• metastasis
  • We performed whole exome sequencing (WES) on the blood, primary tumor, omental metastasis and recurrence following therapy with carboplatin and paclitaxel, from a patient carrying a BRCA1 p.S1841R mutation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • differentiation
  • Many of the disease processes, such as testicular torsion, epididymo-orchitis, and intratesticular tumor, produce the common symptom of pain at presentation, and differentiation of these conditions and disorders is important for determining the appropriate treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • If a substance affects Sertoli and Leydig cell differentiation (a common feature of TDS disorders) at an early developmental stage, germ cell growth and testosterone production will be impaired. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell is also responsible for establishing and maintaining the spermatogonial stem cell niche, which ensures the renewal of stem cells and the differentiation of spermatogonia into mature germ cells that progress stepwise through the long process of spermatogenesis, ending in the release of spermatozoa in a process known as spermiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sertoli cell proliferation and differentiation is mainly activated by FGF9. (wikipedia.org)
  • During embryonic development, various niche factors act on embryonic stem cells to alter gene expression, and induce their proliferation or differentiation for the development of the fetus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Within the human body, stem-cell niches maintain adult stem cells in a quiescent state, but after tissue injury, the surrounding micro-environment actively signals to stem cells to promote either self-renewal or differentiation to form new tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is because for regenerative therapies, cell proliferation and differentiation must be controlled in flasks or plates, so that sufficient quantity of the proper cell type are produced prior to being introduced back into the patient for therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • somatic
  • We observed loss of heterozygosity in the BRCA1 mutation in the primary and subsequent tumors, and somatic mutations in TP53 and NF1 were identified, suggesting their role along with BRCA1 driving the tumor development. (aacrjournals.org)
  • All the familial tumors sequenced harbored either a somatic mutation or loss of the wild-type allele. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This may reflect the need for greater efficiency of DNA repair and mutation avoidance in the germ line than in somatic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • distinguishing histologic
  • Immunohistochemical studies may be required for accurate classification, particularly when these tumors present at extragonadal sites, and to aid in distinguishing histologic types. (stanford.edu)
  • carcinoma
  • Mason, D. Page Propranolol dementia alzheimer 120 F. Propranolol dementia alzheimer E Electron microscopy of Merkel cell carcinoma from formalin-fixed tissue. (thesiri.ru)
  • Small cell carcinoma of the ovary (SCCO) is a rare, highly malignant tumor that affects mainly young women, with a median age at diagnosis of 24 years old. (scovariancancer.org)
  • Less common tumors are malignant Brenner tumor and transitional cell carcinoma of the ovary. (wikipedia.org)
  • M8043/3 Small cell carcinoma, fusiform cell M8044/3 Small cell carcinoma, intermediate cell M8045/3 Combined small cell carcinoma Mixed small cell carcinoma Combined small cell-large cell carcinoma Combined small cell-adenocarcinoma Combined small cell-squamous cell carcinoma M8046/3 Non-small cell carcinoma (C34. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anal intraepithelial neoplasia, grade III (C21.1) AIN III (C21.1) M8078/3 Squamous cell carcinoma with horn formation M8080/2 Queyrat erythroplasia (C60. (wikipedia.org)
  • Intraepidermal squamous cell carcinoma, Bowen type (C44. (wikipedia.org)
  • M8082/3 Lymphoepithelial carcinoma Lymphoepithelioma Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma Schmincke tumor (C11. (wikipedia.org)
  • M8083/3 Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma M8084/3 Squamous cell carcinoma, clear cell type M8090/1 Basal cell tumor (C44. (wikipedia.org)
  • M8090/3) Basal cell carcinoma, NOS (C44. (wikipedia.org)
  • Basal cell epithelioma Rodent ulcer Pigmented basal cell carcinoma M8091/3 Multifocal superficial basal cell carcinoma (C44. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multicentric basal cell carcinoma M8092/3 Infriltrating basal cell carcinoma, NOS (C44. (wikipedia.org)
