• tumors
  • The present demonstration of GH in hepatoid gland tumors adds new data on GH in extra-pituitary tissues and hormon-dependent tumors. (go.jp)
  • Later on in life, tumors arise that are mostly steroid-receptor positive, although a small subset of tumors overexpressing human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2) and some lacking estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor (PR), and HER2 (triple negative) are present, as is the situation in humans. (frontiersin.org)
  • induction
  • Finally, induction of insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 in the mammary glands of PRL-treated mice and induction of IRS-1 and IRS-2 after treatment with PRL plus progesterone indicates that these molecules are induced by PRL as potential signaling intermediates downstream from IGF-I/insulin receptors. (garvan.org.au)
  • They are anabolic and increase protein within cells, especially in skeletal muscles, and also have varying degrees of androgenic and virilizing effects, including induction of the development and maintenance of masculine secondary sexual characteristics such as the growth of facial and body hair. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • It got infected and left quite a bit of scar tissue on the glands. (organic-pet-digest.com)
  • Conclusion MGP was associated with increased MG tissue area and growth of atrophied MGs as viewed on meibography. (bmj.com)
  • 2 7 8 Untreated, o-MGD will lead to atrophy of MGs characterised by infrared meibography (IR-M) changes, such as segments of discontinuous gland tissue, shortening of glands, and whole or partial gland dropout, leaving fading and poorly defined glands with an ultimate loss of all gland tissues. (bmj.com)
  • A weak wall of connective tissue called septum separates the glands from the kidneys. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells in this layer form oval groups, separated by thin strands of connective tissue from the fibrous capsule of the gland and carry wide capillaries. (wikipedia.org)
  • Treatment can be a vulvectomy that results in the removal of the growth along with an extensive removal of adjacent tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • organs
  • Interaction between the substratum and mesenchyme and regulation by growth factor in mammary glands and reproductive organs. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Some forms of dwarfism are associated with disordered function of other organs, such as the brain or liver, sometimes severely enough to be more of an impairment than the unusual bone growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • MICE
  • 5) Estasblishment of cell lines from tissues of p53-deficient mice : Many cell lines were established from nerves, seminal vesicles and mammary glands. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Publications] TAMADA H: 'Immunohistochemical studies of insulin-like growth factor-I in corpora lutea of cycling and pregnant mice,rats,hamsters,guinea pigs and cattle. (nii.ac.jp)
  • We impaired TGF beta signaling in mouse salivary glands by conditionally inactivating expression of TGF beta receptor type I (TGF beta RI), either by using mouse mammary tumor virus-Cre mice or by delivering adenoviral vector containing Cre to mouse salivary glands via retrograde infusion of the cannulated main excretory ducts of submandibular glands. (lu.se)
  • however, female TGF beta RI-coko mice developed severe multifocal inflammation in salivary and mammary glands and in the heart. (lu.se)
  • The inflammatory disorder affected normal growth and resulted in the death of the mice at ages 4-5 weeks. (lu.se)
  • The female TGF beta RI-coko mice also showed an increase in Th1 proinflammatory cytokines in salivary glands and exhibited an up-regulation of peripheral T cells. (lu.se)
  • In addition, these mice showed an atypical distribution of aquaporin 5 in their salivary glands, suggesting likely secretory impairment. (lu.se)
  • Administration of an adenoviral vector encoding Cre recombinase into the salivary glands resulted in inflammatory foci only in the glands of female TGF beta RI-loxP-flanked (floxed) mice (TGF beta RI-f/f mice), but not in those of male and female wild-type mice or male TGF beta RI-f/f mice. (lu.se)
  • These results suggest that female mice are uniquely more susceptible to developing inflammatory disorders due to impaired TGF beta signaling in their salivary glands. (lu.se)
  • tumor
  • The main problem in breast cancer treatment is the recurrence of tumor growth and metastases. (frontiersin.org)
  • The growth of the tumor can spread to nearby areas such as the ischiorectal fossa and inguinal lymph nodes. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptor
  • The interaction between a specific type of extracellular matrix (ECM) and growth factor (GF) receptor binding is known to be important for cell proliferation, migration, survival and differentiation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 2) Regulation of the expression of prolactin receptor : Prolactin receptor is induced by glucocorticoids in the mammary gland. (nii.ac.jp)
  • During sexual maturity and in early pregnancy, the level of IGF-II mRNA in the mammary gland was increased concurrent with increased PRL receptor expression. (garvan.org.au)
  • anterior
  • The anterior lobe of the pituitary can be divided into the pars tuberalis (pars glandularis) and pars distalis (pars glandularis) that constitutes ~80% of the gland. (wikipedia.org)
