• pathogens
  • Recent studies have revealed requirement for autophagy in diverse functions such as nutrient homeostasis, organelle degradation and programmed cell death in filamentous fungal pathogens, for proper morphogenesis and differentiation during critical steps of infection. (mdpi.com)
  • Penetration and establishment of infection in host tissue are key events in the disease cycles of fungal pathogens. (apsnet.org)
  • Beta spores are rarely found in the wild, but proliferate when P. juniperova is grown on cultures of potato dextrose agar.If the resources for this method of diagnosis are not available, contact a local extension office to be directed to an expert in plant pathogens or a laboratory that can assist with the process. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1996). For instance, conifer oleoresin, a complex mixture of terpenoids secreted in response to attack by insect predators, is toxic to insects and their symbiotic fungal pathogens (Philips and Croteau, 1999). (redorbit.com)
  • All three of these diseases caused by P. irregulare can be caused by other pathogens as well, so a disease diagnosis is not necessarily indicative of P. irregulare In order to identify Pythium irregulare it is necessary to isolate the organism and observe it microscopically. (wikipedia.org)
  • Root-rot disease could be caused by bacteria and nematodes, but it mainly results from fungal pathogens such as Fusarium and Cylindrocarpon species [ 2 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • infect
  • Although spores from diseased juniper plants infect healthy hosts in the fall, symptoms are usually not seen until late winter or early spring. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another strategy is to avoid logging injuries as the spores enter through such injuries and infect and kill the tree and begin a disease center. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fusarium species could infect the plant through the root system, then colonize root system and lower stem, and finally result in the disease [ 4 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • fungi
  • Figure 1 provides a diagrammatic representation of important structures formed during the infection process of many fungi. (apsnet.org)
  • citation needed] Conidia are often the method by which some normally harmless but heat-tolerating (thermotolerant), common fungi establish infection in certain types of severely immunocompromised patients (usually acute leukemia patients on induction chemotherapy, AIDS patients with superimposed B-cell lymphoma, bone marrow transplantation patients, or major organ transplant patients suffering from graft versus host disease). (wikipedia.org)
  • When roots of a host crop come near the resting structure (about 2mm), root exudate promotes germination and the fungi grows out of the structure and toward the plant. (wikipedia.org)
  • Temperatures above 90° F kill some Powdery mildew fungi and spores and the presence of free water can reduce spore germination. (umass.edu)
  • favorable
  • This is determined as the fungus infects new growth if favorable environmental conditions occur, usually in spring and fall, multiple times during the disease cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Typically, smut poses more of a problem in winter wheat than in spring wheat because in autumn, when winter wheat is planted, there is a longer period of more favorable temperatures for teliospore germination than compared to the planting season for spring wheat. (wikipedia.org)
  • When favorable conditions are encountered during early spring, the asci (sac-like structures) within chasmothecia will rupture and ascospores will be discharged. (wikipedia.org)
  • Periods of rapid plant growth are the most favorable for infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • infections
  • Epidemics that seem to develop overnight are often the result of undetected low level infections that have spread spores throughout the greenhouse. (umass.edu)
  • Primary infections usually occur in June, however, disease peaks between August and October. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although secondary infections can occur at temperatures from 59 to 90 degrees Fahrenheit, temperatures between 68 and 77 degrees Fahrenheit are optimal for disease development. (westernfarmpress.com)
  • interaction as a new model pathosystem for biotrophic fungal plant infections of the head smut type (Rabe et al. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • survive
  • Fungal spores on plant surfaces usually can survive in a dormant state during periods of unfavorable environmental conditions. (apsnet.org)
  • The Ascochyta pisi spores are viable on crop debris, although they do not survive for more than a year. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plants are usually capable of surviving this type of infection and will survive until maturity. (wikipedia.org)
  • favor
  • If possible, planting should take place when conditions favor rapid germination. (ufl.edu)
  • In addition to this, there are many cultural practices which affect the conditions that favor disease spread and development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Colletotrichum
  • Colletotrichum gloeosporioides follows the hemibiotrophic mode of infection where, biotrophic and necrotrophic phases are sequentially occur. (biotech-asia.org)
  • CaMNR1-silenced pepper plants were significantly more susceptible to Xanthomonas campestris pv vesicatoria and Colletotrichum coccodes infection and expressed lower levels of salicylic acid-responsive CaBPR1 and CaPR10 and jasmonic acid-responsive CaDEF1. (redorbit.com)
  • unfavorable
  • In addition to facing risks from unfavorable environmental conditions, germinating spores must breach the physical barriers provided by the host (cuticle, cell walls) and face the onslaught of plant biochemical defense mechanisms present in host cytoplasm. (apsnet.org)
  • immune
  • Their immune system is not strong enough to fight off the fungus, and it may, for example, colonise the lung, resulting in a pulmonary infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mature juniper plants lack these characteristics and are usually immune to infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many eudicot species and cultivars are resistant to the disease and all monocots, gymnosperms and ferns are immune. (wikipedia.org)
  • In healthy people, innate and adaptive immune responses are triggered by various immune cells (notably neutrophils, resident alveolar macrophages and dendritic cells) drawn to the site of infection by numerous inflammatory cytokines and neutrophilic attractants (such as CXCR2 receptor ligands). (wikipedia.org)
