• metastases
  • Xgeva was approved in 2010 for the prevention of bone complications such as fracture in patients with bone metastases from solid (not blood-related) cancers-and now for patients whose GCTB cannot be surgically removed or for when surgery is likely to result in severe morbidity, such as loss of limb or joint removal. (unm.edu)
  • Found in the vasculature of tissues that undergo angiogenesis and in malignant gliomas and lymph node metastases from multiple tumor types but not in blood vessels of normal tissues. (abcam.com)
  • Xgeva is used to treat a high calcium level due to cancer and to prevent bone fractures and other bone problems caused by multiple myeloma or cancer bone metastases. (cvs.com)
  • Denosumab (trade names Prolia and Xgeva) is a human monoclonal antibody for the treatment of osteoporosis, treatment-induced bone loss, metastases to bone, and giant cell tumor of bone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Denosumab is used for those with osteoporosis at high risk for fractures, bone loss due to certain medications, and in those with bone metastases. (wikipedia.org)
  • In June 2010, denosumab was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in postmenopausal women with risk of osteoporosis under the trade name Prolia, and in November 2010, as Xgeva, for the prevention of skeleton-related events in patients with bone metastases from solid tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, a chest CT, a bone scan and positron emission tomography (PET) may be part of the tests in order to evaluate areas where metastases occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • curettage
  • Given the aggressiveness of GCT of bone, recommendations for operative intervention include intralesional curettage with adjuvant therapy (eg, cryotherapy, phenol, argon beam, electrocautery) and placement of bone void fillers (eg, bone graft polymethylmethacrylate). (amjorthopedics.com)
  • We report a case of secondary malignant transformation of GCT of bone 11 years after surgical curettage, cryotherapy, and cementation without adjuvant radiation therapy. (amjorthopedics.com)
  • sarcomas
  • M. A. Tucker, G. J. D'Angio, and J. D. Boice Jr., "Bone sarcomas linked to radiotherapy and chemotherapy in children," New England Journal of Medicine , vol. 317, no. 10, pp. 588-593, 1987. (hindawi.com)
  • an additional 3 giant-cell sarcomas were presumed to be extraosseous in origin. (aacrjournals.org)
  • recurrence
  • Some authors have reported that surgical margin is the only risk factor in local recurrence, 5,6 and thus complete resection may be needed for tumor eradication. (amjorthopedics.com)
  • 13 During the early stages of tumor recurrence, however, it is difficult to distinguish between malignant transformation and primary disease overlooked as a result of sampling error. (amjorthopedics.com)
  • When the tumor is large and there is presence of necrosis and local recurrence, the prognosis is poor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Denosumab
  • The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has expanded the approved use of Xgeva® (denosumab) to include the treatment of adults and some adolescents with giant cell tumor of the bone (GCTB). (unm.edu)
  • DENOSUMAB (den oh sue mab) slows bone breakdown. (cvs.com)
  • THOUSAND OAKS, Calif. , July 15, 2013 /PRNewswire/ -- Amgen (NASDAQ:AMGN) today announced the Lancet Oncology published planned interim results from an international, open-label, Phase 2 clinical trial that is evaluating XGEVA ® (denosumab) in adults and skeletally mature adolescents diagnosed with giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB). (amgen.com)
  • A 2012 meta-analysis found that denosumab was better than placebo, zoledronic acid and pamidronate in reducing the risk of fractures in those with cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Discontinuation of denosumab is associated with a rebound increase in bone turnover. (wikipedia.org)
  • Denosumab works by lowering the hormonal message that leads to excessive osteoclast-driven bone removal and is active in the body for only six months. (wikipedia.org)
  • On 13 June 2013, the US FDA approved denosumab for treatment of adults and skeletally mature adolescents with giant cell tumor of bone that is unresectable or where resection would result in significant morbidity. (wikipedia.org)
  • On 17 December 2009, the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) issued a Positive Opinion for denosumab for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis in women and for the treatment of bone loss in men with hormone ablation therapy for prostate cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • blood vessels
  • Hemangiosarcomas are tumors that form on the blood vessels, and can occur all over the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Presence of immature blood vessels (sarcomatous vessels lacking endothelial cells) favors the bloodstream metastasizing. (wikipedia.org)
  • carcinomas
