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  • genome
  • and re-inserting into said genome the deleted sequences within the defective genome wherein said sequences have a homology of at least 60% to the natural sequence of the virus, wherein said sequences code for an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and at least one structural or non-structural protein, and wherein a fragment of said DNA is capable of being transcribed into RNA and assembled to a virion. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Complete genome sequences and phylogenetic analysis of West Nile virus strains isolated from the United States, Europe and the Middle East. (ajtmh.org)
  • cytoplasm
  • Replication occurs within the cytoplasm, and virions mature by budding through the plasma membrane, where virus-encoded surface glycoproteins E2 and E1 are assimilated. (wikipedia.org)
  • After virus attachment and entry into the cell, gene expression and replication takes place within the cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • dengue fever
  • The o'nyong'nyong virus (ONNV) was first isolated by researchers at the Uganda Virus Research Institute in Entebbe, Uganda, during a large outbreak of a disease in 1959 that resembled dengue fever. (wikipedia.org)
  • mRNA
  • Taken together, these data confirmed our hypothesis that RNA viruses, such as SinV, do in fact interface with the cellular mRNA decay machinery. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Though not used by the ICTV, Baltimore classification, which groups viruses together based on how they produce mRNA, is used in conjunction with the ICTV's work in modern virus classification. (wikipedia.org)
  • viral
  • Upon exposure of the virus to the acidity of the endosome, E1 dissociates from E2 to form an E1 homotrimer, which is necessary for the fusion step to drive the cellular and viral membranes together. (wikipedia.org)
  • Within the acute phase, two stages have been identified: a viral stage during the first five to seven days, during which viremia occurs, followed by a convalescent stage lasting approximately ten days, during which symptoms improve and the virus cannot be detected in the blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • replicate
  • Understanding how these viruses replicate and targeting key points in their life cycle can help advance antiviral treatments worldwide. (wikipedia.org)
  • mosquitoes
  • It is the only virus whose primary vectors are anopheline mosquitoes (Anopheles funestus and Anopheles gambiae)[citation needed]. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first virus isolates were obtained during this outbreak from mosquitoes and human blood samples collected from Gulu in northern Uganda in 1959. (wikipedia.org)
  • infects
  • SFV infects cells by cell surface receptor binding, uptake via receptor-mediated endocytosis, and low pH-triggered fusion of the virus membrane with that of the endosome. (rupress.org)
  • sequences
  • 83. The infective clone according to claim 80, wherein said full-length cDNA is flanked at the 3' end by a poly(A) tail, the ribozyme of the hepatitis delta virus (HDV), and the termination and polyadenylation sequences of bovine growth hormone (BGH). (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Since there are no recognized alignment programs that can adequately accommodate very divergent sequences, a method has been devised to construct and analyse a substantially improved 3′UTR alignment between these highly divergent viruses, based on the concept that deletions and/or insertions, in addition to substitutions, are important drivers of 3′UTR evolution. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • onset
  • Common clinical manifestations caused by these viruses include abrupt onset of fever, headache, backache, and arthralgia . (plos.org)
  • Fever occurs with the onset of viremia, and the level of virus in the blood correlates with the intensity of symptoms in the acute phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • wherein
  • 50. The method of claim 49, wherein the polynucleotide is a recombinant adenovirus or a recombinant adeno-associated virus. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 53. The method of claim 52, wherein the polynucleotide is a recombinant adenovirus or a recombinant adeno-associated virus. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 3. The method of claim 1, wherein the cell-penetrating peptide is a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) trans-activator of transcription (TAT) cell-penetrating peptide. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 81. The infective clone according to claim 80, wherein said coronavirus is an isolate of the porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV). (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • cellular
  • The mechanisms utilized by viruses to protect their transcripts from the cellular RNA decay machinery, as well as the biological relevance of this protection, are largely unknown. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • transmission
  • An outbreak of West Nile virus-associated disease in domestic geese ( Anser anser domesticus ) upon initial introduction to a geographic region, with evidence of bird to bird transmission. (ajtmh.org)
