• metastases
  • Xgeva was approved in 2010 for the prevention of bone complications such as fracture in patients with bone metastases from solid (not blood-related) cancers-and now for patients whose GCTB cannot be surgically removed or for when surgery is likely to result in severe morbidity, such as loss of limb or joint removal. (unm.edu)
  • Found in the vasculature of tissues that undergo angiogenesis and in malignant gliomas and lymph node metastases from multiple tumor types but not in blood vessels of normal tissues. (abcam.com)
  • Denosumab (trade names Prolia and Xgeva) is a human monoclonal antibody for the treatment of osteoporosis, treatment-induced bone loss, metastases to bone, and giant cell tumor of bone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Denosumab is used for those with osteoporosis at high risk for fractures, bone loss due to certain medications, and in those with bone metastases. (wikipedia.org)
  • In June 2010, denosumab was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in postmenopausal women with risk of osteoporosis under the trade name Prolia, and in November 2010, as Xgeva, for the prevention of skeleton-related events in patients with bone metastases from solid tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, a chest CT, a bone scan and positron emission tomography (PET) may be part of the tests in order to evaluate areas where metastases occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • blood vessels
  • Hemangiosarcomas are tumors that form on the blood vessels, and can occur all over the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Presence of immature blood vessels (sarcomatous vessels lacking endothelial cells) favors the bloodstream metastasizing. (wikipedia.org)
  • carcinomas
  • Carcinomas of the prostate, breasts, lungs, thyroid, and kidneys are the carcinomas that most commonly metastasize to bone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reliable and valid statistics on the incidence, prevalence, and mortality of malignant bone tumors are difficult to come by, particularly in the oldest (those over 75 years of age), because carcinomas that are widely metastatic to bone are rarely ever curable, biopsies to determine the origin of the tumor in cases like this are rarely done. (wikipedia.org)
  • Giant-cell carcinoma of the lung (GCCL) is a rare histological form of large-cell lung carcinoma, a subtype of undifferentiated lung cancer, traditionally classified within the non-small-cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC). (wikipedia.org)
  • Although it is common in the lung cancer literature to refer to histologically mixed tumors containing significant numbers of malignant giant cells as "giant-cell carcinomas", technically a diagnosis of "giant-cell carcinoma" should be limited strictly to neoplasms containing only malignant giant cells (i.e. "pure" giant-cell carcinoma). (wikipedia.org)
  • Giant-cell carcinomas have been reported to be diagnosed in a significantly younger population than all non-small-cell carcinomas considered as a group. (wikipedia.org)
  • For several decades, primary lung cancers were consistently dichotomously classified for treatment and research purposes into small-cell lung carcinomas (SCLCs) and non-small-cell lung carcinomas (NSCLCs), based on an oversimplified approach that is now clearly outmoded. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carcinomas are tumors composed of transformed, abnormal cells with epithelial tissue architecture and/or molecular characteristics, and which derive from embryonic endoderm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eight major taxa of lung carcinomas are recognized within the WHO-2004 classification: Small-cell carcinoma Squamous cell carcinoma Adenocarcinoma Large-cell carcinoma Adenosquamous carcinoma Sarcomatoid carcinoma Carcinoid Salivary gland-like carcinoma The subclassification of GCCL among these major taxa has undergone significant changes in recent decades. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Cancers that originate in epithelial cells are termed carcinomas, and they are characterized as having lost the mature, differentiated morphology and molecular patterns of the normal tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • epithelial
  • May be involved in the metabolism of regulatory peptides of diverse cell types including small intestinal and tubular epithelial cells, macrophages, granulocytes and synaptic membranes from the CNS. (abcam.com)
  • These types include: Carcinoma: Cancers derived from epithelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Infectious diseases also afflict epithelia where diverse microbes (viruses, bacteria, fungi) have surface structures that bind specific features of particular epithelial cells (e.g., influenza virus binds respiratory epithelium). (wikipedia.org)
  • necrosis
  • When tumor response has reached >90% necrosis surgical intervention is planned. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the tumor is large and there is presence of necrosis and local recurrence, the prognosis is poor. (wikipedia.org)
  • fracture
  • Dreinhöfer KE, Rydholm A, Bauer HC, Kreicbergs A. Giant-cell tumours with fracture at diagnosis. (ac.ir)
  • Its matrix is mostly made up of a composite material incorporating the inorganic mineral calcium phosphate in the chemical arrangement termed calcium hydroxylapatite (this is the bone mineral that gives bones their rigidity) and collagen, an elastic protein which improves fracture resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sometimes a sudden fracture is the first symptom, because affected bone is not as strong as normal bone and may fracture abnormally with minor trauma. (wikipedia.org)
  • lung
  • It is frequently used when describing lymphoma and lung cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aside from the great heterogeneity seen in lung cancers (especially those occurring among tobacco smokers), the considerable variability in diagnostic and sampling techniques used in medical practice, the high relative proportion of individuals with suspected GCCL who do not undergo complete surgical resection, and the near-universal lack of complete sectioning and pathological examination of resected tumor specimens prevent high levels of quantitative accuracy. (wikipedia.org)
  • In an American study of a database of over 60,000 lung cancers, GCCL comprised between 0.3% and 0.4% of primary pulmonary malignancies, with an age-adjusted incidence rate of about 3 new cases per million persons per year. (wikipedia.org)
