• brain tumors
  • Although seminomas are the most common form of testicular cancer, dysgerminomas are relatively rare, as are intracranial germinomas, which account for only 4% of all pediatric brain tumors. (jimmunol.org)
  • Primary brain tumors can occur at any age, from infancy to late in life. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most types of primary brain tumors are more common in men with the exception of meningiomas, which are more common in women. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are multiple hereditary conditions that increase a person's chance of developing brain tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Few issues in medicine are as potentially contentious as the suspicion of environmental and occupational causes of cancer, including brain tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • The rapid growth of fast-growing high-grade brain tumors may damage the subcortical network essential for electrical transmission, whereas slow-growing tumors have been suggested to induce partial deafferentation of cortical regions, causing denervation hypersensitivity and producing an epileptogenic milieu. (wikipedia.org)
  • Relevant molecular changes in brain tumors that affect BBB structure and function include decreased expression of transmembrane junctional proteins and heightened release of vascular endothelial growth factor. (wikipedia.org)
  • In children, acute lymphoblastic leukemia and brain tumors are most common except in Africa where non-Hodgkin lymphoma occurs more often. (wikipedia.org)
  • gonadal
  • Causes can include: Endogenous sources gonadal tumors (such as arrhenoblastoma), adrenal tumors, germ cell tumor, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, McCune-Albright syndrome, Exogenous hormones Environmental exogenous hormones, As treatment for another condition. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sarcoma
  • Sarcoma: Cancers arising from connective tissue (i.e. bone, cartilage, fat, nerve), each of which develop from cells originating in mesenchymal cells outside the bone marrow. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cancers are usually named using -carcinoma, -sarcoma or -blastoma as a suffix, with the Latin or Greek word for the organ or tissue of origin as the root. (wikipedia.org)
  • testes
  • They are much less common than germ cell tumors arising in the testes, and account for only 1 to 5% of all germ cell neoplasms. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is about 5 to 10 years older than men with other germ cell tumors of the testes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most present with slow, painless testicular enlargement, which may involve both testes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Testicular factors refer to conditions where the testes produce sperm of low quantity and/or poor quality despite adequate hormonal support and include: Varicocele, is a condition of swollen testicle veins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pre-testicular factors refer to conditions that impede adequate support of the testes and include situations of poor hormonal support and poor general health including: Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism due to various causes Obesity increases the risk of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. (wikipedia.org)
  • typically
  • The treatment of a testicular neoplasm typically involves surgical removal of the affected testicle, together with nearby lymph nodes. (wisegeek.com)
  • The tumour cells themselves typically have abundant clear to pale pink cytoplasm containing abundant glycogen, which is demonstrable with a periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) stain. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA methylation causing silencing in cancer typically occurs at multiple CpG sites in the CpG islands that are present in the promoters of protein coding genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Microscopic examination typically reveals uniform cells that resemble primordial germ cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Typically many genetic changes are required before cancer develops. (wikipedia.org)
  • curable
  • The outlook for a testicular neoplasm is frequently positive, as many are curable when treated promptly. (wisegeek.com)
  • Not only is this the most chemo-curable disease among all the solid tumors, it's also the most surgically curable disease with a retroperitoneal lymph node dissection," Dr. Einhorn said. (asco.org)
  • It is a malignant neoplasm and is one of the most treatable and curable cancers, with a survival rate above 95% if discovered in early stages. (wikipedia.org)
  • intracranial
  • The diagnosis of an intracranial germinoma usually is based on biopsy, as the features on neuroimaging appear similar to other tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • immunohistochemistry
  • We screened paraffin-embedded orchiectomy specimens of 158 patients with testicular germ cell tumor by immunohistochemistry using antitrophinin antibody. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Multiple predictive biomarkers for immunotherapy have been put forward, particularly immunohistochemistry for PD-L1 or tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Immunohistochemistry revealed a prominent B cell infiltrate in the microenvironment of all tumors examined and clear evidence of extranodal lymphoid follicles with germinal center-like architecture in a subset of specimens. (jimmunol.org)
