• androgens
  • Sertoli cell tumours typically present as a testicular mass or firmness, and their presence may be accompanied by gynaecomastia (25%) if they produce oestrogens, or precocious pseudopuberty in young boys, especially if they produce androgens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) is a condition that results in the complete inability of the cell to respond to androgens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immature sperm cells in the testes do not mature past an early stage, as sensitivity to androgens is required in order for spermatogenesis to complete. (wikipedia.org)
  • Soon after they differentiate, Leydig cells begin to produce androgens. (wikipedia.org)
  • The androgens function as paracrine hormones required by the Sertoli cells to support sperm production. (wikipedia.org)
  • This action of androgens is supported by a hormone from Sertoli cells, Müllerian inhibitory hormone (MIH), which prevents the embryonic Müllerian ducts from developing into fallopian tubes and other female reproductive tract tissues in male embryos. (wikipedia.org)
  • Before the production of the pituitary hormone luteinizing hormone (LH) by the embryo starting at about weeks 11-12, human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) promotes the differentiation of Leydig cells and their production of androgens at week 8. (wikipedia.org)
  • differentiation
  • Many of the disease processes, such as testicular torsion, epididymo-orchitis, and intratesticular tumor, produce the common symptom of pain at presentation, and differentiation of these conditions and disorders is important for determining the appropriate treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • If a substance affects Sertoli and Leydig cell differentiation (a common feature of TDS disorders) at an early developmental stage, germ cell growth and testosterone production will be impaired. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell is also responsible for establishing and maintaining the spermatogonial stem cell niche, which ensures the renewal of stem cells and the differentiation of spermatogonia into mature germ cells that progress stepwise through the long process of spermatogenesis, ending in the release of spermatozoa in a process known as spermiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sertoli cell proliferation and differentiation is mainly activated by FGF9. (wikipedia.org)
  • During embryonic development, various niche factors act on embryonic stem cells to alter gene expression, and induce their proliferation or differentiation for the development of the fetus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Within the human body, stem-cell niches maintain adult stem cells in a quiescent state, but after tissue injury, the surrounding micro-environment actively signals to stem cells to promote either self-renewal or differentiation to form new tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is because for regenerative therapies, cell proliferation and differentiation must be controlled in flasks or plates, so that sufficient quantity of the proper cell type are produced prior to being introduced back into the patient for therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • metastatic
  • Common symptoms of most types of metastatic brain tumors are caused by increased pressure in the brain. (umm.edu)
  • Chemotherapy for metastatic brain tumors is usually not as helpful as surgery or radiation. (umm.edu)
  • For many people with metastatic brain tumors, the cancer is not curable. (umm.edu)
  • distinguishing histologic
  • Immunohistochemical studies may be required for accurate classification, particularly when these tumors present at extragonadal sites, and to aid in distinguishing histologic types. (stanford.edu)
  • Markers
  • Bloods can also be taken to look for elevated tumour markers which is also used to analyse the patient's response to treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • stroma
  • GBM are exceptionally stroma-rich tumors and may consist of more than 70% stroma components, such as microglia and BMDC. (jove.com)
  • carcinoma
  • Mason, D. Page Propranolol dementia alzheimer 120 F. Propranolol dementia alzheimer E Electron microscopy of Merkel cell carcinoma from formalin-fixed tissue. (thesiri.ru)
  • Less common tumors are malignant Brenner tumor and transitional cell carcinoma of the ovary. (wikipedia.org)
  • M8043/3 Small cell carcinoma, fusiform cell M8044/3 Small cell carcinoma, intermediate cell M8045/3 Combined small cell carcinoma Mixed small cell carcinoma Combined small cell-large cell carcinoma Combined small cell-adenocarcinoma Combined small cell-squamous cell carcinoma M8046/3 Non-small cell carcinoma (C34. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anal intraepithelial neoplasia, grade III (C21.1) AIN III (C21.1) M8078/3 Squamous cell carcinoma with horn formation M8080/2 Queyrat erythroplasia (C60. (wikipedia.org)
  • Intraepidermal squamous cell carcinoma, Bowen type (C44. (wikipedia.org)
  • M8082/3 Lymphoepithelial carcinoma Lymphoepithelioma Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma Schmincke tumor (C11. (wikipedia.org)
  • M8083/3 Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma M8084/3 Squamous cell carcinoma, clear cell type M8090/1 Basal cell tumor (C44. (wikipedia.org)
  • M8090/3) Basal cell carcinoma, NOS (C44. (wikipedia.org)
  • Basal cell epithelioma Rodent ulcer Pigmented basal cell carcinoma M8091/3 Multifocal superficial basal cell carcinoma (C44. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multicentric basal cell carcinoma M8092/3 Infriltrating basal cell carcinoma, NOS (C44. (wikipedia.org)