  • With approximately 220,000 total lung cancers diagnosed in the US each year, the proportion suggests that approximately 660 and 880 new cases are diagnosed in Americans annually. (wikipedia.org)
  • These variants are increasingly appreciated as having different genetic, biological, and clinical properties, including prognoses and responses to treatment regimens, and therefore, that correct and consistent histological classification of lung cancers are necessary to validate and implement optimum management strategies. (wikipedia.org)
  • aggressive
  • If the tumor is large or aggressive, or the risk of it spreading is high, chemotherapy and radiation therapy may be added to help prevent it from returning. (medicalcityhospital.com)
  • Giant Cell tumors (GCT) are benign tumors with potential for aggressive behavior and capacity to metastasize. (ac.ir)
  • It has the potential to be aggressive, but Giant Schnauzers are usually reserved - they are "amiable in repose, and a commanding figure when aroused" Giant Schnauzers have been described as trustworthy with children. (wikipedia.org)
  • amputation
  • Surgery may require amputation of the limb with cancer. (medicalcityhospital.com)
  • Treatment for some bone cancers may involve surgery, such as limb amputation, or limb sparing surgery (often in combination with chemotherapy and radiation therapy). (wikipedia.org)
  • Instead of amputation, the affected bone is removed and replaced in one of two ways: (a) bone graft, in which bone is taken from elsewhere on the body or (b) artificial bone is put in. (wikipedia.org)
  • patients
  • Xgeva was shown to reduce tumor size-of 187 patients with measurable tumors, 47 patients experienced tumor reduction after an average of three months. (unm.edu)
  • After an average follow-up of 20 months, three patients whose tumors shrunk during treatment experienced regrowth. (unm.edu)
  • Dr. Martine Piccart-Gebhart presented results at the 2014 annual meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology showing that a combination treatment of Tykerb® (lapatinib) and Herceptin® (trastuzumab) offered no benefit in outcomes for early stage HER2-positive breast cancer patients. (cancerconnect.com)
  • In most patients, the tumors are slow to develop, but may recur locally in as many as 50% of cases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patients with tumors that are not amenable to surgery are treated with radiation therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is found to be elevated in plasma and effusions of cancer patients. (abcam.com)
  • Overall, 72 percent of patients had objective tumor response, per protocol defined criteria, including 25 percent of patients who had an objective tumor response according to modified RECIST(Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors). (amgen.com)
  • The overall safety profile was found to be consistent with the known safety profile of XGEVA in patients with advanced cancer. (amgen.com)
  • XGEVA represents a much needed treatment option for patients who suffer from giant cell tumor of bone that can't be adequately treated with surgery. (amgen.com)
  • 1992
  • J Bone Joint Surgery (A). 78: 1096 - 1112 PMID 8698729 Athanasou NA, Quinn J. (1992). (wikipedia.org)
  • recurrence
  • Some authors have reported that surgical margin is the only risk factor in local recurrence, 5,6 and thus complete resection may be needed for tumor eradication. (amjorthopedics.com)
  • 13 During the early stages of tumor recurrence, however, it is difficult to distinguish between malignant transformation and primary disease overlooked as a result of sampling error. (amjorthopedics.com)
  • Fifteen years postoperatively, the patient is well, with no neurological deficit and no imagiologic recurrence of the tumor (Fig. 4 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • adults
  • The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has expanded the approved use of Xgeva® (denosumab) to include the treatment of adults and some adolescents with giant cell tumor of the bone (GCTB). (unm.edu)
  • Giant cell tumors (GCTs) of bone account for about 5% of all primary bone tumors in adults, with a predominance in the third decade in life. (amjorthopedics.com)
  • THOUSAND OAKS, Calif. , July 15, 2013 /PRNewswire/ -- Amgen (NASDAQ:AMGN) today announced the Lancet Oncology published planned interim results from an international, open-label, Phase 2 clinical trial that is evaluating XGEVA ® (denosumab) in adults and skeletally mature adolescents diagnosed with giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB). (amgen.com)
  • Many of these tumors affect children and young adults accounting for 15% of all pediatric cancers. (aacrjournals.org)
  • As most giant cell tumors are benign and are located near a joint in young adults, several authors favor an intralesional approach that preserves anatomy of bone in lieu of resection. (ac.ir)
  • This group includes many of the most common cancers, particularly in older adults. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protocol with the best reported survival in children and adults is an intra-arterial protocol where tumor response is tracked by serial arteriogram. (wikipedia.org)
  • On 13 June 2013, the US FDA approved denosumab for treatment of adults and skeletally mature adolescents with giant cell tumor of bone that is unresectable or where resection would result in significant morbidity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of primary liver cancer in adults, and is the most common cause of death in people with cirrhosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • occur
  • Swelling may occur, as well, if the tumor has been growing for a long time. (wikipedia.org)
  • The tumors occur around the area of external genitalia and can grow up to 15 cm in area. (wikipedia.org)
  • Osteosarcomas tend to occur at the sites of bone growth, presumably because proliferation makes osteoblastic cells in this region prone to acquire mutations that could lead to transformation of cells (the RB gene and p53 gene are commonly involved). (wikipedia.org)
  • heterogeneous
  • It is a heterogeneous tumor composed of three different cell populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Axial bone-target computed tomography (CT) showed a destructive, heterogeneous bony mass involving the sphenoid bone extending posteroinferiorly into the middle cranial fossa and anteriorly into the orbital and maxillary region (Fig. 1 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • GCTs
  • They are distinguishable from other bony tumors in that GCTs usually have a nonsclerotic and sharply defined border. (wikipedia.org)