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  • androgens
  • Sertoli cell tumours typically present as a testicular mass or firmness, and their presence may be accompanied by gynaecomastia (25%) if they produce oestrogens, or precocious pseudopuberty in young boys, especially if they produce androgens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) is a condition that results in the complete inability of the cell to respond to androgens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immature sperm cells in the testes do not mature past an early stage, as sensitivity to androgens is required in order for spermatogenesis to complete. (wikipedia.org)
  • Soon after they differentiate, Leydig cells begin to produce androgens. (wikipedia.org)
  • The androgens function as paracrine hormones required by the Sertoli cells to support sperm production. (wikipedia.org)
  • This action of androgens is supported by a hormone from Sertoli cells, Müllerian inhibitory hormone (MIH), which prevents the embryonic Müllerian ducts from developing into fallopian tubes and other female reproductive tract tissues in male embryos. (wikipedia.org)
  • Before the production of the pituitary hormone luteinizing hormone (LH) by the embryo starting at about weeks 11-12, human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) promotes the differentiation of Leydig cells and their production of androgens at week 8. (wikipedia.org)
  • differentiation
  • Many of the disease processes, such as testicular torsion, epididymo-orchitis, and intratesticular tumor, produce the common symptom of pain at presentation, and differentiation of these conditions and disorders is important for determining the appropriate treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • If a substance affects Sertoli and Leydig cell differentiation (a common feature of TDS disorders) at an early developmental stage, germ cell growth and testosterone production will be impaired. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell is also responsible for establishing and maintaining the spermatogonial stem cell niche, which ensures the renewal of stem cells and the differentiation of spermatogonia into mature germ cells that progress stepwise through the long process of spermatogenesis, ending in the release of spermatozoa in a process known as spermiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sertoli cell proliferation and differentiation is mainly activated by FGF9. (wikipedia.org)
  • During embryonic development, various niche factors act on embryonic stem cells to alter gene expression, and induce their proliferation or differentiation for the development of the fetus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Within the human body, stem-cell niches maintain adult stem cells in a quiescent state, but after tissue injury, the surrounding micro-environment actively signals to stem cells to promote either self-renewal or differentiation to form new tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is because for regenerative therapies, cell proliferation and differentiation must be controlled in flasks or plates, so that sufficient quantity of the proper cell type are produced prior to being introduced back into the patient for therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • metastatic
  • A metastatic brain tumor is cancer that started in another part of the body and has spread to the brain. (umm.edu)
  • Common symptoms of most types of metastatic brain tumors are caused by increased pressure in the brain. (umm.edu)
  • Chemotherapy for metastatic brain tumors is usually not as helpful as surgery or radiation. (umm.edu)
  • For many people with metastatic brain tumors, the cancer is not curable. (umm.edu)
  • The most common bilateral testis tumor and most common metastatic tumor of the testicles is lymphoma. (clinicalpainadvisor.com)
  • symptoms
  • Surgery may reduce pressure and relieve symptoms in cases when the tumor cannot be removed. (umm.edu)
  • Even in more advanced tumors, symptoms and signs are vague and nonspecific. (rxlist.com)
  • there were no symptoms of a renal cell carcinoma or nutcracker syndrome. (hindawi.com)
  • The typical symptoms of an LMP tumor can include abdominal distension or pelvic pain. (wikipedia.org)
  • In adolescents or children with ovarian tumors, symptoms can include severe abdominal pain, irritation of the peritoneum, or bleeding. (wikipedia.org)
  • Symptoms of sex cord-stromal tumors produce hormones that can affect the development of secondary sex characteristics. (wikipedia.org)
  • distinguishing histologic
  • Immunohistochemical studies may be required for accurate classification, particularly when these tumors present at extragonadal sites, and to aid in distinguishing histologic types. (stanford.edu)
  • tubules
  • Translocation of germ cells from the base to the lumen of the seminiferous tubules occurs by conformational changes in the lateral margins of the Sertoli cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibin and activins - secreted after puberty, and work together to regulate FSH secretion androgen binding protein (also called testosterone binding globulin) - increases testosterone concentration in the seminiferous tubules to stimulate spermatogenesis estradiol - aromatase from Sertoli cells convert testosterone to 17 beta estradiol to direct spermatogenesis glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) - has been demonstrated to function in promoting undifferentiating spermatogonia, which ensures stem cell self-renewal during the perinatal period. (wikipedia.org)
  • transferrin - a blood plasma protein for iron ion delivery The occluding junctions of Sertoli cells form the blood-testis barrier, a structure that partitions the interstitial blood compartment of the testis from the adluminal compartment of the seminiferous tubules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sertoli cells control the entry and exit of nutrients, hormones and other chemicals into the tubules of the testis as well as make the adluminal compartment an immune-privileged site. (wikipedia.org)