  • Infiltrating basal cell carcinoma, non-sclerosing Infiltrating basal cell carcinoma, sclerosing Basal cell carcinoma, morpheic Basal cell carcinoma, desmoplastic type M8093/3 Basal cell carcinoma, fibroepithelial (C44. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fibroepithelioma of Pinkus type Fibroepithelial basal cell carcinoma, Pinkus type Pinkus tumor Fibroepithelioma, NOS M8094/3 Basosquamous carcinoma (C44. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mixed basal-squamous cell carcinoma M8095/3 Metatypical carcinoma M8096/0 Intraepidermal epithelioma of Jadassohn (C44. (wikipedia.org)
  • M8097/3 Basal cell carcinoma, nodular (C44. (wikipedia.org)
  • Basal cell carcinoma, micronodular M8098/3 Adenoid basal carcinoma (C53. (wikipedia.org)
  • Trichilemmal carcinoma M8103/0 Pilar tumor (C44. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transitional cell papilloma, NOS M8120/2 Transitional cell carcinoma in situ Urothelial carcinoma in situ M8120/3 Transitional cell carcinoma, NOS Urothelial carcinoma, NOS Transitional carcinoma M8121/0 Schneiderian papilloma, NOS (C30.0, C31. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cylindrical cell carcinoma M8122/3 Transitional cell carcinoma, spindle cell Transitional cell carcinoma, sarcomatoid M8123/3 Basaloid carcinoma M8124/3 Cloacogenic carcinoma (C21.2) M8130/1 Papillary transitional cell neoplasm of low malignant potential (C67. (wikipedia.org)
  • Papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential M8130/2 Papillary transitional cell carcinoma, non-invasive (C67. (wikipedia.org)
  • Papillary urothelial carcinoma, non-invasive M8130/3 Papillary transitional cell carcinoma (C67. (wikipedia.org)
  • Papillary urothelial carcinoma M8131/3 Transitional cell carcinoma, micropapillary ( C67. (wikipedia.org)
  • somatic
  • This may reflect the need for greater efficiency of DNA repair and mutation avoidance in the germ line than in somatic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • Brain tumors that spread are classified based on the location of the tumor in the brain, the type of tissue involved, the original location of the tumor, and other factors. (umm.edu)
  • Tumors that are deep or that extend into brain tissue may be reduced in size (debulked). (umm.edu)
  • In posttreatment tumor tissue of patients with malignant gliomas, NDRG1 was induced and predictive of poor response to alkylating chemotherapy. (jove.com)
  • In patients with glioblastoma, MGMT promoter methylation in tumor tissue was not more predictive for response to alkylating chemotherapy in patients who received concomitant corticosteroids. (jove.com)
  • Furthermore, normal/tumor tissue differences were not as dramatic or consistent from sample to sample, especially for the seminomas. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This tumour produces theca of follicle, a tissue normally found in the ovarian follicle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells that will become adrenal tissue move retroperitoneally to the upper portion of the mesonephros. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] A Nature Insight review defines niche as follows: "Stem-cell populations are established in 'niches' - specific anatomic locations that regulate how they participate in tissue generation, maintenance and repair. (wikipedia.org)
  • It constitutes a basic unit of tissue physiology, integrating signals that mediate the balanced response of stem cells to the needs of organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • embryonic
  • OCT4 (POU5F1) is a transcription factor expressed in embryonic stem and germ cells and is involved in the regulation and maintenance of pluripotency. (thedoctorsdoctor.com)
  • The thyroid gland develops from two different clusterings of embryonic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human embryonic stem cells are often grown in fibroblastic growth factor-2 containing, fetal bovine serum supplemented media. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are grown on a feeder layer of cells, which is believed to be supportive in maintaining the pluripotent characteristics of embryonic stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • symptoms
  • Surgery may reduce pressure and relieve symptoms in cases when the tumor cannot be removed. (umm.edu)
  • The typical symptoms of an LMP tumor can include abdominal distension or pelvic pain. (wikipedia.org)
  • In adolescents or children with ovarian tumors, symptoms can include severe abdominal pain, irritation of the peritoneum, or bleeding. (wikipedia.org)
  • testosterone
  • Effect of myxothiazol on Leydig cell steroidogenesis: inhibition of luteinizing hormone-mediated testosterone synthesis but stimulation of basal steroidogenesis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • To further elucidate the role played by mitochondria in steroidogenesis, we examined the effects of the perturbation of the mitochondrial electron transport chain with myxothiazol (MYX) on testosterone production by primary cultures of Brown Norway rat Leydig cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In contrast to the inhibition of LH-stimulated testosterone production by MYX, the incubation of Leydig cells with MYX in the absence of LH stimulated testosterone production. (biomedsearch.com)
  • radiotherapy
  • An intratumoral hierarchy is postulated consisting of tumor stem cells in the apex with high DNA-repair proficiency resisting radiotherapy. (jove.com)
  • In addition, high LET-radiotherapy, for example with carbon ions, is postulated to ablate tumor stem cell and hypoxic cells more efficiently as compared with conventional low-LET photon irradiation. (jove.com)