  • insulin-like g
  • We assessed the in vivo effects of ICI, tamoxifen, and estradiol on the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling pathway in the rat mammary gland. (aacrjournals.org)
  • ICI significantly decreased the size of the lobular structures, Ki-67 labeling index, and insulin-like growth factor binding protein ( IGFBP ) -2 and IGFBP-5 gene expression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Transgenic studies have shown that growth and dormancy of hair follicles are related to the activity of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) at the dermal papillae, which is affected by DHT. (wikipedia.org)
  • inflammation
  • 10-12 Treatment has classically focused on an anti-inflammatory approach using antibiotics and steroid along with lid hygiene using heat and lid margin cleansing with optional pressure to the lid to express glands and minimise lid margin inflammation and orifice obstruction. (bmj.com)
  • Transforming growth factor 13 (TGF)3) plays a key role in the onset and resolution of autoimmune diseases and chronic inflammation. (lu.se)
  • The aim of this study was to delineate the precise function of TGF beta signaling in salivary gland inflammation. (lu.se)
  • occur
  • While any dog might develop a tarsal gland adenoma, they generally occur in dogs over the age of 10. (dailypuppy.com)
  • Males and females are equally affected, although the growths occur in spayed females more often than in neutered males or intact males and females. (dailypuppy.com)
  • Lactorrhea, the occasional production of milk by the glands, can occur in any mammal, but in most mammals lactation, the production of enough milk for nursing, occurs only in phenotypic females who have gestated in recent months or years. (wikipedia.org)
  • malignancy
  • Bartholin gland carcinoma is an uncommon type of malignancy in the Bartholin gland that accounts for 1% of all vulvar malignant neoplasms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bartholin gland can be differentiated by histology to determine whether the malignancy is due to squamous cell carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, or adenocarcinomas. (wikipedia.org)
  • characteristic
  • A defining characteristic of dwarfism is an adult height less than the 2.3rd percentile of the CDC standard growth charts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Breast development results in prominent and developed structures on the chest known as breasts in primates, which serve as both a sexual characteristic and as mammary glands. (wikipedia.org)
  • unusual
  • Though Bartholin gland carcinoma is rare, along with other unusual Bartholin gland growths, it many not be the typical practice for clinicians to consider lesions malignant. (wikipedia.org)
  • lids
  • Results Post-MGP meibography of 34 lids (19 patients, ≥4.5 to ≤12 months' follow-up) showed 41.2% with MG growth. (bmj.com)
  • Ten lids had meibographies suitable for analysis, showing significant collective (116 glands) increase in mean individual glandular area (MIGA) of 4.87% (p=0.0145). (bmj.com)
  • 25 months' follow-up, 16 lids (9 additional patients) had follow-up showing 25% with signs of MG growth. (bmj.com)
  • Analysis of three lids showed a significant collective (33 glands) increase in MIGA of 11.19% (p=0.0004). (bmj.com)
  • Collectively, for all 13 analysed lids (149 glands), there was a significant increase of 6.38% in total glandular area (p=0.0447) and a significant increase of 6.23% in MIGA (p=0.0003). (bmj.com)
  • inhibition
  • Tamoxifen-induced growth inhibition was associated with slight stimulation of IGFBP-3 gene expression and reduction in IRS-2 levels. (aacrjournals.org)
  • It also interacts with CRIF, which causes the inhibition of Cdc2-cyclin B1 and Cdk-cyclin E. GADD45 also works with the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21, which can cause growth arrest as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • methods
  • Methods Retrospective study comparing pre-MGP/post-MGP non-contact infrared meibography results in patients with o-MGD, viewing signs of MG growth within total measurement field. (bmj.com)
  • Facial
  • Androgens have different effects at different follicles: they stimulate IGF-1 at facial hair, leading to growth, but can also stimulate TGF β1, TGF β2, dickkopf1, and IL-6 at the scalp, leading to catagenic miniaturization. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • The basic components of a mature mammary gland are the alveoli (hollow cavities, a few millimeters large) lined with milk-secreting cuboidal cells and surrounded by myoepithelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • GADD45G and GADD45A act redundantly to control cell growth, allow the cells to move from pluripotentcy helping cells differentiate. (wikipedia.org)
  • development
  • During the more than twenty years since its discovery (11), the nerve growth factor (NGF) has been indeed demonstrated to be an essential protagonist in the growth and development of the sympathetic nervous system (12). (springer.com)
  • These findings coincided with the demonstration that IGF-II stimulated alveolar development in mammary glands in whole organ culture. (garvan.org.au)
  • In the female chain catshark, follicle development has been correlated to nidamental gland size, thus, they are considered mature when they have a fully developed nidamental gland or shell gland. (wikipedia.org)