  • To investigate these possibilities, we looked for evidence of an Ag-driven immune response within the tumor tissue by examining the nature of the B cell infiltrate in germ cell tumors using immunohistochemistry and then undertaking a molecular characterization of the B cell and plasma cell Ig repertoire. (jimmunol.org)
  • embryonal
  • It is the most common testicular tumor in children under 3, and is also known as infantile embryonal carcinoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast to the pure form typical of infants, adult endodermal sinus tumors are often found in combination with other kinds of germ cell tumor, particularly teratoma and embryonal carcinoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Teratocarcinoma refers to a germ cell tumor that is a mixture of teratoma with embryonal carcinoma, or with choriocarcinoma, or with both. (wikipedia.org)
  • This kind of mixed germ cell tumor may be known simply as a teratoma with elements of embryonal carcinoma or choriocarcinoma, or simply by ignoring the teratoma component and referring only to its malignant component: embryonal carcinoma and/or choriocarcinoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • Tumor tissue samples from paraffin-embedded tissue blocks. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Tumor tissue samples from paraffin-embedded tissue blocks are analyzed for TAB3 transcript and protein expression using in situ hybridization and immunostaining with TAB3 cRNA probe and antibody. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Germ cell tumors are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms derived from residual primordial tissue. (jimmunol.org)
  • These cells secrete alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), which can be detected in tumor tissue, serum, cerebrospinal fluid, urine and, in the rare case of fetal EST, in amniotic fluid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Timothy Chan from New York's Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center therein shows with tissue samples from breast-cancer patients that the methylation status of tumor DNA provides a prediction for whether the cancer cell metastasises. (doccheck.com)
  • Spermatocytic seminomas are diagnosed based on tissue from orchiectomy (or partial orchiectomy), done for a lesion suspicious for cancer on medical imaging. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, some body parts contain multiple types of tissue, so for greater precision, cancers are additionally classified by the type of cell that the tumor cells originated from. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blastoma: Cancers derived from immature "precursor" cells or embryonic tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • A teratoma is a tumor made up of several different types of tissue, such as hair, muscle, or bone. (wikipedia.org)
  • seminomas
  • Most tumors develop in the cells that go on to form sperm , and they are known as seminomas. (wisegeek.com)
  • About half of germ cell tumors of the testicles are seminomas. (wikipedia.org)
  • Microscopic examination shows that seminomas are usually composed of either a sheet-like or lobular pattern of cells with a fibrous stromal network. (wikipedia.org)
  • Histologically, spermatocytic seminomas consist of three cell populations: small cells with a large nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio (6-8 µm), medium-sized cells with prominent nucleoli (15-18 µm) and, large cells (50-100 µm). (wikipedia.org)
  • Neoplasia
  • Anal intraepithelial neoplasia, grade III (C21.1) AIN III (C21.1) M8078/3 Squamous cell carcinoma with horn formation M8080/2 Queyrat erythroplasia (C60. (wikipedia.org)
  • occurs
  • The tumor occurs most frequently in men between the ages of 20 and 40 years. (mhmedical.com)
  • This characterization also revealed the presence of both B cell clonal expansion and variation, suggesting that local B cell maturation most likely occurs within the tumor microenvironment. (jimmunol.org)
  • Although silencing of some genes in cancers occurs by mutation, a large proportion of carcinogenic gene silencing is a result of altered DNA methylation (see DNA methylation in cancer). (wikipedia.org)
  • In cancers, loss of expression of genes occurs about 10 times more frequently by transcription silencing (caused by promoter hypermethylation of CpG islands) than by mutations. (wikipedia.org)
  • As summarized in one review article, promoter hypermethylation of the DNA repair gene MGMT occurs in 93% of bladder cancers, 88% of stomach cancers, 74% of thyroid cancers, 40%-90% of colorectal cancers and 50% of brain cancers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Promoter hypermethylation of LIG4 occurs in 82% of colorectal cancers. (wikipedia.org)
  • somatic
