• endemic
  • S wine influenza has evolved from a seasonal disease caused by a stable genotype of swine influenza virus (SIV) to a year-round, endemic respiratory disease caused by multiple SIV genotypes undergoing continuous change. (aasv.org)
  • According to the World Health Organization and United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, H5N1 pathogenicity is gradually continuing to rise in endemic areas, but the avian influenza disease situation in farmed birds is being held in check by vaccination, and so far there is "no evidence of sustained human-to-human transmission" of the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to the high lethality and virulence of HPAI A(H5N1), its endemic presence, its increasingly large host reservoir, and its significant ongoing mutations, the H5N1 virus has recently been regarded to be the world's largest current pandemic threat, and billions of dollars are being spent researching H5N1 and preparing for a potential influenza pandemic. (wikipedia.org)
  • viral
  • Hemagglutination reactions are compared among the sets of antisera and viral antigens in a test panel, and assumptions are made concerning the antigenic relatedness of the viruses on the basis of these HI reactions. (aasv.org)
  • Complications of influenza may include viral pneumonia, secondary bacterial pneumonia, sinus infections, and worsening of previous health problems such as asthma or heart failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • for every virus relatives the molecular information of the virus particle and the viral replication cycle are defined. (workplacesafetyexperts.com)
  • species
  • Influenza A virus subtype H5N1, also known as A(H5N1) or simply H5N1, is a subtype of the influenza A virus which can cause illness in humans and many other animal species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Experts have identified key events (creating new clades, infecting new species, spreading to new areas) marking the progression of an avian flu virus towards becoming pandemic, and many of those key events have occurred more rapidly than expected. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, other hosts appear capable of similar coinfection (e.g., many poultry species), and direct transmission of avian viruses to humans is possible. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each genus includes only one species, or type. (wikipedia.org)
  • This reduced rate of antigenic change, combined with its limited host range (inhibiting cross species antigenic shift), ensures that pandemics of influenza B do not occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thoroughly revised and up-to-date take into consideration the recent taxonomy and grouping alterations made by way of the foreign Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses of their eighth file, The Dictionary of Virology provides an authoritative and concise record of all viruses affecting vertebrate species, from people to fish. (workplacesafetyexperts.com)
  • Pathogenesis
  • Influenza A virus structure and molecular determinants conferring pathogenesis and host range. (asmscience.org)
  • in terms of virus kinds with relevance for human and/or animal health and wellbeing the knowledge on molecular biology, genetics and virus-cell interplay are mixed with these bearing on, pathogenesis, epidemiology, clinics, prevention and treatment. (workplacesafetyexperts.com)
  • antiviral drugs
  • Antiviral drugs such as the neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir, among others, have been used to treat influenza. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since antiviral drugs are effective in treating influenza if given early (see treatment section, below), it can be important to identify cases early. (wikipedia.org)
  • neuraminidase
  • Neuraminidase are a type of glycoside hydrolase enzyme which help to move the virus particles through the infected cell and assist in budding from the host cells. (wordpress.com)
  • H5N1
  • HPAI A(H5N1) is considered an avian disease, although there is some evidence of limited human-to-human transmission of the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diarrhea is not normally a symptom of influenza in adults, although it has been seen in some human cases of the H5N1 "bird flu" and can be a symptom in children. (wikipedia.org)
  • vaccines
  • Present vaccination strategies for swine influenza virus (SIV) control and prevention in swine farms typically include the use of one of several bivalent SIV vaccines commercially available in the United States. (wikipedia.org)