• fetus
  • CONCLUSIONS: Maternal serum activin A may be useful in the assessment of the small for gestational age fetus. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The causes can be many, but most often involve poor maternal nutrition or lack of adequate oxygen supply to the fetus. (wikipedia.org)
  • This type of IUGR is most commonly caused by extrinsic factors that affect the fetus at later gestational ages. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although hysterotomy is crucial for resuscitation of the mother in such situations, if the gestational age is less than approximately 24 to 25 weeks the procedure will necessarily lead to sacrifice of the fetus (or fetuses), as this is estimated to be the lower limit for fetal viability. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the mother's medical condition is such that there is no reasonable prospect of maternal resuscitation or viability (for example, after a nonsurvivable injury, or an unwitnessed arrest with prolonged pulselessness), then the procedure may be attempted immediately as a means of saving the unborn fetus primarily. (wikipedia.org)
  • Potential structures that may be damaged during the procedure are as for Caesarean section, including the fetus itself and the maternal bowel, bladder, uterus and uterine blood vessels. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2017
  • Erratum to "Effect of extended oral contraception use on the prevalence of fetal trisomy 21 in women aged at least 35 years": [Int J Gynecol Obstet 138(2017) 261- (amedeo.com)
  • A 2017 review found that while severe health effects are associated with higher paternal age, the total increase in problems caused by paternal age is low. (wikipedia.org)
  • A 2017 review concluded that the vast majority of studies supported a relationship between paternal age and autism and schizophrenia, but that there is less convincing and also inconsistent evidence for associations with other psychiatric illnesses. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to a 2017 review, there is consistent evidence of an increase in incidence of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia with paternal age. (wikipedia.org)
  • infant
  • 4 - 7 It is particularly common in underweight women with a low muscle mass. 8 We hypothesised that the association of a low maternal weight with an increased risk of a low birthweight baby and poor infant survival 9 might be due in part to low blood pressure leading to poor placental perfusion. (bmj.com)
  • Consistency and promptness of maternal response is associated with a decline in frequency and duration of crying by the end of the first year individual differences in crying reflect the history of maternal responsiveness rather than constitutional differences in infant irritability. (wikipedia.org)
  • During evaluations of maternal depression responses to infant crying, sleeping problems are closely associated with excessive crying and may confound the conclusions of such research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Low birth weight (LBW) is defined by the World Health Organization as a birth weight of a infant of 2,499 g or less, regardless of gestational age. (wikipedia.org)
  • Brough L., Rees G.A., Crawford M.A., Morton R.H. and Dorman E.K.(2010) 'Effect of multiple-micronutrient supplementation on maternal nutrient status and infant birth weight and gestational age at birth in a low income, multi-ethnic population. (wikipedia.org)
  • obstetric
  • As women have gained access to family planning and skilled birth attendance with backup emergency obstetric care, the global maternal mortality ratio has fallen from 380 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births in 1990 to 210 deals per 100,000 live births in 2013. (wikipedia.org)
  • Third, emergency obstetric care to address the major causes of maternal death which are haemorrhage, sepsis, unsafe abortion, hypertensive disorders and obstructed labour. (wikipedia.org)
  • Exposure
  • Overall, associations between PM 2.5 exposure and asthma clinical encounters among children at lags 0, 1 and 2 were close to the null value of OR = 1.0. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It has been revealed that adverse reproductive effects (e.g., risk for LBW) were correlated with maternal exposure to air pollution combustion emissions in Eastern Europe and North America. (wikipedia.org)
  • trisomy
  • in 2010 studied 753 pregnant females, using a 2-plex massively parallel maternal plasma DNA sequencing and trisomy was diagnosed with z-score greater than 3. (wikipedia.org)
  • regardless
  • The American Heart Association recommends that healthcare facilities that may be required to treat a case of maternal cardiac arrest should keep in stock an emergency equipment tray for the purpose, including a scalpel with a No. 10 blade, a Balfour retractor, surgical sponges, Kelly and Russian forceps, a needle driver, sutures and suture scissors - but the procedure should commence regardless of whether the tray is available. (wikipedia.org)
  • For this reason, many experts recommend that all women of childbearing age be offered preconception care counseling regardless of intent to become pregnant. (wikipedia.org)
  • clinical
  • I aimed to use a standardised clinical stressor to examine the endocrine response in maternal plasma and amniotic fluid. (bl.uk)
  • I hypothesised that amniocentesis in a clinical setting elicits a maternal stress response associated with alterations in amniotic fluid steroidal hormones. (bl.uk)
  • American Association for Clinical Chemistry. (wikipedia.org)
  • risk
  • The association between candidate risk factors and development or progression of ROP was assessed. (hindawi.com)
