• 1940
  • Building on what they had learned from their Continental allies, British cryptanalysts finally cracked some of the German codes in April 1940, just before the great offensive against France and the Low Countries. (historynet.com)
  • Axis leaders Adolf Hitler and Italian prime minister Benito Mussolini meet in Munich, Germany, 1940. (ushmm.org)
  • In July 1940, just weeks after the defeat of France, Hitler decided that Nazi Germany would attack the Soviet Union the following spring. (ushmm.org)
  • Italy's failed effort to conquer Greece in the late autumn and winter of 1940-1941 exacerbated German concerns about securing their southeastern flank in the Balkans. (ushmm.org)
  • After the Italo-Greek front opened on October 28, 1940, German pressure on Hungary and the Balkan States intensified. (ushmm.org)
  • Hoping for preferential economic treatment, mindful of recent German support for annexation of northern Transylvania, and eager for future Axis support for acquiring the remainder of Transylvania, Hungary joined the Axis on November 20, 1940. (ushmm.org)
  • Having already requested and received a German military mission in October 1940, Romania joined on November 23, 1940. (ushmm.org)
  • The Romanians hoped that loyal support for a German invasion of the Soviet Union and faithful oil deliveries would destroy the Soviet threat, return the provinces annexed by the Soviet Union in June 1940, and win German support for the return of northern Transylvania. (ushmm.org)
  • defeat
  • That cryptographic intelligence, disseminated to Allied commanders under the code name Ultra, played a significant role in the effort to defeat the Germans and achieve an Allied victory. (historynet.com)
  • Munich
  • However, shortly before the Munich conference in September 1938, the Germans made alterations to their enciphering machine-the so-called Enigma machine-and in mid-September, darkness closed over German message traffic. (historynet.com)
  • France
  • Supply Response In France, Germany, And The Uk: Technology And Price ," 2002 Annual meeting, July 28-31, Long Beach, CA 19702, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association). (repec.org)
  • British
  • Over the intervening decades it has been discovered that throughout the war the intelligence services of the Western powers (particularly the British) intercepted, broke, and read significant portions of the German military's top-secret message traffic. (historynet.com)
  • To subdue Greece and move the British off the European mainland, Nazi Germany now required troop transport through Yugoslavia and Bulgaria. (ushmm.org)