• retina
  • Light entering the eye passes through the cornea (the major refractive surface), the lens, the vitreous (gel in the posterior chamber of the eye), the inner retina, and, finally, into the photoreceptors of the outer retina (Figure 1 ). (jci.org)
  • The posterior segment consists primarily of the vitreous and the retina. (jci.org)
  • Intermediate uveitis is a form of uveitis localized to the vitreous and peripheral retina. (wikipedia.org)
  • Intraocular foreign bodies do not cause pain because of the lack of nerve endings in the vitreous humour and retina that can transmit pain sensations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neovascularization (abnormal new vessel formation) of the retina or iris (rubeosis iridis) occurs in about 16% of patients with central retinal vein occlusion and can result in secondary (neovascular) glaucoma, which can occur weeks to months after occlusion. (merckmanuals.com)
  • The eye examination findings of acute BRVO include superficial hemorrhages, retinal edema, and often cotton-wool spots in a sector of retina drained by the affected vein.The obstructed vein is dilated and tortuous. (wikipedia.org)
  • Retinal photocoagulation is applied to the involved retina to cover the entire involved segment, extending from the arcade out to the periphery. (wikipedia.org)
  • The vitreous humor is the clear gel that fills the space between the lens and the retina of the eye. (wikipedia.org)
  • When these pockets develop near the back of the eye, the vitreous can pull away from the retina and possibly tear it. (wikipedia.org)
  • In cases of vitreous hemorrhage due to detached retina,long-standing vitreous hemorrhage with a duration of more than 2-3 months, or cases associated with rubeosis iridis or glaucoma, a vitrectomy may be necessary to remove the standing blood in the vitreous. (wikipedia.org)
  • Electroretinography measures the electrical responses of various cell types in the retina, including the photoreceptors (rods and cones), inner retinal cells (bipolar and amacrine cells), and the ganglion cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • found that the retinal dopaminergic response to eating a brownie is equivalent in magnitude to the response to a 20 mg dose of methylphenidate, which implies that the activity of dopamine neurons in the retina reflects brain dopaminergic activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Coats' disease, (also known as exudative retinitis or retinal telangiectasis, sometimes spelled Coates' disease), is a rare congenital, nonhereditary eye disorder, causing full or partial blindness, characterized by abnormal development of blood vessels behind the retina. (wikipedia.org)
  • Coats' disease is thought to result from breakdown of the blood-retinal barrier in the endothelial cell, resulting in leakage of blood products containing cholesterol crystals and lipid-laden macrophages into the retina and subretinal space. (wikipedia.org)
  • On funduscopic eye examination, the retinal vessels in early Coats' disease appear tortuous and dilated, mainly confined to the peripheral and temporal portions of retina. (wikipedia.org)
  • Atherosclerotic carotid artery: Amaurosis fugax may present as a type of transient ischemic attack (TIA), during which an embolus unilaterally obstructs the lumen of the retinal artery or ophthalmic artery, causing a decrease in blood flow to the ipsilateral retina. (wikipedia.org)
  • The retinal tamponade acts to hold the retina in place or temporarily seal off holes in the retina. (wikipedia.org)
  • The proliferative type is characterized by formation of new unhealthy, freely bleeding blood vessels within the eye (called vitreal hemorrhage) and/or causing thick fibrous scar tissue to grow on the retina, detaching it. (wikipedia.org)
  • The central retinal artery and vein can be seen in the middle of the disc as it exits the scleral canal with the optic nerve to supply the retina. (wikipedia.org)
  • The normal growth of the blood vessels is directed to relatively low-oxygen areas of the retina, but the vessels remain in the plane of the retina and do not grow into the vitreous humor. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the excess oxygen environment is removed, the blood vessels rapidly begin forming again and grow into the vitreous humor of the eye from the retina. (wikipedia.org)
  • open-angle gl
  • Hypothyroidism and the development of open-angle glaucoma in a male population. (healthtap.com)
  • Chronic open-angle glaucoma occurs in some patients following an episode of lens-particle glaucoma when lens particles have been reabsorbed. (medscape.com)
  • Richter CU. Lens-induced open-angle glaucoma. (medscape.com)
  • This includes ocular hypertension and open angle glaucoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • In people with ocular hypertension including open-angle glaucoma (IOP ≥21 mm Hg), treatment with latanoprost reduced IOP levels by 22 to 39% over 1 to 12 months' treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most common type is open-angle glaucoma with less common types including closed-angle glaucoma and normal-tension glaucoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Open-angle glaucoma develops slowly over time and there is no pain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mechanism of open-angle glaucoma is believed to be slow exit of aqueous humor through the trabecular meshwork while in closed-angle glaucoma the iris blocks the trabecular meshwork. (wikipedia.org)
