• pathogens
  • Flaviviruses include pathogens such as West Nile, dengue, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, and tick-borne encephalitis viruses, many of which are resurging and spreading to new environments. (rockefeller.edu)
  • The family includes pathogens such as rabies virus, vesicular stomatitis virus and potato yellow dwarf virus that are of public health, veterinary, and agricultural significance. (wikipedia.org)
  • This viral family includes a diverse array of pathogens affecting humans and animals, including hepatitis C, dengue, and many other diseases important to public health. (healthmap.org)
  • diseases
  • It focuses on the following aspects of viruses: their structure, classification and evolution, their ways to infect and exploit host cells for reproduction, their interaction with host organism physiology and immunity, the diseases they cause, the techniques to isolate and culture them, and their use in research and therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Significant research efforts have been focused on elucidating the viral pathogenesis of these animal coronaviruses, especially by virologists interested in veterinary and zoonotic diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • If not defeated by the animal's immune system, the virus can cause diseases which can be lethal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Notable diseases like smallpox, herpes, and the chickenpox are caused by such DNA viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • strains
  • This European virus reproduced a milder form of disease under experimental conditions and was genetically related to previously reported HoBi-like strains. (cdc.gov)
  • Interestingly, the sheep kobuvirus clustered with bovine kobuviruses detected in this study and other published kobuvirus strains. (deepdyve.com)
  • The best studied example is the association between Human papillomavirus and cervical cancer: almost all cases of cervical cancer are caused by certain strains of this sexually transmitted virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been shown that batai viruses from Japan, Malaysia and India share homologies in the genomic sequence more so than when virus strains from Europe and Asia are compared to each other. (wikipedia.org)
  • subfamily
  • Torovirus is a genus of viruses in the order Nidovirales, in the family Coronaviridae, in the subfamily Torovirinae. (wikipedia.org)
  • On the basis of the available information on these viruses, the establishment of a new family of viruses-Toroviridae-was proposed at the 6th International Congress on the Taxonomy of Viruses at Sendai, Japan, but the genus is currently assigned to the subfamily Torovirinae in the family Coronaviridae, order Nidovirales. (wikipedia.org)
  • Different examples can be given for the subfamily Parvovirinae but the most common is Dependovirus , which only work with a helper virus such as adenovirus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prior to 2014, it was also the name applied to a genus within the subfamily Parvovirinae, but this has been amended to genus Protoparvovirus to avoid confusion between taxonomic levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • RNA which can be directly translated into viral proteins) which is around 12.5 kilobases (kb) long (equal to the length of 12,500 nucleotides). (wikipedia.org)
  • The virus particle has surface spikes proteins that are club-shaped and are evenly dispersed over the surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • This morphology is created by the viral spike (S) peplomers, which are proteins that populate the surface of the virus and determine host tropism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins that contribute to the overall structure of all coronaviruses are the spike (S), envelope (E), membrane (M) and nucleocapsid (N). In the specific case of the SARS coronavirus (see below), a defined receptor-binding domain on S mediates the attachment of the virus to its cellular receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). (wikipedia.org)
  • The structure of Batai virus (BATV) consists of an enveloped nucleocapsid that is composed of three RNA segments: small (S), medium (M), and large (L). The S segment encodes the nucleocapsid (N) and the non-structural (NSs) proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression of the viral proteins alone does not cause host cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • antibodies
  • If a foetus becomes infected within the first three to four months of gestation then it will fail to develop antibodies towards the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Direct immunofluorescence-detection of virus in histological edges Indirect immunofluorescence-detection of specific antibodies from sera ELISA Histology of the brain shows vasculoendothelial proliferation and perivascular cuffing (cuffing is highly suggestive when accompanied by other signs, but is not pathonomonic for the disease). (wikipedia.org)
  • bacterial
  • Coronaviruses can cause pneumonia, either direct viral pneumonia or a secondary bacterial pneumonia, and bronchitis, either direct viral bronchitis or a secondary bacterial bronchitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment of the viral envelope protein E to host receptors, which mediates clathrin-mediated endocytosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment of the viral S protein (maybe also HE if present) to host receptors, which mediates endocytosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viruses arose from mobile genetic elements of cells (such as transposons, retrotransposons or plasmids) that became encapsulated in protein capsids, acquired the ability to "break free" from the host cell and infect other cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Toroviruses and a select subset of coronaviruses (in particular the members of subgroup A in the genus Betacoronavirus) possess, in addition to the peplomers composed of S, a second type of surface projections composed of the hemagglutinin-esterase protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • In cp viruses the NS2/3 protein is either cleaved to NS2 and NS3 or there is a duplication of viral RNA containing an additional NS3 region. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although it is thought that virus protein has to be present to induce lymphomas in cats, newer evidence shows that a high percentage of FeLV-Antigen negative lymphomas contain FeLV-DNA, indicating a "hit-and-run" mechanism of virus-induced tumor development. (wikipedia.org)