  • DISCUSSION: Current epidemiological data support a positive association between maternal smoking and increased risk of obesity or overweight in offspring. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Conditions proposed to show correlation with paternal age include the following: Advanced paternal age may be associated with a higher risk for certain single-gene disorders caused by mutations of the FGFR2, FGFR3, and RET genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several studies have reported that advanced paternal age is associated with an increased risk of miscarriage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Paternal age may be associated with an increased risk of breast cancer, but the association is weak and there are confounding effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • As cffDNA is found in maternal blood, sampling carries no associated risk of spontaneous abortion. (wikipedia.org)
  • birth
  • Both low birth weight and prematurity were directly associated with the development of wheeze or asthma in several studies, 4 - 7 whereas other studies either failed to demonstrate an association 8 - 11 or demonstrated inverse relationships. (aappublications.org)
  • The birth weight of babies being delivered after 34 weeks was highest for highest recorded maternal diastolic blood pressures of between 70 and 80 mm Hg and lower for blood pressures outside this range. (bmj.com)
  • The centile chart currently in use for Western Cape birth weight for gestational age covers a gestational age range from 28 to 42 weeks. (scielo.org.za)
  • 4 The accuracy of fetal or birth weight for gestational age centile charts can be improved by including only women who had their gestational age confirmed by early ultrasound prior to gestational age of 24 weeks. (scielo.org.za)
  • The median gestational age at delivery was 39 weeks (range 29 - 43), the median birth weight 3 070 g (range 980 - 5 120) and the median 5-minute Apgar score 10 (range 5 - 10). (scielo.org.za)
  • include
  • A study conducted in Kenya observed that common maternal health problems in poverty-stricken areas include hemorrhaging, anemia, hypertension, malaria, placenta retention, premature labor, prolonged/complicated labor, and pre-eclampsia. (wikipedia.org)
  • assess
  • In 2010 the U.S. Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations described maternal mortality as a "sentinel event", and uses it to assess the quality of a health care system. (wikipedia.org)
  • years
  • The median age was 23 (range 14 - 41) years, median gravidity was 1 (range 1 - 6), and median BMI was 24.7 kg/m 2 (range 16.9 - 43.6). (scielo.org.za)
  • Cases included children up to 9 years of age who had a hospitalization, observational stay, or emergency department visit for asthma or wheeze between January 2001 and September 2009 ( n = 33,387). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Compared with a paternal age of 25-28 years as a reference group, the odds ratio for low birthweight was approximately 1.1 at a paternal age of 20 and approximately 1.2 at a paternal age of 50. (wikipedia.org)
  • Historically, there has been great interest in the field of intelligence research to determine environmental influences on the development of cognitive functioning, in particular, fluid intelligence, as defined by its stabilization at 16 years of age. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the age of 23 years, Burr became the youngest member of the North Carolina General Assembly. (wikipedia.org)
  • childhood
  • Evaluation of the association between maternal smoking, childhood obesity, and metabolic disorders: a national toxicology program workshop review. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Results for associations with other childhood cancers are more mixed (e.g. retinoblastoma) or generally negative. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is estimated that genes contribute about 20-40% of the variance in intelligence in childhood and about 80% in old age. (wikipedia.org)
  • While the critical period for the visual cortex ends in early childhood, other cortical areas and abilities have a critical period that lasts up through maturity (age 16), the same time frame for the development of fluid intelligence. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosome
  • It has been suggested that these miscarriages are caused by chromosome abnormalities in the sperm of aging men. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2001, Al-Yatama et al evaluated the use of nested polymerase chain reaction (nested PCR) to determine sex by detecting a Y chromosome specific signal in the cffDNA from maternal plasma. (wikipedia.org)
  • caesarean
  • However, there was tentative evidence that children who were born by caesarean had more health problems at age two. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • A review 2005 found a U-shaped relationship between paternal age and low intelligence quotients (IQs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite
  • Despite high state scores, only a modest rise of maternal cortisol (variance of 4%) was noted suggesting the response of an attenuated maternal HPA axis. (bl.uk)
  • Despite the fact that intelligence stabilizes in early adulthood it is thought that genetic factors come to play more of a role in our intelligence during middle and old age and that the importance of the environment dissipates. (wikipedia.org)
  • health
  • In fact, maternal mortality rates reflect disparities between wealthy and poor countries more than any other measure of health. (wikipedia.org)
  • While paternal age has increased since 1960-1970 this is not seen as a major public health concern. (wikipedia.org)
  • effects
  • The paternal age effect is the statistical relationship between paternal age at conception and biological effects on the child. (wikipedia.org)
  • Evidence for a paternal age effect has been proposed for a number of conditions, diseases and other effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • By contrast, adoption at an early age mitigated some of the effects of earlier institutionalization (abnormal psychology). (wikipedia.org)