• prenatal
  • It encompasses the health care dimensions of family planning, preconception, prenatal, and postnatal care in order to ensure a positive and fulfilling experience in most cases and reduce maternal morbidity and mortality in other cases. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2017
  • Erratum to "Effect of extended oral contraception use on the prevalence of fetal trisomy 21 in women aged at least 35 years": [Int J Gynecol Obstet 138(2017) 261- (amedeo.com)
  • A 2017 review found that while severe health effects are associated with higher paternal age, the total increase in problems caused by paternal age is low. (wikipedia.org)
  • A 2017 review concluded that the vast majority of studies supported a relationship between paternal age and autism and schizophrenia, but that there is less convincing and also inconsistent evidence for associations with other psychiatric illnesses. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to a 2017 review, there is consistent evidence of an increase in incidence of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia with paternal age. (wikipedia.org)
  • infant
  • 4 - 7 It is particularly common in underweight women with a low muscle mass. 8 We hypothesised that the association of a low maternal weight with an increased risk of a low birthweight baby and poor infant survival 9 might be due in part to low blood pressure leading to poor placental perfusion. (bmj.com)
  • Consistency and promptness of maternal response is associated with a decline in frequency and duration of crying by the end of the first year individual differences in crying reflect the history of maternal responsiveness rather than constitutional differences in infant irritability. (wikipedia.org)
  • During evaluations of maternal depression responses to infant crying, sleeping problems are closely associated with excessive crying and may confound the conclusions of such research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Low birth weight (LBW) is defined by the World Health Organization as a birth weight of a infant of 2,499 g or less, regardless of gestational age. (wikipedia.org)
  • Brough L., Rees G.A., Crawford M.A., Morton R.H. and Dorman E.K.(2010) 'Effect of multiple-micronutrient supplementation on maternal nutrient status and infant birth weight and gestational age at birth in a low income, multi-ethnic population. (wikipedia.org)
  • fetus
  • The causes can be many, but most often involve poor maternal nutrition or lack of adequate oxygen supply to the fetus. (wikipedia.org)
  • This type of IUGR is most commonly caused by extrinsic factors that affect the fetus at later gestational ages. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although hysterotomy is crucial for resuscitation of the mother in such situations, if the gestational age is less than approximately 24 to 25 weeks the procedure will necessarily lead to sacrifice of the fetus (or fetuses), as this is estimated to be the lower limit for fetal viability. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the mother's medical condition is such that there is no reasonable prospect of maternal resuscitation or viability (for example, after a nonsurvivable injury, or an unwitnessed arrest with prolonged pulselessness), then the procedure may be attempted immediately as a means of saving the unborn fetus primarily. (wikipedia.org)
  • Potential structures that may be damaged during the procedure are as for Caesarean section, including the fetus itself and the maternal bowel, bladder, uterus and uterine blood vessels. (wikipedia.org)
  • sepsis
  • Third, emergency obstetric care to address the major causes of maternal death which are haemorrhage, sepsis, unsafe abortion, hypertensive disorders and obstructed labour. (wikipedia.org)
  • Exposure
  • It has been revealed that adverse reproductive effects (e.g., risk for LBW) were correlated with maternal exposure to air pollution combustion emissions in Eastern Europe and North America. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1990
  • As women have gained access to family planning and skilled birth attendance with backup emergency obstetric care, the global maternal mortality ratio has fallen from 380 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births in 1990 to 210 deals per 100,000 live births in 2013. (wikipedia.org)
  • trisomy
  • in 2010 studied 753 pregnant females, using a 2-plex massively parallel maternal plasma DNA sequencing and trisomy was diagnosed with z-score greater than 3. (wikipedia.org)
  • birth
  • Both low birth weight and prematurity were directly associated with the development of wheeze or asthma in several studies, 4 - 7 whereas other studies either failed to demonstrate an association 8 - 11 or demonstrated inverse relationships. (aappublications.org)
  • The birth weight of babies being delivered after 34 weeks was highest for highest recorded maternal diastolic blood pressures of between 70 and 80 mm Hg and lower for blood pressures outside this range. (bmj.com)
  • assess
  • In 2010 the U.S. Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations described maternal mortality as a "sentinel event", and uses it to assess the quality of a health care system. (wikipedia.org)
  • regardless
  • The American Heart Association recommends that healthcare facilities that may be required to treat a case of maternal cardiac arrest should keep in stock an emergency equipment tray for the purpose, including a scalpel with a No. 10 blade, a Balfour retractor, surgical sponges, Kelly and Russian forceps, a needle driver, sutures and suture scissors - but the procedure should commence regardless of whether the tray is available. (wikipedia.org)
  • For this reason, many experts recommend that all women of childbearing age be offered preconception care counseling regardless of intent to become pregnant. (wikipedia.org)
  • caesarean
  • However, there was tentative evidence that children who were born by caesarean had more health problems at age two. (wikipedia.org)
  • include
  • A study conducted in Kenya observed that common maternal health problems in poverty-stricken areas include hemorrhaging, anemia, hypertension, malaria, placenta retention, premature labor, prolonged/complicated labor, and pre-eclampsia. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosome
  • It has been suggested that these miscarriages are caused by chromosome abnormalities in the sperm of aging men. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2001, Al-Yatama et al evaluated the use of nested polymerase chain reaction (nested PCR) to determine sex by detecting a Y chromosome specific signal in the cffDNA from maternal plasma. (wikipedia.org)
  • factors
  • In many of these, the statistical evidence of association is weak, and the association may be related by confounding factors, or behavioural differences. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite the fact that intelligence stabilizes in early adulthood it is thought that genetic factors come to play more of a role in our intelligence during middle and old age and that the importance of the environment dissipates. (wikipedia.org)
  • poor
  • In fact, maternal mortality rates reflect disparities between wealthy and poor countries more than any other measure of health. (wikipedia.org)
  • development
  • Historically, there has been great interest in the field of intelligence research to determine environmental influences on the development of cognitive functioning, in particular, fluid intelligence, as defined by its stabilization at 16 years of age. (wikipedia.org)
  • While the critical period for the visual cortex ends in early childhood, other cortical areas and abilities have a critical period that lasts up through maturity (age 16), the same time frame for the development of fluid intelligence. (wikipedia.org)
  • child
  • Neurons make connections with neighboring neurons, and these become more complex and more idiosyncratic as the child ages, up until the age of 16, when this process halts. (wikipedia.org)
  • effects
  • By contrast, adoption at an early age mitigated some of the effects of earlier institutionalization (abnormal psychology). (wikipedia.org)
  • median
  • and cord 47.1 (21.7) nmol/L. At median (IQR) age 3.7 (2.5-5.9) months, the fontanel area was 225 (0-1690) mm 2 , and mean (SD) HC was 41.5 (1.5) cm. (springermedizin.de)