  • Play media Open-angle glaucoma is painless and does not have acute attacks, thus the lack of clear symptoms make screening via regular eye check-ups important. (wikipedia.org)
  • Of the several causes for glaucoma, ocular hypertension (increased pressure within the eye) is the most important risk factor in most glaucomas, but in some populations, only 50% of people with primary open-angle glaucoma actually have elevated ocular pressure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Open-angle glaucoma accounts for 90% of glaucoma cases in the United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • The relative risk of having primary open-angle glaucoma (P.O.A.G.) is increased about two- to four-fold for people who have a sibling with glaucoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • vascular
  • Disruption of the highly ordered tissue architecture in the eye caused by vascular leakage, hemorrhage, and concomitant fibrosis can lead to mechanical disruption of the visual axis and/or biological malfunctioning. (jci.org)
  • Idiopathic retinal vasculitis, aneurysms, and neuroretinitis (IRVAN) syndrome is a rare retinal vascular condition characterized by bilateral retinal artery vasculitis, arterial macroaneurysms occurring most commonly at the optic nerve head and at bifurcations of the retinal arteries, and neuroretinitis. (healio.com)
  • 372.4) Pterygium (372.5) Conjunctival degenerations and deposits (372.6) Conjunctival scars (372.7) Conjunctival vascular disorders and cysts (372.72) Subconjunctival hemorrhage (372.81) Conjunctivochalasis (373) Inflammation of eyelids (373.0) Blepharitis, unspec. (wikipedia.org)
  • Floaters
  • A variety of conditions can result in blood leaking into the vitreous humor, which can cause impaired vision, floaters, and photopsia. (wikipedia.org)
  • 379) Other disorders of eye (379.0) Scleritis and episcleritis (379.2) Disorders of vitreous body (379.24) Other vitreous opacities Vitreous floaters (379.4) Anomalies of pupillary function (379.41) Anisocoria (379.45) Argyll Robertson pupil, atypical (379.5) Nystagmus and other irregular eye movements (379.54) Nystagmus, inner ear disease (379.9) Unspecified disorder of eye and adnexa (379.93) Redness or discharge of eye Red eye (380) Disorders of external ear (380.1) Otitis externa, unspec. (wikipedia.org)
  • occurs
  • Glaucoma has been called the "silent thief of sight" because the loss of vision usually occurs slowly over a long period of time. (wikipedia.org)
  • optic disc
  • Comparison of the Moorfields classification using confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and subjective optic disc classification in detecting glaucoma in blacks and whites. (healthtap.com)
  • Dilated fundus examination (DFE) OD showed aneurysms at the optic disc with cotton-wool spots and retinal whitening (Figure 1A ). (healio.com)
  • A) Color fundus photograph of the right eye showing cotton-wool spots (yellow arrow heads), retinal whitening, retinal vein sheathing (white arrow heads), and aneurysmal dilations at the optic disc. (healio.com)
  • E) Color fundus photograph of the left eye showing an ERM at the macula, hard exudates in the peripapillary region (red arrow head), retinal vein sheathing (white arrow heads), and aneurysmal dilations at the optic disc. (healio.com)
  • The optic disc margins are characteristically irregular in ODD but not blurred as there is no swelling of the retinal nerve fibers. (wikipedia.org)
  • artery
  • Fluorescein angiography (FA) showed evidence of BRAO of the inferotemporal retinal artery OD. (healio.com)
  • Unilateral visual loss in bright light may indicate ipsilateral carotid artery occlusive disease and may reflect the inability of borderline circulation to sustain the increased retinal metabolic activity associated with exposure to bright light. (wikipedia.org)
  • hypertension
  • Studies have identified the following abnormalities as risk factors for the development of BRVO: hypertension cardiovascular disease obesity glaucoma Diabetes mellitus was not a major independent risk factor. (wikipedia.org)
  • uveitis
  • Pars planitis is considered a subset of intermediate uveitis and is characterized by the presence of white exudates (snowbanks) over the pars plana or by aggregates of inflammatory cells in the vitreous (snowballs) in the absence of an infectious or a systemic disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • optical coherence
  • Association between retinal thickness measured by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) and rod-mediated dark adaptation in non-exudative age-related maculopathy. (healthtap.com)
  • Optical Coherence Tomography can show the areas of retinal thickening (due to fluid accumulation) of macular edema. (wikipedia.org)
  • anterior
  • In aphakic eyes, the cholesterol-containing vitreous may pass proscar or avodart through the pupil, presenting as anterior chamber cholestero- losis. (anigroup.ru)
  • Spontaneous anterior lens capsular dehiscence causing lens particle glaucoma. (medscape.com)
  • include
  • Risk factors for glaucoma include increased pressure in the eye, a family history of the condition, migraines, high blood pressure, and obesity. (wikipedia.org)