• neural
  • Towards that goal, we are analyzing the development of different kinds of neural cells that can be derived from embryonic stem (ES) cells in the laboratory and testing their behavior after transplantation into the injured nervous system. (umdnj.edu)
  • The neural cell adhesion molecule L1 regulates brain development by promoting contacts between nerve cells, thus generating a functional nervous system. (umdnj.edu)
  • Despite some beneficial outcomes, the CNS-derived human neural stem cells (hNSCs) appear to exert their therapeutic effects primarily by their non-neuronal progenies through producing trophic and neuroprotective molecules to rescue the endogenous cells 1-3 . (jove.com)
  • Its role in control of stem cell proliferation has now been demonstrated for several cell types including haematopoietic, neural, and mammary stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to the limited availability of donor tissue and functional recovery in autologous nerve grafting, neural tissue engineering research has focused on the development of bioartificial nerve guidance conduits as an alternative treatment, especially for large defects. (wikipedia.org)
  • therapeutic
  • Our strategy and aim include the protraction of cytogenetic and molecular biological diagnostic tests, the expansion of the first Iranian Cord Blood Bank (ICBB) and development of the first Iranian Stem Cell Donor Program (ISCDP), and improvement the researches in new therapeutic fields. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We are working toward developing human ES cell lines which overexpress L1, monitor their beneficial potential, and expand their therapeutic potential. (umdnj.edu)
  • With a constellation of stem cell sources available, researchers hope to utilize their potential for cellular repair as a therapeutic target for disease. (mdpi.com)
  • The immunological barriers, such as graft vs . host or required immunosuppression of the host, are of constant consideration in the therapeutic benefits and limitations of stem cell transplantation. (mdpi.com)
  • There is yet no consensus among biologists on the prevalence and physiological and therapeutic relevance of stem cell plasticity. (wikipedia.org)
  • regenerative
  • Regenerative medicine using stem cells (SC) is an efficient, low-morbidity and high-quality therapy for skin coverage in burns, mainly due to the regeneration of skin appendages [ 3 ] and the minimal risk of hypertrophic scarring [ 4 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Regenerative medicine offers a non-surgical option that commonly uses the patients own stem cells, exosomes, and other sources of growth factors to regenerate healthy tissue to improve performance and sensation. (euvolution.com)
  • Regenerative medicine offers a non-surgical option that commonly uses the patients own stem cells, exosomes, and other sources of growth factors to reduce inflammation, promote natural healing and regenerate healthy tissue surrounding the joint for relief. (euvolution.com)
  • Regenerative medicine now offers treatment for MS with stem cell therapy, which is an exciting and rapidly developing field of therapy. (euvolution.com)
  • This allows embryonic stem cells to be employed as useful tools for both research and regenerative medicine, because they can produce limitless numbers of themselves for continued research or clinical use. (wikipedia.org)
  • The lack of supportive Schwann cells or their inability to maintain a regenerative phenotype is a major factor. (hindawi.com)
  • Advances in nervous system tissue engineering technology have led to efforts to build Schwann cell scaffolds to overcome this and enhance the regenerative capacity of neurons following injury. (hindawi.com)
  • Following a nerve transection injury, denervated Schwann cells in the distal part of the nerve adopt a regenerative phenotype and provide support to regenerating axons from the proximal stump. (hindawi.com)
  • In the case of chronic denervation, distal Schwann cells can lose their regenerative capacity, which can lead to incomplete regeneration [ 10 , 11 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Some of the biomedical approaches within the field of regenerative medicine may involve the use of stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pluripotent stem cells hold promise in the field of regenerative medicine. (wikipedia.org)
  • organ
  • We are at the beginning of a new era in medicine, with multiple applications for stem cell therapy, not only as a monotherapy, but also as an adjunct to other strategies, such as organ transplantation or standard drug treatment. (mdpi.com)
  • However, the main obstacle in transplantation is the rejection of tissues or organ by the receiver, due to the three main immunological barriers: the human leukocyte antigen (HLA), the ABO blood group, and minor antigens. (hindawi.com)
  • The first tissue-engineered organ transplantation was still based on a donor trachea. (biomedcentral.com)
  • When selecting new biomaterials for trachea bioengineering, researchers should evaluate a wide range of biological properties of candidate material including toxicity, toxigenicity, biocompatibility, biodegradability, durability, cell adhesion characteristics, and ability to mimic the function of a native organ as much as possible. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It can be induced by modifying the growth medium when stem cells are cultured in vitro or transplanting them to an organ of the body different from the one they were originally isolated from. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first attempt, an unsuccessful one, at gene therapy (as well as the first case of medical transfer of foreign genes into humans not counting organ transplantation) was performed by Martin Cline on 10 July 1980. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, the results have included the near-eradication of polio and the development of organ transplantation, and have benefited both humans and animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • graft-versus-
  • Sometimes, an upside of graft-versus-host disease is that the newly transplanted cells recognize the body's cancer cells as different or foreign, and actually work to fight them. (kidshealth.org)
  • Blood products are treated with radiation in the blood bank to inactivate or prevent T-cells from causing graft-versus-host disease in the recipient. (childrensnational.org)
  • vitro
  • Other potential uses of embryonic stem cells include investigation of early human development, study of genetic disease and as in vitro systems for toxicology testing. (wikipedia.org)
  • and transplantation of in vitro grown organs and tissues (tissue engineering). (wikipedia.org)
  • These properties can be illustrated with relative ease in vitro, using methods such as clonogenic assays, where the progeny of a single cell is characterized. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2007 Nov;73:1106-10) and "very small embryonic like" - "VSEL" stem cells, and display pluripotency in vitro. (wikipedia.org)
  • They showed that opposing gradients of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and Nodal, two transforming growth factor family members that act as morphogens, are sufficient to induce molecular and cellular mechanisms required to organize, in vivo or in vitro, uncommitted cells of the zebrafish blastula animal pole into a well-developed embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • endogenous