  • Giant-cell carcinoma of the lung (GCCL) is a rare histological form of large-cell lung carcinoma, a subtype of undifferentiated lung cancer, traditionally classified within the non-small-cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC). (wikipedia.org)
  • Giant-cell carcinomas have been reported to be diagnosed in a significantly younger population than all non-small-cell carcinomas considered as a group. (wikipedia.org)
  • For several decades, primary lung cancers were consistently dichotomously classified for treatment and research purposes into small-cell lung carcinomas (SCLCs) and non-small-cell lung carcinomas (NSCLCs), based on an oversimplified approach that is now clearly outmoded. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eight major taxa of lung carcinomas are recognized within the WHO-2004 classification: Small-cell carcinoma Squamous cell carcinoma Adenocarcinoma Large-cell carcinoma Adenosquamous carcinoma Sarcomatoid carcinoma Carcinoid Salivary gland-like carcinoma The subclassification of GCCL among these major taxa has undergone significant changes in recent decades. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carcinomas of the prostate, breasts, lungs, thyroid, and kidneys are the carcinomas that most commonly metastasize to bone. (wikipedia.org)
  • epithelial
  • May be involved in the metabolism of regulatory peptides of diverse cell types including small intestinal and tubular epithelial cells, macrophages, granulocytes and synaptic membranes from the CNS. (abcam.com)
  • These types include: Carcinoma: Cancers derived from epithelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Infectious diseases also afflict epithelia where diverse microbes (viruses, bacteria, fungi) have surface structures that bind specific features of particular epithelial cells (e.g., influenza virus binds respiratory epithelium). (wikipedia.org)
  • Surgery
  • Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. (hindawi.com)
  • Tykerb and Herceptin are treatments that target these HER2-positive cells and are generally administered after surgery to reduce the risk of relapse. (cancerconnect.com)
  • Surgery may require amputation of the limb with cancer. (medicalcityhospital.com)
  • Surgery is the treatment of choice if the tumor is determined to be resectable. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patients with tumors that are not amenable to surgery are treated with radiation therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • XGEVA represents a much needed treatment option for patients who suffer from giant cell tumor of bone that can't be adequately treated with surgery. (amgen.com)
  • J Bone Joint Surgery (A). 78: 1096 - 1112 PMID 8698729 Athanasou NA, Quinn J. (1992). (wikipedia.org)
  • Treatment for some bone cancers may involve surgery, such as limb amputation, or limb sparing surgery (often in combination with chemotherapy and radiation therapy). (wikipedia.org)
  • Schiller has served on editorial boards of the Journal of Clinical Orthopedics and Related Research, the Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, the Bone Research Laboratory, the International Academy of Pathology, Journal of Long-Term Effects of Medical Implants, Modern Pathology, Annals of Diagnostic Pathology Teaching Experience, McGraw-Hill Yearbook of Science and Technology, Encyclopædia Britannica and Skeletal Radiology. (wikipedia.org)
  • patients
  • Xgeva was shown to reduce tumor size-of 187 patients with measurable tumors, 47 patients experienced tumor reduction after an average of three months. (unm.edu)
  • After an average follow-up of 20 months, three patients whose tumors shrunk during treatment experienced regrowth. (unm.edu)
  • Long-term follow-up of patients with giant cell tumor of the sacrum treated with selective arterial embolization," Cancer , vol. 95, no. 6, pp. 1317-1325, 2002. (hindawi.com)
  • Dr. Martine Piccart-Gebhart presented results at the 2014 annual meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology showing that a combination treatment of Tykerb® (lapatinib) and Herceptin® (trastuzumab) offered no benefit in outcomes for early stage HER2-positive breast cancer patients. (cancerconnect.com)
  • In most patients, the tumors are slow to develop, but may recur locally in as many as 50% of cases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some patients may be asymptomatic until they develop a pathologic fracture at the site of the tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • BCRT became a registered the charity in 2006 and raises funds for research into primary bone cancer, and provides information and support for patients and their families. (cancerindex.org)
  • It is found to be elevated in plasma and effusions of cancer patients. (abcam.com)
  • The overall safety profile was found to be consistent with the known safety profile of XGEVA in patients with advanced cancer. (amgen.com)
  • lung