  • Infiltrating basal cell carcinoma, non-sclerosing Infiltrating basal cell carcinoma, sclerosing Basal cell carcinoma, morpheic Basal cell carcinoma, desmoplastic type M8093/3 Basal cell carcinoma, fibroepithelial (C44. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fibroepithelioma of Pinkus type Fibroepithelial basal cell carcinoma, Pinkus type Pinkus tumor Fibroepithelioma, NOS M8094/3 Basosquamous carcinoma (C44. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mixed basal-squamous cell carcinoma M8095/3 Metatypical carcinoma M8096/0 Intraepidermal epithelioma of Jadassohn (C44. (wikipedia.org)
  • M8097/3 Basal cell carcinoma, nodular (C44. (wikipedia.org)
  • Basal cell carcinoma, micronodular M8098/3 Adenoid basal carcinoma (C53. (wikipedia.org)
  • Trichilemmal carcinoma M8103/0 Pilar tumor (C44. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transitional cell papilloma, NOS M8120/2 Transitional cell carcinoma in situ Urothelial carcinoma in situ M8120/3 Transitional cell carcinoma, NOS Urothelial carcinoma, NOS Transitional carcinoma M8121/0 Schneiderian papilloma, NOS (C30.0, C31. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cylindrical cell carcinoma M8122/3 Transitional cell carcinoma, spindle cell Transitional cell carcinoma, sarcomatoid M8123/3 Basaloid carcinoma M8124/3 Cloacogenic carcinoma (C21.2) M8130/1 Papillary transitional cell neoplasm of low malignant potential (C67. (wikipedia.org)
  • Papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential M8130/2 Papillary transitional cell carcinoma, non-invasive (C67. (wikipedia.org)
  • Papillary urothelial carcinoma, non-invasive M8130/3 Papillary transitional cell carcinoma (C67. (wikipedia.org)
  • Papillary urothelial carcinoma M8131/3 Transitional cell carcinoma, micropapillary ( C67. (wikipedia.org)
  • biopsy
  • A biopsy should not be performed, as it raises the risk of spreading cancer cells into the scrotum. (wikipedia.org)
  • A transscrotal biopsy or orchiectomy will potentially leave cancer cells in the scrotum and create two routes for cancer cells to spread, while in an inguinal orchiectomy only the retroperitoneal route exists. (wikipedia.org)
  • I. Associate pretherapy tumor biopsy ribonucleotide reductase (R1, R2, p53R2), Tip60 and Poly(ADP‐ribose) polymerase 1/2 expression with 6‐week therapy response. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • tissue
  • Brain tumors that spread are classified based on the location of the tumor in the brain, the type of tissue involved, the original location of the tumor, and other factors. (umm.edu)
  • Tumors that are deep or that extend into brain tissue may be reduced in size (debulked). (umm.edu)
  • In posttreatment tumor tissue of patients with malignant gliomas, NDRG1 was induced and predictive of poor response to alkylating chemotherapy. (jove.com)
  • In patients with glioblastoma, MGMT promoter methylation in tumor tissue was not more predictive for response to alkylating chemotherapy in patients who received concomitant corticosteroids. (jove.com)
  • It develops in the connective tissue cells that hold the ovary together and those that produce the female hormones estrogen and progesterone. (scovariancancer.org)
  • This tumour produces theca of follicle, a tissue normally found in the ovarian follicle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells that will become adrenal tissue move retroperitoneally to the upper portion of the mesonephros. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] A Nature Insight review defines niche as follows: "Stem-cell populations are established in 'niches' - specific anatomic locations that regulate how they participate in tissue generation, maintenance and repair. (wikipedia.org)
  • It constitutes a basic unit of tissue physiology, integrating signals that mediate the balanced response of stem cells to the needs of organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • embryonic
  • OCT4 (POU5F1) is a transcription factor expressed in embryonic stem and germ cells and is involved in the regulation and maintenance of pluripotency. (thedoctorsdoctor.com)
  • The thyroid gland develops from two different clusterings of embryonic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human embryonic stem cells are often grown in fibroblastic growth factor-2 containing, fetal bovine serum supplemented media. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are grown on a feeder layer of cells, which is believed to be supportive in maintaining the pluripotent characteristics of embryonic stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Markers
  • Bloods can also be taken to look for elevated tumour markers which is also used to analyse the patient's response to treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • testosterone