  • antigen
  • Diagnosis can also be confirmed with presence of virus inclusion bodies in tissues or a positive immunohistochemical staining for viral antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • symptoms
  • After an incubation period of 5-12 days the disease produces symptoms including loss of appetite, fever, lethargy, enlargement of the lymph nodes, and diarrhea. (wikipedia.org)
  • Symptoms are seen most commonly between the ages of one to three weeks and include severe diarrhea, difficulty breathing, and anorexia. (wikipedia.org)
  • These symptoms typically begin two days after exposure to the virus and most last less than a week. (wikipedia.org)
  • enteric
  • The virus may also be referred to as enteric cytopathic bovine orphan virus (ECBO). (wikipedia.org)
  • Feline Coronavirus: two forms, Feline enteric coronavirus is a pathogen of minor clinical significance, but spontaneous mutation of this virus can result in feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), a disease associated with high mortality. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similarly, there are two types of coronavirus that infect ferrets: Ferret enteric coronavirus causes a gastrointestinal syndrome known as epizootic catarrhal enteritis (ECE), and a more lethal systemic version of the virus (like FIP in cats) known in ferrets as ferret systemic coronavirus (FSC). (wikipedia.org)
  • porcine
  • The family includes equine arteritis virus (EAV), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), lactate dehydrogenase elevating virus (LDV) of mice and simian haemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV). (wikipedia.org)
  • and circovirus, which includes porcine circovirus types 1 and 2, psittacine beak and feather disease virus, pigeon circovirus, canary circovirus goose circovirus. (wikipedia.org)
  • antibody
  • Electron microscopy, PCR, complement fixation, antibody fluorescence, neutralization test, and haemagglutination can be used to identify the virus in tissues or secretions. (wikipedia.org)
  • hepatitis
  • Hepatitis C virus (HCV), the prototype member of the Hepacivirus genus, chronically infects approximately 2% of the global population. (rockefeller.edu)
  • Mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) is a coronavirus that causes an epidemic murine illness with high mortality, especially among colonies of laboratory mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • family
  • The Rhaboviridae family consists of six genera, two of which, cytorhabdoviruses and nucleorhabdoviruses, only infect plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Influenza is caused by RNA viruses of the family Orthomyxoviridae and affects birds and mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • The viruses in this family that are of veterinary importance include Japanese encephalitis virus, St. Louis encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, Israel turkey meningoencephalomyelitis virus, Sitiawan virus, Wesselsbron virus, yellow fever virus and the tick-borne flaviviruses e.g. louping ill virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Paramyxoviruses are a diverse family of non-segmented negative strand RNA viruses that include many highly pathogenic viruses affecting humans, animals, and birds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Duck plague (also known as duck viral enteritis) is a worldwide disease caused by duck herpesvirus 1 (anatid herpesvirus 1) of the family Herpesviridae that causes acute disease with high mortality rates in flocks of ducks, geese and swans. (wikipedia.org)
  • any virus of the family Adenoviridae . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Coronaviridae is a family of enveloped, positive-stranded RNA viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Batai virus is a member of the genus Orthobunyavirus and a member of the family Bunyaviridae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Four genera are recognised that have not yet been assigned a family. (wikipedia.org)
  • A family Lavidaviridae has been proposed for the genera Mavirus and Sputnikvirus. (wikipedia.org)
  • As this virus does not resemble any known virus it seems likely that a new family will be created for it. (wikipedia.org)
  • immunosuppression
  • The gastrointestinal tract and lymphatic system can be affected at any age, leading to vomiting, diarrhea and immunosuppression but cerebellar hypoplasia is only seen in cats that were infected in the womb or at less than two weeks of age, and disease of the myocardium is seen in puppies infected between the ages of three and eight weeks. (wikipedia.org)
  • FeLV causes immunosuppression in domestic cats, and there is also evidence for existence of the virus in larger wild cat populations also (e.g. lynx, cheetahs, and lions). (wikipedia.org)
  • Latin
  • Parvoviruses are among the smallest viruses (hence the name, from Latin parvus meaning small ) and are 18-28 nm in diameter. (wikipedia.org)