  • A minor population of nonepithelial cells appear between the tubules by week 8 of human fetal development. (wikipedia.org)
  • carcinoma
  • Less common tumors are malignant Brenner tumor and transitional cell carcinoma of the ovary. (wikipedia.org)
  • M8043/3 Small cell carcinoma, fusiform cell M8044/3 Small cell carcinoma, intermediate cell M8045/3 Combined small cell carcinoma Mixed small cell carcinoma Combined small cell-large cell carcinoma Combined small cell-adenocarcinoma Combined small cell-squamous cell carcinoma M8046/3 Non-small cell carcinoma (C34. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anal intraepithelial neoplasia, grade III (C21.1) AIN III (C21.1) M8078/3 Squamous cell carcinoma with horn formation M8080/2 Queyrat erythroplasia (C60. (wikipedia.org)
  • Intraepidermal squamous cell carcinoma, Bowen type (C44. (wikipedia.org)
  • M8082/3 Lymphoepithelial carcinoma Lymphoepithelioma Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma Schmincke tumor (C11. (wikipedia.org)
  • M8083/3 Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma M8084/3 Squamous cell carcinoma, clear cell type M8090/1 Basal cell tumor (C44. (wikipedia.org)
  • M8090/3) Basal cell carcinoma, NOS (C44. (wikipedia.org)
  • Basal cell epithelioma Rodent ulcer Pigmented basal cell carcinoma M8091/3 Multifocal superficial basal cell carcinoma (C44. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multicentric basal cell carcinoma M8092/3 Infriltrating basal cell carcinoma, NOS (C44. (wikipedia.org)
  • Infiltrating basal cell carcinoma, non-sclerosing Infiltrating basal cell carcinoma, sclerosing Basal cell carcinoma, morpheic Basal cell carcinoma, desmoplastic type M8093/3 Basal cell carcinoma, fibroepithelial (C44. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fibroepithelioma of Pinkus type Fibroepithelial basal cell carcinoma, Pinkus type Pinkus tumor Fibroepithelioma, NOS M8094/3 Basosquamous carcinoma (C44. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mixed basal-squamous cell carcinoma M8095/3 Metatypical carcinoma M8096/0 Intraepidermal epithelioma of Jadassohn (C44. (wikipedia.org)
  • M8097/3 Basal cell carcinoma, nodular (C44. (wikipedia.org)
  • Basal cell carcinoma, micronodular M8098/3 Adenoid basal carcinoma (C53. (wikipedia.org)
  • Trichilemmal carcinoma M8103/0 Pilar tumor (C44. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pilomatrixoma, malignant Pilomatricoma, malignant Matrical carcinoma M8120/0 Transitional cell papilloma, benign Transitional papilloma M8120/1 Urothelial papilloma, NOS Papilloma of baldder (C67. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transitional cell papilloma, NOS M8120/2 Transitional cell carcinoma in situ Urothelial carcinoma in situ M8120/3 Transitional cell carcinoma, NOS Urothelial carcinoma, NOS Transitional carcinoma M8121/0 Schneiderian papilloma, NOS (C30.0, C31. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cylindrical cell carcinoma M8122/3 Transitional cell carcinoma, spindle cell Transitional cell carcinoma, sarcomatoid M8123/3 Basaloid carcinoma M8124/3 Cloacogenic carcinoma (C21.2) M8130/1 Papillary transitional cell neoplasm of low malignant potential (C67. (wikipedia.org)
  • Papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential M8130/2 Papillary transitional cell carcinoma, non-invasive (C67. (wikipedia.org)
  • Papillary urothelial carcinoma, non-invasive M8130/3 Papillary transitional cell carcinoma (C67. (wikipedia.org)
  • Papillary urothelial carcinoma M8131/3 Transitional cell carcinoma, micropapillary ( C67. (wikipedia.org)
  • chemotherapy
  • Treatment of ovarian cancer involves surgery to remove as much of the tumor as possible and chemotherapy . (rxlist.com)
  • In posttreatment tumor tissue of patients with malignant gliomas, NDRG1 was induced and predictive of poor response to alkylating chemotherapy. (jove.com)
  • In patients with glioblastoma, MGMT promoter methylation in tumor tissue was not more predictive for response to alkylating chemotherapy in patients who received concomitant corticosteroids. (jove.com)
  • These tumors are highly treatable and respond well to chemotherapy and radiation particularly when these treatments are done together (chemotherapy can shrink the tumor, but it is recommended that radiation be given to the patient, as well). (healthncare.info)
  • testicles
  • The testicles also produce and store sperm, the male cells needed for reproduction. (drugs.com)
  • The cells of unaffected genetic males then masculinize by, among other things, enlarging the genital tubercle into a penis but in females it becomes the clitoris, while what in females becomes the labia fuses to become the scrotum of males (where the testicles will later descend). (wikipedia.org)
  • serum
  • However, because over 90% of patients with advanced ovarian cancer will have an elevated serum level of this tumor antigen, the finding of a normal serum value would suggest the possibility of a non-ovarian site (e.g. colon, gastric, pancreatic cancer) in a patient with radiographic findings highly suggestive of malignant disease. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • Therefore, the presence in serum indicates a tumor or metatases with nonseminomatous elements. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • Tests performed on serum are further categorized by the reason for performing the test: maternal serum, adult tumor marker, and pediatric tumor marker. (wikipedia.org)
  • In patients with AFP-secreting tumors, serum levels of AFP often correlate with tumor size. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human embryonic stem cells are often grown in fibroblastic growth factor-2 containing, fetal bovine serum supplemented media. (wikipedia.org)