delineate a pattern of disease progression, and resemble stages in neurogenesis," Cancer Cell , vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 157-173, 2006. (hindawi.com)
  • Evaluation of cancer stem cell migration using compartmentalizing microfluidic devices and live cell imaging. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Compartmentalizing microfluidics can be a versatile platform to study the migratory behavior of BTSCs and other cancer stem cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Cancer stem cells--perspectives on current status and future directions: AACR Workshop on cancer stem cells. (naver.com)
  • Polyploid giant cancer cells (PGCCs) are mononucleated or multinucleated cells with multiple genome copies that can be observed in cancer but that can also play an important role in many normal physiologic and nonmalignant pathologic processes [ 10 - 12 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Originally known as host defence peptides for their substantial bacteriotoxic effects, many cationic antimicrobial peptides also exhibit a potent cytotoxic activity against cancer cells. (jove.com)
  • Prom1 also has been used as a cancer stem cell marker alone or with other markers such as CD44 ( 20 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • In colon cancer, both PROM1 positive and PROM1 negative cells are capable of being tumorigenic ( 23 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • CSCs are therefore tumorigenic (tumor-forming), perhaps in contrast to other non-tumorigenic cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cancer stem cells were first identified by John Dick in acute myeloid leukemia in the late 1990s. (wikipedia.org)
  • This functional heterogeneity among cancer cells has led to the creation of multiple propagation models to account for heterogeneity and differences in tumor-regenerative capacity: the cancer stem cell (CSC) and stochastic model. (wikipedia.org)
  • This model suggests that only certain subpopulations of cancer stem cells have the ability to drive the progression of cancer, meaning that there are specific (intrinsic) characteristics that can be identified and then targeted to destroy a tumor long-term without the need to battle the whole tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • This cell model suggests these mutations could occur to any cell in the body resulting in a cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • They examined cancer stem cell plasticity in which cancer stem cells can transition between non-cancer stem cells (Non-CSC) and CSC via in situ supporting a more Stochastic model. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cancer therapies act as a form of artificial selection, killing sensitive cancer cells, but leaving behind resistant cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Often the tumor will regrow from those resistant cells, the patient will relapse, and the therapy that had been previously used will no longer kill the cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, at the level of the cell there is selection for cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • High amount of aerobic glycolysis (also known as the Warburg effect) distinguishes cancer cells from normal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rather than oxidizing glucose for ATP production, glucose in cancer cells tends to be used for anabolic processes, such as ribose production, protein glycosylation and serine synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • NEDD9 is induced by Wnt signaling in colon cancer, based on binding to T-cell factor (TCF) factors in the promoter region. (wikipedia.org)
  • propagation
  • An efficient method for derivation and propagation of glioblastoma cell lines that conserves the molecular profile of their original tumours," Journal of Neuroscience Methods , vol. 176, no. 2, pp. 192-199, 2009. (hindawi.com)
  • pathways
  • NEDD9 is a noncatalytic scaffolding protein that contains docking sites for proteins involved in multiple signal transduction pathways, regulating magnitude and duration of cell signaling cascades The overall structure of NEDD9 is represented graphically in Figure 1. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor cell
  • Homologous pairing of the PDGF ligand polypeptides contrasts with the heterologous pairing of the A-B polypeptides of the PDGF ligand in an extensive cross-talk of pathway effects and of receptor-receptor interactivity within the tumor cell membrane. (qingres.com)
  • BTIC mitochondria were fragmented relative to non-BTIC tumor cell mitochondria, suggesting that BTICs increase mitochondrial fission. (nih.gov)
  • benign
  • Pilomatrixoma, malignant Pilomatricoma, malignant Matrical carcinoma M8120/0 Transitional cell papilloma, benign Transitional papilloma M8120/1 Urothelial papilloma, NOS Papilloma of baldder (C67. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutations
  • Our results suggest that Apc mutations lead to an increase in Prom1 expressing cells in the intestinal crypt stem cell compartment and in early intestinal adenomas. (frontiersin.org)
  • Apoptosis
  • Targeting DRP1 using RNA interference or pharmacologic inhibition induced BTIC apoptosis and inhibited tumor growth.Downstream, DRP1 activity regulated the essential metabolic stress sensor, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and targeting AMPK rescued the effects of DRP1 disruption.DRP1 activation correlated with poor prognosis in glioblastoma, suggesting that mitochondrial dynamics may represent a therapeutic target for BTICs. (nih.gov)
  • undergo
  • In order for a cell to become cancerous it must undergo a significant number of alterations to its DNA sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • spheroid
  • Low c-MYC activation increased spheroid formation in p53-deficient tumor cells, whereas p53-dependent effects were blunted in the absence of c-MYC overexpression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • gene
  • The expression-deficient MGMT gene could then be carried along as a selectively neutral or only slightly deleterious passenger (hitch-hiker) gene when the mutated stem cell generates an expanded clone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, canonical PRC1 complexes and PRC2 can act together to repress gene transcription and maintain this repression through cell division (i.e. the repressed state is also present in daughter cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • cloned the gene encoding a protein hyperphosphorylated following ligation of β1-integrins in T cells and hypothesized to play a role in the process of T cell costimulation, designating this gene Cas-L (Crk-associated substrate-related protein, Lymphocyte type). (wikipedia.org)