  • In another study, upon exposure to cyclosporine A, an immunosuppressant, there was enhanced recovery of cortical injury following stroke secondary to endogenous stem cell activity and migration [ 2 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • pluripotency
  • iPSCs are typically derived by introducing products of specific sets of pluripotency-associated genes, or "reprogramming factors", into a given cell type. (wikipedia.org)
  • neurons
  • Our experiments will help to define groups of microRNAs that are regulated during neurogenesis and how they work to control production of neurons or non-neuronal cells in the nervous system. (umdnj.edu)
  • Some of the cell types that have or are currently being developed include cardiomyocytes (CM), neurons, hepatocytes, bone marrow cells, islet cells and endothelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Peripheral nerves can regenerate to some extent and this ability is mainly attributable to intrinsic growth capacity of peripheral neurons and the ability of Schwann cells to provide a supportive growth environment [ 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Stroke and traumatic brain injury lead to cell death, characterized by a loss of neurons and oligodendrocytes within the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multipotency or multidifferentiative potential, which is the ability to generate progeny of several distinct cell types, (for example glial cells and neurons) as opposed to unipotency, which is the term for cells that are restricted to producing a single-cell type. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because they can propagate indefinitely, as well as give rise to every other cell type in the body (such as neurons, heart, pancreatic, and liver cells), they represent a single source of cells that could be used to replace those lost to damage or disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • Tissues or organs derived from hPS cells could be the best solution to cure many different human diseases, especially those who do not respond to standard medication or drugs, such as neurodegenerative diseases, heart failure, or diabetes. (hindawi.com)
  • Following a specific culture protocol, these cells will give rise to one of the three germ layers that can be derived into specific cells or tissues depending on the protocol. (hindawi.com)
  • Stem cells can now be artificially grown and transformed (differentiated) into specialized cell types with characteristics consistent with cells of various tissues such as muscles or nerves. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the availability of donor tissues and organs is constantly limited, which presents a serious bottleneck for widespread transplantation surgery. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Stem Cell Treatment is a reproductive therapy where nourishing tissues reinstate damaged tissues for relief from incurable diseases. (dheerajbojwani.com)
  • Reproductive cloning would involve making an entire cloned human, instead of just specific cells or tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • undergo
  • For instance, a child who is about to undergo cancer treatment will have his or her own stem cells removed (harvested) and frozen for later use. (kidshealth.org)
  • self-renew
  • It should also be possible to isolate stem cells from the transplanted individual, which can themselves be transplanted into another individual without HSCs, demonstrating that the stem cell was able to self-renew. (wikipedia.org)
  • clinical
  • This review will discuss the current knowledge of stem cell research in neurological disease, mainly stroke, with a focus on the benefits, limitations, and clinical potential. (mdpi.com)
  • We also discuss some of the biological, practical, ethical, and commercial considerations in using these different stem cells for future clinical application. (hindawi.com)
  • Clinical and animal studies have been conducted into the use of stem cells in cases of spinal cord injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • When direct suturing of the two stumps of a severed nerve cannot be accomplished without tension, the standard clinical treatment for peripheral nerve injuries is autologous nerve grafting. (wikipedia.org)
  • indications
  • Severe burns have several indications for stem cell therapy, including enhancement of wound healing, replacement of damaged skin and perfect skin regeneration - incorporating skin appendages and reduced fibrosis -, as well as systemic effects, such as inflammation, hypermetabolism and immunosuppression. (mdpi.com)
  • iPSCs
  • Similar to ESCs, these iPSCs had unlimited self-renewal and were pluripotent, contributing to lineages from all three germ layers in the context of embryoid bodies, teratomas, and fetal chimeras. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike the first generation of iPSCs, these second generation iPSCs produced viable chimeric mice and contributed to the mouse germline, thereby achieving the 'gold standard' for pluripotent stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene expression
  • Treatment of genetic diseases in which an insufficient expression of the affected gene product by the patient can be partially or completely overcome by circulating hematopoietic cells transplanted from a donor with normal gene expression. (nkch.org)
  • However, the molecular makeup of these cells, including gene expression and epigenetic marks, was somewhere between that of a fibroblast and an ESC, and the cells failed to produce viable chimeras when injected into developing embryos. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regeneration
  • Its beneficial influence is important for regeneration after trauma, for example, in spinal cord injury or Huntington's and Parkinson's diseases. (umdnj.edu)
  • There is a large unfulfilled need for a clinically-suitable human neuronal cell source for repair or regeneration of the damaged central nervous system (CNS) structure and circuitry in today's healthcare industry. (jove.com)
  • Similar techniques are also being explored for nerve repair in the spinal cord but nerve regeneration in the central nervous system poses a greater challenge because its axons do not regenerate appreciably in their native environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • scaffolds
  • Most tracheal tissue engineering approaches use biodegradable three-dimensional scaffolds, which are important for neotracheal formation by promoting cell attachment, cell redifferentiation, and production of the extracellular matrix. (biomedcentral.com)
  • involves
  • Of all stem cell types, autologous harvesting involves the least risk. (wikipedia.org)
  • The process involves sucking out the nucleus of a somatic (body) cell and injecting it into an oocyte that has had its nucleus removed Using an approach based on the protocol outlined by Tachibana et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, since the generation of embryonic stem cells involves destruction (or at least manipulation) of the pre-implantation stage embryo, there has been much controversy surrounding their use. (wikipedia.org)