  • Aside from the great heterogeneity seen in lung cancers (especially those occurring among tobacco smokers), the considerable variability in diagnostic and sampling techniques used in medical practice, the high relative proportion of individuals with suspected GCCL who do not undergo complete surgical resection, and the near-universal lack of complete sectioning and pathological examination of resected tumor specimens prevent high levels of quantitative accuracy. (wikipedia.org)
  • In an American study of a database of over 60,000 lung cancers, GCCL comprised between 0.3% and 0.4% of primary pulmonary malignancies, with an age-adjusted incidence rate of about 3 new cases per million persons per year. (wikipedia.org)
  • With approximately 220,000 total lung cancers diagnosed in the US each year, the proportion suggests that approximately 660 and 880 new cases are diagnosed in Americans annually. (wikipedia.org)
  • These variants are increasingly appreciated as having different genetic, biological, and clinical properties, including prognoses and responses to treatment regimens, and therefore, that correct and consistent histological classification of lung cancers are necessary to validate and implement optimum management strategies. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is frequently used when describing lymphoma and lung cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • histology
  • In vivo microscopy and standard histology revealed a rich vascularization of the tumors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • As with any cancer, the treatment and prognosis of HCC vary depending on the specifics of tumor histology, size, how far the cancer has spread, and overall health. (wikipedia.org)
  • The histology, association with the ETV6-NRTK3 fusion gene as well as certain chromosome trisomies, and the distribution of markers for cell type (i.e. cyclin D1 and Beta-catenin) within this tumor are similar to those found in the cellular form of mesoblastic nephroma. (wikipedia.org)
  • painless mass
  • The clinical history for giant cell fibroblastoma (GCF) includes a slow-growing painless mass that is usually on the trunk or thigh, but has been described in a variety of anatomic locations. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • aggressive
  • It has the potential to be aggressive, but Giant Schnauzers are usually reserved - they are "amiable in repose, and a commanding figure when aroused" Giant Schnauzers have been described as trustworthy with children. (wikipedia.org)
  • fracture
  • Its matrix is mostly made up of a composite material incorporating the inorganic mineral calcium phosphate in the chemical arrangement termed calcium hydroxylapatite (this is the bone mineral that gives bones their rigidity) and collagen, an elastic protein which improves fracture resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sometimes a sudden fracture is the first symptom, because affected bone is not as strong as normal bone and may fracture abnormally with minor trauma. (wikipedia.org)
  • femur
  • The largest bone in the body is the femur or thigh-bone, and the smallest is the stapes in the middle ear. (wikipedia.org)
  • The trabeculae are aligned towards the mechanical load distribution that a bone experiences within long bones such as the femur. (wikipedia.org)
  • osteoclastic
  • There is no successful adjuvant treatment option, although there are reports of a limited effect on tumor growth following treatment with bisphosphonates [ 26 , 27 ] and anti-RANKL antibodies [ 28 ], agents that inhibit the formation and activity of the osteoclastic giant cells in the tumor. (biomedcentral.com)
  • occur
  • Swelling may occur, as well, if the tumor has been growing for a long time. (wikipedia.org)
  • The tumors occur around the area of external genitalia and can grow up to 15 cm in area. (wikipedia.org)
  • Osteosarcomas tend to occur at the sites of bone growth, presumably because proliferation makes osteoblastic cells in this region prone to acquire mutations that could lead to transformation of cells (the RB gene and p53 gene are commonly involved). (wikipedia.org)
  • radiotherapy
  • Several research groups are investigating cancer stem cells and their potential to cause tumors along with genes and proteins causative in different phenotypes.Radiotherapy for unrelated conditions may be a rare cause. (wikipedia.org)
  • commonly
  • Boxers, Boston Terriers and Golden Retrievers are among the breeds that most commonly develop mast cell tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • This kind of tumor is commonly found in the extremities especially around the knee, feet and ankle. (wikipedia.org)
  • incidence
  • However, significantly higher incidence rates are observed in Asia, where it constitutes about 20% of all primary bone tumors in China. (wikipedia.org)
  • The true incidence, prevalence, and mortality of GCCL is generally unknown due to a lack of accurate cancer data on a national level. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is estimated that 1 in 3 domestic dogs will develop cancer, which is the same incidence of cancer among men. (wikipedia.org)