  • Effect of myxothiazol on Leydig cell steroidogenesis: inhibition of luteinizing hormone-mediated testosterone synthesis but stimulation of basal steroidogenesis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • To further elucidate the role played by mitochondria in steroidogenesis, we examined the effects of the perturbation of the mitochondrial electron transport chain with myxothiazol (MYX) on testosterone production by primary cultures of Brown Norway rat Leydig cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In contrast to the inhibition of LH-stimulated testosterone production by MYX, the incubation of Leydig cells with MYX in the absence of LH stimulated testosterone production. (biomedsearch.com)
  • radiotherapy
  • An intratumoral hierarchy is postulated consisting of tumor stem cells in the apex with high DNA-repair proficiency resisting radiotherapy. (jove.com)
  • In addition, high LET-radiotherapy, for example with carbon ions, is postulated to ablate tumor stem cell and hypoxic cells more efficiently as compared with conventional low-LET photon irradiation. (jove.com)
  • fetus
  • Exogenous estrogen administration to the mother during pregnancy has been associated with an increased relative risk for testicular tumors in the fetus, ranging from 2.8 to 5.3 over the expected incidence. (mhmedical.com)
  • Due to its highly negative charge, hCG may repel the immune cells of the mother, protecting the fetus during the first trimester[citation needed]. (wikipedia.org)
  • The unresponsiveness of the cell to the presence of androgenic hormones prevents the masculinization of male genitalia in the developing fetus, as well as the development of male secondary sexual characteristics at puberty, but does allow, without significant impairment, female genital and sexual development in genetic males with the condition. (wikipedia.org)
  • The partial unresponsiveness of the cell to the presence of androgenic hormones impairs the masculinization of male genitalia in the developing fetus, as well as the development of male secondary sexual characteristics at puberty, but does not significantly impair female genital or sexual development. (wikipedia.org)
  • cysts
  • We have learned over the past several years that some children with PPB or their relatives (currently estimated to be 40% of PPB cases) may have other cysts or tumor growths (see Registry Publications Priest 1996, Boman 2006, Priest 2009). (ppbregistry.org)
  • pediatric
  • Pashankar F, Bisogno G, Ribeiro R, Messinger Y, Schultz KA, Rodriguez-Galindo C. The role of registries and tumor banking in rare pediatric tumors. (ppbregistry.org)
  • Tests performed on serum are further categorized by the reason for performing the test: maternal serum, adult tumor marker, and pediatric tumor marker. (wikipedia.org)
  • Characterization
  • Though the concept of stem cell niche was prevailing in vertebrates, the first characterization of stem cell niche in vivo was worked out in Drosophila germinal development. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed
  • citation needed] On magnetic resonance imaging, a fibroma may produce one of several imaging features that might be used in the future to identify this rare tumour prior to surgery. (wikipedia.org)
  • cystic
  • Cell-and developmental stage-specific Dicer1 ablation in the lung epithelium models of cystic pleuropulmonary blastoma. (ppbregistry.org)
  • fetal
  • It has been suggested that Sertoli cells may derive from the fetal mesonephros. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the early stages of fetal development, the number of pancreatic alpha cells outnumbers the number of pancreatic beta cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • While the fetal pancreas has functional beta cells by 14 to 24 weeks of gestation, the amount of insulin that is released into the bloodstream is relatively low. (wikipedia.org)
  • A minor population of nonepithelial cells appear between the tubules by week 8 of human fetal development. (wikipedia.org)
  • induce
  • For example, hCG-treated endometrial cells induce an increase in T cell apoptosis (dissolution of T cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • Recently however, some scientists have found a way to induce Sertoli cells to a juvenile proliferative phenotype outside of the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • The stem cells and niche may induce each other during development and reciprocally signal to maintain each other during adulthood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Yet the niche may also induce pathologies by imposing aberrant function on stem cells or other targets. (wikipedia.org)