• 2000
  • In 2005 the Eurpean Commission asks the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) to review 2000 and 2003 scientific pinions (SCAHAW, 2000 and 2003) on avian influenza in the light of more recent scientific data. (slideshare.net)
  • Pathogenesis
  • Influenza A virus structure and molecular determinants conferring pathogenesis and host range. (asmscience.org)
  • in terms of virus kinds with relevance for human and/or animal health and wellbeing the knowledge on molecular biology, genetics and virus-cell interplay are mixed with these bearing on, pathogenesis, epidemiology, clinics, prevention and treatment. (workplacesafetyexperts.com)
  • pandemic threat
  • Due to the high lethality and virulence of HPAI A(H5N1), its endemic presence, its increasingly large host reservoir, and its significant ongoing mutations, the H5N1 virus has recently been regarded to be the world's largest current pandemic threat, and billions of dollars are being spent researching H5N1 and preparing for a potential influenza pandemic. (wikipedia.org)
  • vaccines
  • Present vaccination strategies for swine influenza virus (SIV) control and prevention in swine farms typically include the use of one of several bivalent SIV vaccines commercially available in the United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • antibodies
  • Serological assays based on hemagglutination inhibition (HI) are historically the most common way to determine antigenic characteristics of influenza A viruses, and the HI test also serves as a functional assay for detection of anti-influenza antibodies in sera. (aasv.org)
  • antigenic
  • These glycoproteins possess distinct antigenic properties and nucleotide gene sequences and thus are used to subtype influenza viruses into 16 HA types (types 1 to 16) and nine NA types (types 1 to 9). (aasv.org)
  • As a result of this lack of antigenic diversity, a degree of immunity to influenza B is usually acquired at an early age. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • HPAI A(H5N1) is considered an avian disease, although there is some evidence of limited human-to-human transmission of the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The type A viruses are the most virulent human pathogens among the three influenza types and cause the most severe disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human disease historically has been caused by three subtypes of HA (H1, H2, and H3) and two subtypes of NA (N1 and N2). (cidrapsource.com)
  • More recently, human disease has been recognized to be caused by additional HA subtypes, including H5, H7, and H9 (all from avian origin). (cidrapsource.com)
  • The virus shows increased replication in ex vivo human lung tissue. (cidrapsource.com)
  • Diarrhea is not normally a symptom of influenza in adults, although it has been seen in some human cases of the H5N1 "bird flu" and can be a symptom in children. (wikipedia.org)