  • Berries became substantially resistant to infection by three to four weeks after bloom, resulting in diffuse, non-sporulating colonies on berries, and were virtually immune at six to eight weeks after bloom. (westernfarmpress.com)
  • pathogenic
  • The effects of PAs on the growth of Fusarium oxysporum ( F. oxysporum ), a fungal pathogenic factor for P. notoginseng , as well as production of fusaric acid, a wilting agent for the plants, were also examined. (mdpi.com)
  • host
  • Currently, no known host factors have been identified that have been linked to increase susceptibility or development of the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our results on the cellular interactions between the fungus and host cells provide additional insights to understand foliar infection by M. pinodes on cultivated peas. (frontiersin.org)
  • Due to the ecology, disease type, host range/preference, interfertility group, and genetic information, H. irregulare (formerly known as Heterobasidion annosum P ISG) was designated a new species and distinguished from Heterobasidion occidentale (formerly known as Heterobasidion annosum S ISG). (wikipedia.org)
  • In this situation, mucociliary clearance is initiated and spores are successfully phagocytosed, clearing the infection from the host. (wikipedia.org)
  • The host must remain wet for growth and spread of the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • Where the disease has occurred, recropping with further Allium species should be avoided for many years. (wikipedia.org)
  • More than one fungal species can cause this disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other control measures include: use wide spacing when planting to reduce the need for thinning and reduce the potential root grafts, thin only when spores are less abundant, (January through March), and plant tree species that are less susceptible. (wikipedia.org)
  • Verticillium wilt is a wilt disease of over 350 species of eudicot plants caused by six species of Verticillium genus, V. dahliae, V. albo-atrum, V. longisporum, V. nubilum, V. theobromae and V. tricorpus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Infection does not spread to species of plants in other plant families. (umass.edu)
  • Certain species of roses and cultivars of old garden roses are considered more resistant to the disease than modern cultivars. (ufl.edu)
  • It is also important to note that many diagnosticians do not identify to the species level because it can be difficult to find all necessary microscopic structures and many management techniques can be applied to all Pythium species. (wikipedia.org)
  • They have a species-specific ability to interact with cells and structures associated with skin, e.g. various keratinocyte subpopulations. (biomedcentral.com)
  • conditions
  • Teliospores come to rest in soils, and when conditions are right, they give rise to more basidiospores, further spreading the infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • It seems as though the environmental conditions are what plays a major role in severity of the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • The release of these spores begins in spring and can continue into the summer if moist conditions persist. (wikipedia.org)
  • Agronomic practices promoting varieties and conditions that limit lodging and avoiding fields with excess nitrogen can reduce the spread and intensity of disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • The spores are covered in a gelatinous coat which expands under wet conditions to facilitate in spore dispersal during rain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cooler conditions, such as shading and poor aeration, promote infection due to a higher relative humidity, optimally 85% or greater. (wikipedia.org)
  • P. megakarya depends heavily on the correct environmental conditions to cause disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Under optimal conditions, the disease can spread rapidly, as the time from infection to production of conidia can be as short as seven days. (westernfarmpress.com)
  • Pythium irregulare requires very specific environmental conditions to produce disease, so control of environment is the first step. (wikipedia.org)
  • Under optimal conditions, this polycyclic disease can potentially grow 20 generations in a growing season. (wikipedia.org)
  • resistant
  • Generally, strategies to prevent flag smut include use of disease resistant cultivars, chemical seed treatments, and crop rotation to reduce amount of inocula present. (wikipedia.org)
  • India and the United States currently have low incidence of this disease due to deployment of resistant cultivars. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite the economic impact and numerous studies on this disease, little is known about the cytological features during infection by M. pinodes , especially in resistant interactions. (frontiersin.org)
  • Junipers become resistant to infection as they mature and the young yellow shoots turn dark green. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additional strategies to manage the disease include crop rotation, the use of resistant varieties and deep plowing (to accelerate the decomposition of infected plant residue). (wikipedia.org)
  • For instance, sesquiterpenoid phytoalexins, including 2,7-dihydroxycadalene, 2- hydroxy-7-methoxycadalene, lacinilene C, and lacinilene C 7-methyl ether, significantly accumulate in the leaves of resistant cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) lines but not in susceptible varieties after infection by Xanthomonas campestris pv malvacearum (Essenberg et al. (redorbit.com)
  • Young leaves and cotelydons of melon and watermelon that are immature are at high risk to the Gummy Stem Blight infection whereas cucumber and some squash are resistant at young age and only become susceptible once they have matured. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, a cold snap can also make grapevines more resistant to infection. (westernfarmpress.com)
  • roots
  • The disease attacks at all stages of growth, which leaves the plant to turn yellow and wilt when fully developed because the roots are rotting. (wikipedia.org)
  • This can cause spread of the disease to the crowns and roots, also turning them black. (wikipedia.org)
  • This usually causes infection in the roots and stem which appears as water soaking and necrosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • soils
  • Preventing standing water on planted soils, therefore, will dramatically reduce the effects of pineapple disease. (ufl.edu)
  • Disease is most severe on high fertility or lime, alkaline (pH>6), or former agricultural soils. (wikipedia.org)