  • Transmission of West Nile (B956 strain) and Semliki Forest virus (MBB2646-M-404744-958 strain) to suckling hamsters during lactation. (ajtmh.org)
  • protein
  • The srf-3 mutant emphasizes the relationship between the role of cholesterol in membrane fusion and virus exit, and most significantly, identifies a novel spike protein region involved in the virus cholesterol requirement. (rupress.org)
  • temperature
  • Mutations in nsP2 that produce noncytopathic viruses or a temperature sensitive phenotypes cluster at the P2/P3 interface region. (wikipedia.org)
  • group
  • A study of this taxon suggests that this group of viruses had a marine origin - specifically the Southern Ocean - and that they have subsequently spread to both the Old and New World. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antigenic
  • Antigenic shift in in¯uenza A virus is an example of this sort of genetic exchange and serves as a good illustration of the potential evolutionary significance of such events. (biology-online.org)
  • Tobacco
  • Ashraf S, Singh PK, Yadav DK, Shahnawaz M, Mishra S, Sawant SV, Tuli R (2005) High level expression of surface glycoprotein of rabies virus in tobacco leaves and its immunoprotective activity in mice. (springer.com)
  • Vaccine
  • Aspden K, van Dijk AA, Bingham J, Cox D, Passmore JA, Williamson AL (2002) Immunogenicity of a recombinant lumpy skin disease virus (neethling vaccine strain) expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein in cattle. (springer.com)
  • A DNA-based replicon vaccine derived from Semliki Forest virus, PSVK-shFcG-GM/B7.1 (Fig. 1a) was designed for tumor immunotherapy as previously constructed. (jove.com)
  • mutations
  • So, in addition to producing prodigious amounts of the raw material of evolution (mutations), these viruses also possess mechanisms that, in principle, allow them both to purge their genomes of accumulated deleterious changes (Muller, 1964) and to create or spread bene locial combinations of mutations in an efficient manner (Fisher, 1930;Muller, 1932), two processes which are not available to clonal organisms. (biology-online.org)
  • Mutations in nsP2 that produce noncytopathic viruses or a temperature sensitive phenotypes cluster at the P2/P3 interface region. (wikipedia.org)
  • mosquito
  • The virus is maintained in a primary mosquito-mammal cycle, involving macropods (kangaroos and wallabies) and possibly other marsupials (e.g. possums), flying foxes (fruit bats), and native rodents (dusky rats). (canada.ca)
  • contrast
  • In contrast, the New World arenaviruses of clades A and B, which include the important viruses Machupo , Guanarito , Junin , and Sabia in addition to the non pathogenic Amapari virus, use the transferrin receptor 1 . (wikipedia.org)
  • vivo
  • NS2B-3 proteinase-mediated processing in the yellow fever virus structural region: in vitro and in vivo studies. (springer.com)
  • occurs
  • Fever occurs with the onset of viremia, and the level of virus in the blood correlates with the intensity of symptoms in the acute phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • vectors
  • It is the only virus whose primary vectors are anopheline mosquitoes (Anopheles funestus and Anopheles gambiae)[citation needed]. (wikipedia.org)
  • reservoir
  • By 1972, the multimammate rat, Mastomys natalensis, was found to be the main reservoir of the virus in West Africa, able to shed virus in its urine and feces without exhibiting visible symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • evolutionary
  • Over the last two decades it has become increasingly clear that many RNA viruses add the capacity to exchange genetic material with one another, and to acquire genes from their hosts, to this evolutionary repertoire. (biology-online.org)
  • We then discuss some of the evolutionary implications of virus recombination and some of the constraints that may shape the variety of RNA virus recombination. (biology-online.org)
  • thesis
  • Portion of thesis entitled Characterization of Brome Mosaic Virus RNA3 interaction with GCD10, a tRNA binding host factor from yeast. (wikipedia.org)
  • World
  • It shares this receptor with the prototypic Old World arenavirus lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus . (wikipedia.org)
  • Alpha-dystroglycan is also used as a receptor by viruses of the New World clade C arenaviruses (Oliveros and Latino viruses). (wikipedia.org)
  • severe
  • It was also shown that the type 1 IFN response was induced at an earlier stage in mice challenged with virus containing an engineered mutation at this site and that joint-swelling was less severe than with wild-type virus. (lshtm.ac.uk)
  • structure
  • Zika virus produces noncoding RNAs using a multiseudoknot structure that confounds a cellular exonuclease. (springer.com)
  • In some cases of RNA virus recombination, the donor sequence neatly replaces a homologous region of the acceptor sequence leaving its structure unchanged. (biology-online.org)
  • produce
  • A second process, recombination, can occur ineither segmented or unsegmented viruses when `donor'nucleotide sequence is introduced into a single, contiguous ` acceptor ' RNA molecule to produce a new RNA containing genetic information from more than one source. (biology-online.org)