• gums
  • B. The cavity lying at the upper end of the alimentary canal, bounded on the outside by the lips and inside by the oropharynx and containing in higher vertebrates the tongue, gums, and teeth. (healthtap.com)
  • Sjogren syndrome Angioedema Oral cancer may occur on the lips, tongue, gums, floor of the mouth or inside the cheeks. (wikipedia.org)
  • To assess the gums, a tongue depressor gently retracts the cheek to allow inspection of the upper and lower gums. (wikipedia.org)
  • Abnormal
  • Abnormal findings include dryness, cyanosis, paleness and Fordyce spots, and signs of disease include canker sores, Koplik's spots (an early indication of measles), candidiasis and leukoplakia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Abnormal findings include yellowness or extreme pallor, and diseases include torus palatinus, cleft palate, Kaposi's sarcoma and leukoplakia. (wikipedia.org)
  • antibiotic
  • While doxycycline is a standard antibiotic for treatment of erythema migrans in Europe as well as in the USA, the effectiveness of cefuroxime axetil in the treatment of adult patients with erythema migrans has been assessed only in the USA where the causative agent of Lyme disease is Borrelia burgdorferi, but not in Europe where the main etiologic agents are B. afzelii and B. garinii. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This is usually termed "antibiotic sore mouth", "antibiotic sore tongue", or "antibiotic-induced stomatitis" because it is commonly painful as well as red. (wikipedia.org)
  • cleft
  • Malocclusion Cleft lip and palate Macroglossia Ankyloglossia Stafne defect Torus palatinus Torus mandibularis Eagle syndrome Bacterial (Plaque-induced) gingivitis-A common periodontal (gum) disease is Gingivitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • More common is an incompletely cleft tongue, appearing as midline fissure. (wikipedia.org)
  • aphthous
  • Aphthous ulcers occur generally on the soft unattached gingiva, in the vestibule or on the cheek mucosa , on the floor of the mouth , or on the under-surface or lateral borders of the tongue. (doctorspiller.com)
  • Aphthous stomatitis is one of the most common diseases of the oral mucosa, and is thought to affect about 20% of the general population to some degree. (wikipedia.org)
  • Crohn's
  • While the cause of Crohn's disease is unknown, it is believed to be due to a combination of environmental, immune, and bacterial factors in genetically susceptible individuals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tobacco smokers are two times more likely to develop Crohn's disease than nonsmokers. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are no medications or surgical procedures that can cure Crohn's disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Crohn's disease affects about 3.2 per 1,000 people in Europe and North America. (wikipedia.org)
  • People with Crohn's disease experience chronic recurring periods of flare-ups and remission. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nature of the diarrhea in Crohn's disease depends on the part of the small intestine or colon involved. (wikipedia.org)
  • Visible bleeding in the feces is less common in Crohn's disease than in ulcerative colitis, but may be seen in the setting of Crohn's colitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • teeth
  • This appearance is the result of indentations of the teeth where the tongue is habitually pressed against the teeth ("tongue thrusting", and example of oral parafunction). (wikipedia.org)
  • Diseases of the teeth include baby-bottle tooth decay, epulis, meth mouth and Hutchinson's teeth. (wikipedia.org)
  • lingual papillae
  • In living subjects, lingual papillae are more readily seen when the tongue is dry. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are four types of papillae present on the tongue: Filiform papillae are the most numerous of the lingual papillae. (wikipedia.org)
  • The rest of the anterior two-thirds of the tongue gets taste innervation from the chorda tympani of cranial nerve VII, distributed with the lingual nerve of cranial nerve V. Lingual papillae, particularly filiform papillae, are thought to increase the surface area of the tongue and to increase the area of contact and friction between the tongue and food. (wikipedia.org)
  • Candida
  • This candidal carriage state is not considered a disease, but when Candida species become pathogenic and invade host tissues, oral candidiasis can occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • frequency
  • FREQUENCY OF TONGUE ANOMALIES AMONG YEMENI CHILDREN IN DENTAL CLINICS Yemeni Journal for Medical Sciences Frequency of Tongue Anomalies in Primary School Of Lahidjan Rabiei M, Mohtashame Amiri Z, Masoodi Rad H, Niazi M, Niazi H. Frequency of Tongue Anomalies in Primary School Of Lahidjan. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ljubljana
  • Patients with erythema migrans reffered to Lyme Borreliosis outpatient clinic of the University Medical Center Ljubljana, Slovenia, Department of Infectious Diseases. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Leukoplakia
  • Oral hairy leukoplakia (seen in people with immunosuppression, caused by Epstein-Barr virus) Oral candidiasis can affect the tongue. (wikipedia.org)
  • acid
  • My problem started over 2 years ago when I had horrible acid reflux it burned my tounge to the point where my tounge was red and soft. (celiac.com)
  • commonly
  • The disease was named after gastroenterologist Burrill Bernard Crohn, who, in 1932, together with two other colleagues at Mount Sinai Hospital in New York, described a series of patients with inflammation of the terminal ileum of the small intestine, the area most commonly affected by the illness. (wikipedia.org)
  • Burning mouth syndrome - this chronic pain disorder commonly involves the tongue. (wikipedia.org)
  • syndrome
  • Other conditions that can present similarly include irritable bowel syndrome and Behçet's disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fissured tongue is seen in Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome (along with facial nerve paralysis and granulomatous cheilitis). (wikipedia.org)
  • Fissured tongue is also sometimes a feature of Cowden's syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • infection
  • Geographic tongue is a mild inflammatory condition--no association with disease or infection, although it is not known for sure what causes it. (healthtap.com)
  • Coming into contact with bacteria and developing an infection can trigger the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the disease is not too severe it is possible to treat it with chlorhexidine rinse and brushing with fluoride toothpaste to kill the bacteria and remove the plaque, but once the infection has progressed antibiotics may be needed to kill the bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • gently
  • This coating has been identified as a major contributing factor in bad breath (halitosis), which can be managed by brushing the tongue gently with a toothbrush or using special oral hygiene instruments such as tongue scrapers or mouth brushes. (wikipedia.org)
  • involve
  • Considered according to a surgical sieve, some example conditions which can involve the tongue are discussed below. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pseudomembraneous candidiasis can involve any part of the mouth, but usually it appears on the tongue, buccal mucosae or palate. (wikipedia.org)
  • diabetes
  • In the past, some research suggested that geographic tongue was associated with diabetes, seborrheic dermatitis and atopy, however newer research does not corroborate these findings. (wikipedia.org)
  • oral
  • Oral and maxillofacial pathology (also termed oral pathology, stomatognathic disease, dental disease, or mouth disease) refers to the diseases of the mouth ("oral cavity" or "stoma"), jaws ("maxillae" or "gnath") and related structures such as salivary glands, temporomandibular joints, facial muscles and perioral skin (the skin around the mouth). (wikipedia.org)
  • Because their location is a high risk site for oral cancer, and their tendency to occasionally swell, they may be mistaken as tumors or inflammatory disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • papillae
  • The four types of papillae on the human tongue have different structures and are accordingly classfied as circumvallate (or vallate), fungiform, filiform, and foliate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Heavy keratinization of filiform papillae, occurring for instance in cats, gives the tongue a roughness that is characteristic of these animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Foliate papillae are short vertical folds and are present on each side of the tongue. (wikipedia.org)
  • The circumvallate papillae (or vallate papillae) are dome-shaped structures on the human tongue that vary in number from 8 to 12. (wikipedia.org)
  • Common
  • A common scenario is where the tongue is bitten accidentally whilst a local anesthetic inferior alveolar nerve block is wearing off. (wikipedia.org)