  • The English plural is viruses (sometimes also viri or vira), whereas the Latin word is a mass noun, which has no classically attested plural (Neo-Latin had vīra is used). (wikipedia.org)
  • systemic
  • During systemic spread the virus is able to gain entry into most tissues with a preference for lymphoid tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleic acid
  • 7. The alphavirus adjuvant of claim 1, wherein the modified alphavirus genomic nucleic acid is a modified Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis (VEE) viral genomic nucleic acid. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 8. The alphavirus adjuvant of claim 7, wherein the alphavirus adjuvant comprises a propagation-defective VEE particle that further comprises a VEE virion coat that packages the VEE viral genomic nucleic acid. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Molecular
  • Animal Viruses: Molecular Biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2003). A portion of the organisms previously identified as Pasteurella haemolytica have been assigned to the new genus Mannheimia using primarily 16S rRNA sequencing along with other molecular tools (Angen et al. (ibimapublishing.com)
  • Of particular interest here is mimivirus, a giant virus that infects amoebae and encodes much of the molecular machinery traditionally associated with bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • An understanding of the structure is integral for revealing both the molecular basis of virus-host interactions and guiding antiviral and vaccine design development. (wikipedia.org)
  • They used a novel technique called molecular virus screening, based on random cloning and bioinformatical analysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • pigs
  • The virus causes a lethal haemorraghic disease in domestic pigs. (wikipedia.org)
  • This study reports the first detection of kobuviruses in pigs, bovines and ovines using quantitative PCR. (deepdyve.com)
  • Vaccination is only used where the virus is widespread in the domestic pig population and/or in wild or feral pigs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Infectious Disease
  • In the Laboratory of Virology and Infectious Disease, we are interested in understanding how viruses propagate, ways in which they interact with host cells, and how they cause disease. (rockefeller.edu)
  • A meaning of "agent that causes infectious disease" is first recorded in 1728, before the discovery of viruses by Dmitri Ivanovsky in 1892. (wikipedia.org)
  • Influenza, commonly known as "the flu", is an infectious disease caused by an influenza virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • acute
  • After the acute and symptomatic period of illness, the virus may persist in a latent stage in the tonsils, adenoids, and other lymphoid tissue. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • influenza
  • Wild aquatic birds are the natural hosts for a large variety of influenza A viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Influenza viruses are spread by coughing and sneezing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Three types of influenza viruses affect people, called Type A, Type B, and Type C. Usually, the virus is spread through the air from coughs or sneezes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diarrhea is not normally a symptom of influenza in adults, although it has been seen in some human cases of the H5N1 "bird flu" and can be a symptom in children. (wikipedia.org)
  • cause
  • These viruses cause significant disease in wild and agriculturally important animals. (rockefeller.edu)
  • They cause Classical swine fever (CSF) and Bovine viral diarrhea(BVD). (wikipedia.org)
  • Canine minute virus was originally discovered in Germany in 1967 in military dogs, although it was originally thought to not cause disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been observed that reassortment between the M segment and the S and L segments with another strain of Batai virus (BUNV) can cause an increase in the virulence of Batai virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • distinct
  • Extensive research has yet to be performed on the detailed crystalline structure of Batai virus, but research on the closely related Bunyamwera virus has shown a distinct functionality of each of the two nucleocapsid side chains. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two distinct but not mutually exclusive types of genetic exchange operate in RNA viruses. (biology-online.org)
  • Laboratory
  • The significance and economic impact of coronaviruses as causative agents of the common cold are hard to assess because, unlike rhinoviruses (another common cold virus), human coronaviruses are difficult to grow in the laboratory. (wikipedia.org)
  • fever
  • 2007 Central Luzon hog cholera outbreak Animal viruses Classical Swine Fever, The Center for Food Security and Public Health / The Institute for International Cooperation in Animal Biologics, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, update September 2009. (wikipedia.org)
  • This study was performed on the Rift Valley Fever Virus (RVFV), which is an arthropod borne disease that is endemic to regions of Africa and Asia, namely the Rift Valley in Kenya from which its name is derived. (wikipedia.org)
  • genomes
  • This means that these viruses have no post-transcriptional modifications, and have simple RNA genomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • So, in addition to producing prodigious amounts of the raw material of evolution (mutations), these viruses also possess mechanisms that, in principle, allow them both to purge their genomes of accumulated deleterious changes (Muller, 1964) and to create or spread bene locial combinations of mutations in an efficient manner (Fisher, 1930;Muller, 1932), two processes which are not available to clonal organisms. (biology-online.org)