  • Others hypothesize a widespread distribution of germ cells to multiple sites during normal embryogenesis, with these cells conveying genetic information or providing regulatory functions at somatic sites. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular characterization of the Ig variable region from 320 sequences expressed by germ cell tumor-infiltrating B cells revealed clear evidence of Ag experience, in that the cardinal features of an Ag-driven B cell response were present: significant somatic mutation, isotype switching, and codon insertion/deletion. (jimmunol.org)
  • Molecular characterization of the Ab repertoire revealed that the tumor-infiltrating B cells had undergone clonal expansion and isotype switching and had accumulated somatic mutations, all cardinal features of an Ag-driven B cell response. (jimmunol.org)
  • Thanks to new sequencing methods, we now know that in most types of cancer such as breast, ovarian, colorectal, pancreatic cancers, as well as gliomas, 1000-10000 somatic mutations occured . (doccheck.com)
  • It was long regarded to be true of "cancer genes" that about five of them are altered when a proliferating tumor cell arises from a differentiated somatic cell. (doccheck.com)
  • The damage manifests by DNA fragmentation and by the increased susceptibility to denaturation upon exposure to heat or acid, the features characteristic of apoptosis of somatic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • patients
  • To evaluate the clinical characteristics and outcomes of critically ill patients with testicular cancer (TC) admitted to an oncological intensive care unit (ICU). (hindawi.com)
  • This was a prospective observational study of 60 consecutive critically ill cancer patients with TC admitted to the ICU of the Instituto Nacional de Cancerología (INCan), located in Mexico City, from February 2008 to February 2015. (hindawi.com)
  • RATIONALE: White blood cells from donors may be able to kill cancer cells in patients with cancer that has recurred following bone marrow or peripheral stem cell transplantation. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • PURPOSE: Phase II trial to study the effectiveness of donated white blood cells in treating patients who have relapsed cancer following transplantation of donated bone marrow or peripheral stem cells. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • OBJECTIVES: I. Offer donor lymphocyte infusion as adoptive immunotherapy in patients with relapsed malignancies after allogeneic bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cell transplantation and who are not eligible for other FHCRC protocols. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The levels of serum hCG-β were significantly higher in the patients with trophinin-positive tumors than those with trophinin-negative tumors ( P = 0.004). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Combined microRNA and ER expression: a new classifier for familial and sporadic breast cancer patients. (cancerindex.org)
  • For stage I cancers, where the testicular neoplasm is treated before it has spread beyond the testicle, around 95 percent of patients survive for at least five years. (wisegeek.com)
  • After successful treatment, patients usually have regular follow-up appointments to check for cancer recurrence. (wisegeek.com)
  • Alan Horwich, MD, PhD, of the Institute of Cancer Research and the Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, discussed the use of surveillance and adjuvant therapy in these patients. (asco.org)
  • In one trial of 2,543 patients performed over more than 30 years, after 20 years the second cancer incidence in patients treated with RT was twice that in age-matched population controls. (asco.org)
  • PURPOSE: This phase II trial is studying how well giving alemtuzumab together with tacrolimus and methylprednisolone works in treating acute graft-versus-host disease in patients who have undergone donor stem cell transplant. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Determine the 4-week rate of complete response in patients with severe acute graft-vs-host disease (GVHD) treated with alemtuzumab, tacrolimus, and methylprednisolone within 100 days after undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In order to elucidate how, from a rather well-ordered text, a jumble of letters arises, and what meaning errors in individual chapters have, the Cancer Genome Project will sequence the genomes of more than 25,000 cancer patients, among whom are sufferers of about fifty different types of cancer. (doccheck.com)
  • in 5-10% of patients with germinoma in either area, the tumor is in both areas. (wikipedia.org)
  • The reported cases have occurred in patients with a history of cryptorchidism, which is associated with an elevated risk of neoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Seizures are common in patients with low-grade tumors such as dysembryoblastic neuroepithelial tumors, gangligliomas, and oligodendrogliomas. (wikipedia.org)
  • acute
  • It seemed to stimulate the proliferation of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cells when administered to children with this cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Classification
  • The International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O) is a domain-specific extension of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems for tumor diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • This classification is widely used by cancer registries. (wikipedia.org)