• regia
  • Gold is resistant to most acids, though it does dissolve in aqua regia, a mixture of nitric acid and hydrochloric acid, which forms a soluble tetrachloroaurate anion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Elemental chlorine was probably first isolated around 1200 with the discovery of aqua regia and its ability to dissolve gold, since chlorine gas is one of the products of this reaction: it was however not recognised as a new substance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regardless of what he thought, Scheele did isolate chlorine by reacting MnO2 (as the mineral pyrolusite) with HCl: 4 HCl + MnO2 → MnCl2 + 2 H2O + Cl2 Scheele observed several of the properties of chlorine: the bleaching effect on litmus, the deadly effect on insects, the yellow-green color, and the smell similar to aqua regia. (wikipedia.org)
  • ionic
  • For ions in solution Shannon's "effective ionic radius" is the measure most often used. (wikipedia.org)
  • Arsenic reacts with metals to form arsenides, though these are not ionic compounds containing the As3− ion as the formation of such an anion would be highly endothermic and even the group 1 arsenides have properties of intermetallic compounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • rough
  • Professional divers use such a calculation only as a rough guide to give new divers a metaphor, comparing a situation they may be more familiar with. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nitrogen
  • Nitrogen molecules give the orange-red, blue-green, blue-violet, and deep violet shades to the aurora, the atmospheric phenomenon seen in and towards the Polar regions. (blogspot.com)
  • The noble gases argon, krypton, and xenon are more narcotic than nitrogen at a given pressure, and xenon has so much anesthetic activity that it is a usable anesthetic at 80% concentration and normal atmospheric pressure. (wikipedia.org)
  • if chlorine is present in excess, then the highly explosive nitrogen trichloride (NCl3) is also formed. (wikipedia.org)
  • oxygen
  • citation needed] The production of free oxygen by cyanobacterial photosynthesis eventually led to the oxygen catastrophe that ended Earth's second atmosphere and brought about the Earth's third atmosphere (the modern atmosphere) 2.4 billion years before the present. (wikipedia.org)
  • experimental
  • Information obtained on the nature of ions in solution varies with the nature of the experimental method used. (wikipedia.org)
  • Experimental measurements of its density give values between 11.5 and 11.66 g/cm3: these are slightly lower than the theoretically expected value of 11.7 g/cm3 calculated from thorium's lattice parameters, perhaps due to microscopic voids forming in the metal when it is cast. (wikipedia.org)
  • positive
  • Because of this and its low first ionization energy of 418.8 kJ/mol, the potassium atom is much more likely to lose the last electron and acquire a positive charge than to gain one and acquire a negative charge (though negatively charged alkalide K− ions are not impossible). (wikipedia.org)
  • water
  • In backcountry areas of the United States and Canada they are sometimes present in sufficient quantity that water treatment is justified for backpackers, although this has created some controversy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Co-current deionization refers to the original downflow process where both input water and regeneration chemicals enter at the top of an ion exchange column and exit at the bottom. (wikipedia.org)
  • Counter-current deionization comes in two forms, each requiring engineered internals: Upflow columns where input water enters from the bottom and regenerants enter from the top of the ion exchange column. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mount Sannine was given the honor of being enthroned as the " Palace of Water " crowned with eternal snow. (wn.com)
  • There are still many dangerous contaminants present in our water, even after it has gone through municipal water treatment facilities. (wn.com)
  • charge
  • The second coordination sphere is not a well defined entity for ions with charge 1 or 2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reaction center chlorophyll-protein complexes are capable of directly absorbing light and performing charge separation events without the assistance of other chlorophyll pigments, but the probability of that happening under a given light intensity is small. (wikipedia.org)
  • electron
  • The electron flow produced by the reaction center chlorophyll pigments is used to pump H+ ions across the thylakoid membrane, setting up a chemiosmotic potential used mainly in the production of ATP (stored chemical energy) or to reduce NADP+ to NADPH. (wikipedia.org)
  • They have a similar first ionization energy, which allows for each atom to give up its sole outer electron. (wikipedia.org)
  • presence
  • In my 100 gallon main tank, it is obvious when the larvae are present as the presence of a swarm of shrimp larvae induces the Anthias to go into a plankton feeding frenzy. (reefkeeping.com)
  • produce
  • Fe3+ ions produce golden-yellow color, and when both Fe2+ and Fe3+ are present, the color is a darker blue as in maxixe. (wikipedia.org)
  • Liquids or other fluids to be purified enter the purification device and, under the influence of an electric field, are treated to produce an ion-depleted liquid. (google.com)
  • years
  • The present concentration is the highest in at least the past 800,000 years and likely the highest in the past 20 million years. (wikipedia.org)
  • generally
  • The present invention generally relates to devices able to purify fluids electrically that are contained within pressure vessels, as well as to methods of manufacture and use thereof. (google.com)
  • Once stabilized, the effects generally remain the same at a given depth, only worsening if the diver ventures deeper. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • Abraum, in natural history, a term given by some writers ies of red clay found in the Isle of Wight, and used by our artizans to impart a fine red colour to new mahogany wood. (chestofbooks.com)
  • Ammonium salts are found distributed through fertile soil and in seawater. (wikipedia.org)
  • almost
  • Because the Earth was molten when it was formed, almost all of the gold present in the early Earth probably sank into the planetary core. (wikipedia.org)
  • process
  • The process is still used, and can be maximized with the fine tuning of the flow of regenerants within the ion exchange column. (wikipedia.org)
  • lower
  • Because regenerant chemicals are dilute when they encounter the bottom or finishing resins in an ion exchange column, the product quality is lower than a similarly sized counter-flow column. (wikipedia.org)
  • exchange
  • Counter-current deionization is the more attractive method of ion exchange. (wikipedia.org)
  • 19. The system for purifying a liquid of claim 16 , wherein the apparatus further comprises an ion exchange compartment exposed to a liquid within the pressure vessel. (google.com)
  • known
  • In the highest oxidation states only oxyanions, such as the permanganate(VII) ion, MnO− 4, are known. (wikipedia.org)
  • elements
  • a few elements have properties that are either anomalous given their category, or otherwise extraordinary. (wikipedia.org)
  • properties
  • Some methods supply information of a static nature, a kind of snapshot of average properties, others give information about the dynamics of the solution. (wikipedia.org)
  • tank
  • Hi i am hoping to convert my fish only tank into a reef tank soon re-using the substrate (coral sand) and tufa rock from my present tank. (reeffrontiers.com)
  • liquid
  • Understanding of the nature of aqua ions is helped by having information on the nature of solvated cations in mixed solvents and non-aqueous solvents, such as liquid ammonia, methanol, dimethyl formamide and dimethyl sulfoxide to mention a few. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a colourless liquid that gives off fumes in moist air and has a characteristic choking odour. (blogspot.com)
  • probably
  • From space, you would probably first notice that millions of pieces of 'space garbage' called satellites and the International Space Station is no longer present and had disappeared from orbit around earth. (jackkruse.com)